Difference between revisions of "12th Foot"

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In the summer of 1758, the regiment was among the first British contingent (6,000 men) sent to reinforce the Allied army of [[Ferdinand of Brunswick]] in Germany. The contingent embarked at Gravesend on July 19, disembarked at Emden on August 3 and arrived at Coesfeld on August 17, after marching through a very heavy rain.  
 
In the summer of 1758, the regiment was among the first British contingent (6,000 men) sent to reinforce the Allied army of [[Ferdinand of Brunswick]] in Germany. The contingent embarked at Gravesend on July 19, disembarked at Emden on August 3 and arrived at Coesfeld on August 17, after marching through a very heavy rain.  
  
In June 1759, the regiment was part of the main Allied army under the command of the [[Ferdinand of Brunswick|duke Ferdinand of Brunswick]]. The grenadiers of the regiment were converged with those of the [[20th Foot]], [[23rd Foot]], [[25th Foot]] and [[51st Foot]] to form Maxwell's Grenadiers Battalion. On July 29, the regiment, along with the [[20th Foot|20th Kingley's Foot]], was assigned at the guard of Ferdinand's headquarters at Hille. On August 1, the regiment took part to the [[1759-08-01 - Battle of Minden|battle of Minden]] where it was deployed in the first line of the third column from the right under major-general Waldegrave. Misinterpreting orders, Waldegrave advanced  straight upon the French center consisting of three lines of cavalry. The first line of French cavalry (11 sqns) charged Waldegrave first line but was thrown back. The second line of French cavalry was equally repulsed though with more difficulty. Now the French reserve, consisting of the [[French Army#Gendarmerie de France|Gendarmerie de France]] and the [[Royal-Carabiniers|Carabiniers]], attempted a third attack upon the 9 brave battalions. It charged and broke through the first line of Allied infantry. However, the second line received them with a deadly fire and forced them to retire. The astonishing attack of the British infantry had virtually gained the day. The 12th Foot bore the brunt of the charges of the French Cavalry and of the storm of artillery and musket-fire and, as [[Ferdinand of Brunswick]] declared, "gained immortal glory". In this battle, the regiment lost 19 officers and 283 men, killed, wounded or missing.
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In June 1759, the regiment was part of the main Allied army under the command of [[Ferdinand of Brunswick|Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick]]. The grenadiers of the regiment were converged with those of the [[20th Foot]], [[23rd Foot]], [[25th Foot]] and [[51st Foot]] to form Maxwell's Grenadiers Battalion. On July 29, the regiment, along with the [[20th Foot|20th Kingley's Foot]], was assigned at the guard of Ferdinand's headquarters at Hille. On August 1, the regiment took part to the [[1759-08-01 - Battle of Minden|battle of Minden]] where it was deployed in the first line of the third column from the right under major-general Waldegrave. Misinterpreting orders, Waldegrave advanced  straight upon the French center consisting of three lines of cavalry. The first line of French cavalry (11 sqns) charged Waldegrave first line but was thrown back. The second line of French cavalry was equally repulsed though with more difficulty. Now the French reserve, consisting of the [[French Army#Gendarmerie de France|Gendarmerie de France]] and the [[Royal-Carabiniers|Carabiniers]], attempted a third attack upon the 9 brave battalions. It charged and broke through the first line of Allied infantry. However, the second line received them with a deadly fire and forced them to retire. The astonishing attack of the British infantry had virtually gained the day. The 12th Foot bore the brunt of the charges of the French Cavalry and of the storm of artillery and musket-fire and, as [[Ferdinand of Brunswick|Ferdinand]] declared, "gained immortal glory". In this battle, the regiment lost 19 officers and 283 men, killed, wounded or missing.
  
 
On July 16 1761, the regiment was with Granby's corps in Germany and took part in the battle of Vellinghausen.  
 
On July 16 1761, the regiment was with Granby's corps in Germany and took part in the battle of Vellinghausen.  
  
 
  To do: more detail on the campaigns from 1760 to 1762
 
  To do: more detail on the campaigns from 1760 to 1762
 +
 
==Uniform==
 
==Uniform==
 
===Privates===
 
===Privates===

Revision as of 14:36, 30 January 2015

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> British Army >> 12th Foot

Origin and History

The unit was raised in 1685 in East Anglia as the "Duke of Norfolk's Regiment of Foot".

In 1689, the regiment took part in the siege of Carrickfergus in Ireland. In 1690, it was at the battle of the Boyne. It also took part to the actions of Athlone, Aughrim and Waterford and was at the siege of Limerick. In 1694 and 1695, the regiment served in Flanders before being transferred to the West Indies.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment took part to the siege of Lille in 1708.

During the War of the Austrian Succession, on June 27 1743, the regiment took part to the battle of Dettingen where the later famous James Wolfe served as ensign in this unit. On May 11 1745, the regiment fought at the battle of Fontenoy, suffering very heavy losses.

On July 1 1751, when a Royal warrant reorganised the British infantry, the regiment was designated as the "12th Regiment of Foot".

As per a resolution of September 20 1756, a second battalion was exceptionally added to the regiment. However, this second battalion was detached from its parent regiment in April 1758 to form the 65th Regiment of Foot.

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was commanded by:

  • since May 28 1745: Henry Skelton
  • from April 22 1757 to November 21 1766: Robert Napier

Service during the War

In the summer of 1758, the regiment was among the first British contingent (6,000 men) sent to reinforce the Allied army of Ferdinand of Brunswick in Germany. The contingent embarked at Gravesend on July 19, disembarked at Emden on August 3 and arrived at Coesfeld on August 17, after marching through a very heavy rain.

In June 1759, the regiment was part of the main Allied army under the command of Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick. The grenadiers of the regiment were converged with those of the 20th Foot, 23rd Foot, 25th Foot and 51st Foot to form Maxwell's Grenadiers Battalion. On July 29, the regiment, along with the 20th Kingley's Foot, was assigned at the guard of Ferdinand's headquarters at Hille. On August 1, the regiment took part to the battle of Minden where it was deployed in the first line of the third column from the right under major-general Waldegrave. Misinterpreting orders, Waldegrave advanced straight upon the French center consisting of three lines of cavalry. The first line of French cavalry (11 sqns) charged Waldegrave first line but was thrown back. The second line of French cavalry was equally repulsed though with more difficulty. Now the French reserve, consisting of the Gendarmerie de France and the Carabiniers, attempted a third attack upon the 9 brave battalions. It charged and broke through the first line of Allied infantry. However, the second line received them with a deadly fire and forced them to retire. The astonishing attack of the British infantry had virtually gained the day. The 12th Foot bore the brunt of the charges of the French Cavalry and of the storm of artillery and musket-fire and, as Ferdinand declared, "gained immortal glory". In this battle, the regiment lost 19 officers and 283 men, killed, wounded or missing.

On July 16 1761, the regiment was with Granby's corps in Germany and took part in the battle of Vellinghausen.

To do: more detail on the campaigns from 1760 to 1762

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1757 - Source: Frédéric Aubert
Uniform Details
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white with a black cockade (left side)
Grenadier British mitre with: a yellow front embroidered with the King's cypher in red and a crown over it; a small red front flap with the white horse of Hanover surmounted by the motto "Nec aspera terrent" in black; red back; a yellow headband wearing the number XII in red in the middle part behind
Neckstock white
Coat brick red lined yellow and laced white (white braid with a wide yellow stripe in the middle) with 3 white buttonholes under the lapels (same lace as above)
Collar none
Shoulder Straps red fastened with a white button (left shoulder)
Lapels yellow laced white (same lace as above) with 7 pewter buttons and 6 white buttonholes (same lace as above)
Pockets triple horizontal pockets with white laces (same lace as above), each with pewter buttons
Cuffs yellow (slashed in the British pattern) laced white (same lace as above)
Turnbacks yellow
Waistcoat brick red laced white (same lace as above)
Breeches brick red
Gaiters white with black buttons
brown, grey or black during campaigns (black after 1759)
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black
Bayonet Scabbard black
Scabbard black
Footgear black shoes


Troopers were armed with with a "Brown Bess" muskets, a bayonet and a sword. They also carried a dark brown haversack with a metal canteen on the left hip.

Officers

Officers of the regiment wore the same uniforms as the private soldiers but with the following differences

  • gold gorget around the neck
  • an aiguilette on the right shoulder
  • gold lace instead of normal lace
  • a crimson sash

Officers wore the same headgear as the private soldiers under their command; however, officers of the grenadier company wore a more decorated mitre cap.

Officers generally carried a spontoon, however, in battle some carried muskets instead.

Musicians

According to the Royal Clothing Warrant of 1751:

The drummers of the regiment were clothed in red, lined, faced, and lapelled on the breast with yellow, and laced in such manner as the colonel shall think fit for distinction sake, the lace, however, was of the colours of that on the soldiers' coats.
The front or forepart of the drums were painted yellow, with the king's cypher and crown, and the number “XII” under it. The rims were red.

Colours

King's Colour: Union with its centre decorated with a rose and thistle wreath around the regiment number "XII" in gold Roman numerals.

Regimental Colour: yellow field with its centre decorated with a rose and thistle wreath around the regiment number "XII" in gold Roman numerals. The Union in the upper left corner.

King's Colour - Source: PMPdeL
Regimental Colour - Source: PMPdeL

References

Fortescue, J. W., A History of the British Army Vol. II, MacMillan, London, 1899

Funcken, Liliane and Fred, Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

George II, The Royal Clothing Warrant, 1751

Knowles, L.; Minden and the Seven Year's War, Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton & Co. Ltd, London, 1914

Lawson, Cecil C. P., A History of the Uniforms of the British Army - from the Beginnings to 1760, vol. II

Mills, T. F., Land Forces of Britain the Empire and Commonwealth

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.