11/14 Gohr Grenadiers
Origin and History
At the beginning of the Seven Years' War, Frederick II converged the grenadier companies of his infantry into elite battalions. Thus the grenadiers of Below Infantry (2 coys) and Lehwaldt Infantry (2 coys) were converged into the Grenadier Battalion 11/14 counting four companies.
During the Seven Years' War, the battalion was commanded by:
- since June 25 1756: Major G. F. von Gohr (killed in action at the Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf on August 30 1757)
- from September 24 1757: Major E. C. von Petersdorff
- from April 1759: Major J. A. von Beyer (killed in action at the Battle of Torgau on November 3 1760)
- from November 3 1760: Major J. N. von Oppen
Service during the War
This converged grenadier battalion first assembled in the first days of February 1757 according to an order issued by Field-Marshal Lehwaldt on January 26. It was part of Lehwaldt's Army assigned to the defence of East Prussia against a Russian invasion. On August 30, at the Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf, it was deployed at the extreme right of the infantry centre under von Goltz. The battalion suffered heavy casualties during this battle (including its commander).
On July 23 1759, the battalion took part in the Battle of Paltzig where it was attached to the rearguard under the command of Major-General von Wobersow. A few weeks later, on August 12, the battalion fought in the Battle of Kunersdorf where it was deployed in the second line of the right centre as part of Grabow's Brigade. On September 21, the battalion took part in the Combat of Korbitz where it was deployed on the left flank of the first line of the right wing.
On August 20 1760, the battalion took part in the Combat of Strehla where it was initially posted on the Dürre Berg, covering the right wing. On November 3, it fought in the bloody Battle of Torgau where it was attached to the second column of King Frederick's Corps.
On August 31 1761, during the Prussian counter-offensive in Pomerania, the battalion was part of Stutterheim's Corps who made a junction with Belling, posted at Golchen. On September 2, their combined forces drove back the Swedes on Demmin.
N.B.: For NCOs of the grenadier companies, the long pike (4,10 m long) was introduced in 1756 just before the war. This long pike was not very popular and was often shortened. At the beginning of the Seven Years' War and throughout the conflict, NCOs carried a mixture of M1713 (2,37 m long), M1755 (3 m long) and M1756 (4,10 m long) pikes.
|von Below: mitre with silver plated front plate bearing, in an oval light blue field, an armed Prussian black eagle (silver sword, gold, crown, beak, talons and thunderbolt) over three green hills the whole surmounted by the gold motto "Pro Gloria et Patria"; silver plated headband; white backing with red piping; red pompom
In regiments with white metal, the front plates were to be coloured with a water-based silver paste which needed to be re-applied regularly lest the cap plates revert to their original brass colour. Therefore, during campaign, particularly in bad weather, it is possible that the silvering could have worn off and needed to be silvered again.
|von Lehwaldt: mitre with polished brass front plate; white headband with light red braid decorated with brass ornaments; white backing with light red braid; light red pompom|
The converged grenadier battalions did not carry any colour.
Fiedler, Siegfried: Grenadiermuetzen der Armee Friedrichs des Grossen, Schild Verlag GmbH, Munich, 1981
Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 1 Pirna und Lobositz, Berlin, 1901, App. 2
Riehn, R.: Linear Tactics Part III - Grenadier Battalions 1756-1763, The Courier Volume 2 No. 6, May-June 1981
Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756 - 1763. Edited and published by KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg e.V., Magstadt: 1989, pp. 30-32
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.