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      <page pageid="4064" ns="0" title="Reais Suiços Infantry">
        <revisions>
          <rev contentformat="text/x-wiki" contentmodel="wikitext" xml:space="preserve">&lt;small&gt;Hierarchical Path: [[Main Page|Seven Years War]] &amp;gt;&amp;gt; [[Armies]] &amp;gt;&amp;gt; [[Portuguese Army]] &amp;gt;&amp;gt; {{PAGENAME}}&lt;/small&gt;

==Origin and History==
This Swiss regiment was raised by the Count of Lippe-Bückeburg on June 12 1762. It counted 2 battalions of 809 men, 4 companies of Swiss troops and 4 other companies for a total of 1618 men. More precisely it consisted of:
*1 colonel
*1 lieutenant-colonel
*1 sergeant-major
*1 quartermaster
*1 auditor of great provost
*1 adjutant
*1 chaplain
*1 surgeon-major
*1 drum-major
*4 Swiss companies, each consisting of 200 men, including:
**1 captain-lieutenant
**1 lieutenant
**1 second-lieutenant
**1 ''alferes'' (flag-bearer)
**4 sergeants
**1 quartermaster
**1 ensign
**1 captain of arms
**1 ordinary provost
**1 secretary
**1 surgeon
**6 ''primeira cabos de esquadra''
**6 ''cabos de fila''
**4 servants for the captain
**4 drummers
**1 fifer
*4 other companies similarly structured

Enlistment was done for a period of 6 years and the soldiers could not be required to serve at sea. Half the soldiers had to be Swiss while the other half could be made up of Germans and Hungarians. The Portuguese government paid the sum of 2,960,000 ''reis'' for the raising, arms and equipment of these two battalions. Colonels were paying for their officers. Each soldier earned 4,537 ''reis'' per months with and a daily ration of bread.

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was under the command of: 
*1st Battalion
**from June 28 1762: Colonel Gabriel Thorman
*2nd Battalion
**from June 28 1762: Colonel Marcus Saussure

On June 22 1763, Colonel Marcus Saussure, who had deserted, was sentenced to death by hanging. Colonel Gabriel Thorman was condemned too. He was accused to have oppressed and extorted the officers and soldiers of his regiment and to have kept for his personal use the sums received to recruit, dress, arm and pay his troops. Thorman seems to have been freed from this condemnation and to have later deserted.

On September 17 1763, the regiment was disbanded and a new Swiss regiment, called the ''Reais Estrangeiros'' (Royal Foreigners), raised. 
 
==Service during the War==
On October 12 1762, Auditor-General Miguel de Arriaga wrote to the [[Carvalho e Melo, Sebastião José de|Count of Oeiras]], and sent him, among others, these complaints by the marshal (''probably the Count of Lippe-Bückeburg''), that &quot;our army so he was under the gun with 3,020 soldiers, the Armada and Swiss regiments have not appeared nor the small pieces with which they defended the mountains, and, finally, that success depended on the hand of God, but that he would exhaust all their efforts.&quot;

==Uniform==
===Privates===
''no information available yet''

Armaments consisted of a musket and a bayonet.

===Officers===
''no information available yet''

===Musicians===
''no information available yet''
==Colours==
The exact pattern of the Portuguese colonel colours during the Seven Years' War is unknown.

The ordonnance colours were chosen by the colonel of the regiment. For the moment, we have found no source depicting specific colours for this regiment. 

Please refer to our article on the [[Portuguese Line Infantry Colours]] for more information.

==References==
Amaral, Manuel, [http://www.arqnet.pt/exercito/ O Exértico Português em finais do Antiguo Regime]

Kirby, Mike, ''The Portuguese Army - Seven Years War'', Seven Years War Association Journal, Vol. XII No. 3

Ribeiro Rodrigues, Manuel A.; ''300 Anos de Uniformes Militares do Exército de Portugal 1660-1960'', Exército Portugués and Sociedade Historica da Independéncia de Portugal, 1998

'''Acknowledgement'''

Manuel Ribeiro Rodrigues and Joseph O'Neill for the initial version of this article.

[[Category:Portuguese Land Unit]]</rev>
        </revisions>
      </page>
      <page pageid="2323" ns="0" title="Real Guardia de Alabarderos">
        <revisions>
          <rev contentformat="text/x-wiki" contentmodel="wikitext" xml:space="preserve">&lt;small&gt;Hierarchical Path: [[Main Page|Seven Years War (Main Page)]] &amp;gt;&amp;gt; [[Armies]] &amp;gt;&amp;gt; [[Spanish Army]] &amp;gt;&amp;gt; {{PAGENAME}}&lt;/small&gt;

==Origin and History==
N.B.: the principal source about the ''Alabarderos'' (halbardiers) was lost during the Spanish Civil War.

The Guard of ''Alabarderos'' was a palace guard unit, the halberd being the attribute of the Royal Guard, raised on May 6 1707 from veterans coming from three ancient company sized units of  Philip IV:
#''la Amarilla' ( “The yellow one”)
#''la Lancilla''
#''la Viéja'' (literally “The ancient/old unit “)

The throne of San Fernando was now under the French sphere of influence. Besides political matter, France was, at  that time, leader in military organization.

Philip V was an Anjou and, when he reached the Palace of ''Buen Retiro'', was 17 years old and could not speak Spanish. Louis XIV of France boasted “…..Pyrenees Mountains are no more…”

The brand new unit mustered:
*4 officers
**1 captain
**1 1st lieutenant
**2 2nd lieutenant
*1 adjutant
*100 men (later 150) armed with halberds. 

Some variation may be found:
*1 captain
*1 1st lieutenant
*1 2nd lieutenant
*1 1st sergeant
*1 2nd sergeant
*1 chaplain
*1 quartermaster
*4 corporals (''Cabos de Escuadra'')
*100 soldiers
*? drummers
*2 oboists

The Spanish Household units were modelled along French lines. The ''Alabarderos'' assumed a similar role as the French ''Garde du dedans'' (Inner Guard) of the Louvre Palace. Indeed, the ''Alabarderos'' were in charge of the internal security service of the Palace. They depended from the ''Mayordomo Mayor de Palacio'' but received orders directly from the king. They in particular controlled the doors of the Royal Apartments and the stairs. Their barracks were located on the ''Tesoro del Rey'' road.

In term of precedence, the unit ranked immediately after the [[Reales Guardias de Corps]]. 

During the reign of Philip V, the unit was under the command of three successive captains:
#from: 1707: Martín de Guzmán, marquis de Montealegre y Quintana 
#from 1731: prince de Masserano desde el 1731 hasta el 1740. 
#from 1740: duke de Medinaceli. 

As for the captains of the companies of the [[Reales Guardias de Corps]], the captain of ''Alabarderos'' also ranked as general of the Spanish army and ''Grandes de España''. Officers as well as soldiers had to demonstrate their nobility and purety of blood.

==Service during the War==
The unit did not take part in any campaign, remaining in Madrid as palace guard.

==Uniform==
===Privates===
[[File:Real Guardia de Alabarderos Uniform Plate.jpg|left|frame|Uniform in 1759 - Source: [[User:Ibrahim90|Ibrahim90]]]]
{| class=&quot;tblunout&quot;
|+&lt;big&gt;'''Uniform Details as per&lt;br/&gt;the ''Album de Taccoli'' of 1759'''&lt;/big&gt;
|-
|'''Headgear'''||black tricorne laced silver with a red cockade
|-
|'''Neckstock'''||white
|-
|'''Coat'''||blue lined scarlet with 6 silver buttons and 6 silver buttonholes arranged 1-2-3 top-down
{| class=&quot;tblunin&quot;
|-
|'''Collar'''||scarlet
|-
|'''Shoulder&amp;nbsp;Straps'''||''none''
|-
|'''Lapels'''||''none''
|-
|'''Pockets'''||double horizontal pockets, each single pocket with 3 silver buttons and 3 silver buttonholes
|-
|'''Cuffs'''||scarlet with 3 silver buttons and 3 silver buttonholes
|-
|'''Turnbacks'''||''none''
|}
|-
|'''Waistcoat'''||scarlet edged silver with silver buttons and silver buttonholes (left side only); horizontal pockets laced silver
|-
|'''Breeches'''||blue
|-
|'''Stockings'''||red with silver knee garters
|-
|'''Leather&amp;nbsp;Equipment'''||
{| class=&quot;tblunin&quot;
|-
|'''Crossbelt'''||''none''
|-
|'''Waistbelt'''||''none''
|-
|'''Cartridge Box'''||''none''
|-
|'''Bayonet Scabbard'''||''none''
|-
|'''Scabbard'''||''no information available''
|}
|}
&lt;br clear=&quot;all&quot;&gt;
Armaments consisted of a halberd and a sword.

===Officers===
Same uniform as the troopers with the following exceptions:
*coat, cuffs, pockets and waistcoat edged and heavily laced with a silver braid
*white stockings
===Musicians===
''no information available''
==Colours==
The unit never received guidons nor standards.
==References==
''Album de Taccoli'', 1759

Chartrand, René and Bill Younghusband; ''Spanish Army of the Napoleonic wars.'', Vol. 321, 332 and 334, Men-at-arms series, Osprey 

Gonzalez, Manuel Gimenez; ''El Ejército y La Armada desde la antiguedad hasta 1862'', 1st Ed.,  Madrid: Almena Ediciones, 2003

'''Acknowledgment'''

Dr. Marco Pagan for the initial version of this article.

[[Category:Spanish Land Unit]]</rev>
        </revisions>
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