1757 - Siege of Fort William Henry
The siege lasted from August 4 to 9 1757
During the summer of 1757, the French commanders in Canada organized an expedition against Fort William Henry. By the beginning of August they had successfully concentrated a superior force on Lake Saint-Sacrement (actual Lake George). On August 2, the entire French army under Montcalm disembarked near Fort William Henry ready to lay siege to it.
In preparation for a siege, the British had razed a lunette (outwork) to the south of the fort and the outside storehouse. Furthermore, the roofs of the magazines had been sandbagged.
Fort William Henry had been built in 1755 under the supervision of Captain William Eyre of the 44th Foot. It was a small bastion fort (average of 97.5 m. per side). The bastions supported 15-foot (4.6 m.) wide parapets. The western and southern curtain walls were topped with 30-foot (9.2 m.) wide ramparts — a 15-foot (4.6 m.) wide parapet plus a 15-foot (4.6 m.) wide terreplein platform. The bastion had been completed mid-November 1755, but only two of the larger barracks were built before the end of the year.
In 1756, the east and west barracks had been built and these barracks also included underground casements.
The British occupied two distinct positions: around 400 men (initially under the command of Captain John Ormsby of the 35th Foot and including a company of this same regiment) in the fort bastion and 1,900 men (including 5 companies of the 35th Foot) in an entrenched camp on a hillock 640 m. to the southeast of the bastion.
On August 3 at dawn, the French camp was all astir. The column of Lévis, with all Indians and part of the Canadians to lead the way, moved through the forest towards the fort and Montcalm followed with the main body in three columns: Rigaud on the right, Bourlamaque on the left and Montcalm in the centre. Then, the artillery boats preceded by Indian canoes rounded the point that had hid them from the sight of the British.
Bougainville gives a return of Montcalm's forces before Fort William Henry as of August 3 (for additional details on militia and Indians, this return should be compared with the order of battle of Montcalm's Army initially assembled at Fort Carillon on July 20, see our article 1757 - French expedition against Fort William Henry):
- Regular Troops
- II./La Reine Infanterie (1 bn for a total of 18 officers and 301 soldiers)
- II./Languedoc Infanterie (1 bn for a total of 19 officers and 274 soldiers)
- Converged Compagnies Franches de la Marine (1 bn for a total of 29 officers and 476 soldiers)
- II./La Sarre Infanterie (1 bn for a total of 24 officers and 364 soldiers)
- II./Guyenne Infanterie (1 bn for a total of 27 officers and 403 soldiers)
- II./Royal Roussillon Infanterie (1 bn for a total of 28 officers and 420 soldiers)
- II./Béarn Infanterie (1 bn for a total of 26 officers and 388 soldiers)
- 6 officers and 172 gunners and bombardiers
- 31 cannon (including 5 x 18-pdr cannon, most probably naval guns)
- 1 9-in brass mortar (previously captured at Oswego in 1756)
- 1 6-in iron mortar made at the Saint-Maurice Foundry in Canada
- 3 brass howitzers (two captured on the Monongahela, the third from the Monongahela or possibly Oswego)
- 10 grenade mortars
- Milices Canadiennes (71 officers and 2,980 men)
- Indians (1,600 warriors)
Iron naval cannon manufactured in France formed much of Montcalm's siege train. At least four of the 18-pdrs were naval guns. Any naval iron 18-pdrs or 12-pdrs would have been hard hitting pieces with range; these were heavy guns. To Montcalm, the true value of the previously captured British artillery was with the larger shell pieces, the 9-in mortar and 7-in howitzers (French designation). He had no comparable French-made shell pieces to substitute.
At 9:00 a.m., Monro, who was in command at the fort, sent Webb a hasty note, telling him that the French were in sight on the lake. Skirmishes broke out between Lévis' Indians and British parties sent out to save the cattle roaming in the neighbourhood and to burn some out-buildings that would have favoured the besiegers. Meanwhile, other British detachments were taking down the tents that stood on a plateau to the south-west of the fort and moving them to the entrenchment on the hill. To support these detachments, the garrison sallied from the fort. Lévis’ vanguard only met a few outpost which were soon abandoned. It then took position on the road to Fort Edward.
By noon, the investment of the fort was entirely formed. Montcalm then joined the vanguard to reconnoitre the entrenchments which he considered too strong to be stormed and decided to besiege the fort in form. Accordingly, he sent orders to Bourlamaque to encamp: his left to the lake and his right to almost inaccessible ravines to cover the artillery depot. Bourlamaque then immediately brought the II./La Sarre and II./Royal Roussillon battalions into the camp. Meanwhile, La Reine brigade was advanced at 2 km from the vanguard.
At 4:00 p.m., Montcalm sent a messenger to summon Colonel Monro to surrender. However, Monro refused to capitulate.
At 6:00 p.m., Monro wrote another note to Webb, announcing that the firing had begun and asking for reinforcements. When the skirmishing around the fort was over, La Corne, with a body of Indians, occupied the road that led to Fort Edward and Lévis encamped hard by to support him. Montcalm bivouacked with the La Reine brigade and Gaspé militia, within reach to support Lévis' Corps.
Fort William Henry stood at the south-western head of the lake. On its eastern side was a marsh, then a rough piece of ground where Johnson had encamped in 1755, then a low rocky hill crowned with an entrenched camp and, further east, another marsh. Far around the fort and up the slopes of the western mountain, the forest had been cut down and burned by Winslow in the autumn of 1756. Fort William Henry itself was an irregular bastioned square averaging 97.5 m. per side formed by embankments of gravel surmounted by a rampart of heavy logs, laid in tiers crossed one upon another, the interstices filled with earth. The lake protected it on the north, the marsh on the east, and ditches with chevaux-de-frise on the south and west. Eighteen guns, great and small, besides 3 mortars, 1 howitzer and several swivels, were mounted upon it. The British garrison, which had been reinforced a few days before, now counted 2,500 men and consisted of regular troops, sailors and mechanics, under the command of a veteran Scottish officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Monro of the 35th Regiment of Foot.
More precisely, at the beginning of the siege, the garrison and artillery at Fort William Henry consisted of:
- 35th Regiment of Foot (6 coys for a total of approx. 633 men) under Lieutenant-Colonel George Monro
- 60th Royal Americans Regiment of Foot (138 men) under Lieutenant-Colonel Jonathan Young and Captain Rodolp Faesch
- New York Independent Companies (112 men) under Captain Charles Cruishanks
- Royal Regiment of Artillery (26 men plus ordnance clerks)
- Rogers' Rangers aka His Majesty's Independent Company of Rangers (1 coy of 101 men) under Lieutenant Noah Johnson
- Massachusetts Provincials (approx. 823 men) under Colonel Joseph Fyre
- New Jersey Provincials (approx. 302 men) under Colonel Jonathan Parker
- New Hampshire Provincials (approx. 231 men) under Colonel Jonathan Goffe
- New York Provincials and New York Provincial Rangers (approx. 57 men) under Captain Jonathan Ogden
- 30 sailors
- 30 carpenters
- artillery in the bastion fort (22 pieces) under Second Lieutenant Thomas Collins of the Royal Artillery assisted by Adam Williamson
- 2 x 32-pdr iron guns
- 2 x 18-pdr iron guns
- 2 x 12-pdr iron guns
- 2 x 9-pdr iron guns
- 2 x 6-pdr brass guns
- 4 x 6-pdr iron guns
- 4 x 4-pdr iron guns
- 1 x 7¾ inch howitzer
- 3 x 7¾ inch mortars
- artillery in the entrenched camp (6 pieces) under Captain Lieutenant William MacLeod of the Royal Artillery
- 2 x light 12-pdr brass guns
- 4 x 6-pdr brass guns
In the morning of August 4, Montcalm ordered the vanguard to move closer. Meanwhile the La Reine and Gaspé brigades entered into the camp. Bourlamaque was left with seven battalions along with the Saint-Ours and Gaspé brigades to besiege the fort. Lévis with the remaining four brigades, the Volontaires de Villiers and all the Indians was charged to cover the right flank and to observe the movements of the enemies on the highway from Fort Edward. Montcalm then sent Fontbrune, one of his aides-de-camp, to summon Monro to surrender. Monro replied that he and his soldiers would defend themselves to the last. The same day, even if he had received Monro's letters, Webb lay quiet at Fort Edward, sending expresses to New England for help which could not possibly arrive in time. Webb thought that Montcalm had 12,000 men with him, so he did not consider it prudent to advance to Lake George until further reinforced. In the afternoon, the French began working on the trench depot and built a road between this depot and their camp. They also prepared fascines, gabions and saucissons for the siege work of the first night. The depot was also linked to a cove to land the artillery by night as it was needed. The hospital was established to the left of a small cove.
During the night of August 4 to 5, Bourlamaque opened the trenches at more than 600 m. from the fort. Some 450 men toiled till daylight with pick, spade, and ax, covered by 300 grenadiers and piquets under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Roquemaure. The guns from the fort fired grape and round-shot on them. Before daybreak, the first parallel was made while a battery was nearly finished on the left and another was begun on the right. The parallel embraced the north-west side.
Early on August 5, Webb was informed by Monro that the French were upon him in great numbers, well supplied with artillery, but that the garrison were all in good spirits. The latter required reinforcements once more. Webb held a council of war were it was dedided that his force was not strong enough to march to the relief of Fort William Henry. Meanwhile, the French now worked under cover, 200 workers relieved those who had toiled during the night, and the work went on all day. They were obliged to move the left of their camp a little backward because it was too exposed to fire from the place. Indeed, guns and bombs had killed some people in the tents. The Indians, which were supposed to scout in the direction of Fort Edward to learn the movements of the British and prevent surprise, rather loitered about the camp and in the trenches, or amused themselves by firing at the fort from behind stumps and logs. The same day, the French captured a message from Webb to Monro announcing that soon after the arrival of the provincial militia which he had ordered to join him right away, Webb would advance to fight the French army, that however, if these militia arrived too late, Monro had to obtain the best conditions possible. The letter was brought to Montcalm who kept it in reserve for the proper moment.
On the night of August 5 to 6, under the protection of 3 grenadier coys and 2 piquets, 600 workers completed the left battery, some 600 m. from the fort) and the communication of the right battery with the parallel. They also moved the right battery considerably forward to approx. 500 m.
At sunrise on August 6, the French battery of the left (8 cannon, including 3 x 18-pdr, and 1 x 9-in mortar) opened to the great satisfaction of the Indians whose shouts signalled all successful shots. It consisted of eight guns and one mortar and battered the defences of the west front, of the lake front and of the small boats harbour. Furthermore, 300 workers continued to improve the siege works. At 4:00 p.m. The trench guard was relieved by 3 grenadier coys and 3 piquets under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel de Privas and Major Malartic while 400 workers were assigned to trench work.
The same day, British regulars from outlying posts arrived at Fort Edward. Furthermore, William Johnson appeared at Fort Edward with 500 militia and 150 Mohawk Allies. With militia arrived on the previous day, Webb was now at the head of 4,500 men, including 2,500 regulars.
On the night of August 6 to 7, the French dug a gallery of almost 300 m. in front of the west bastion and completed the right battery which consisted of eight guns, one mortar and two howitzers. It battered the front of attack sideways and the entrenched camp on the rebound.
On August 7 at daybreak the workers were relieved by 300 men. At 6:00 a.m., the trench was only 70 m. from the fort. The French battery of the right joined its 11 pieces (2 x 18-pdr guns, 5 x 12-pdr guns, 1 x 8-in howitzer, 2 x 7-in howitzers, 1 x 6-in mortar) to those already firing on the fort. After a double salvoes from the two batteries, Montcalm sent Bougainville to deliver Webb's letter to Monro who still refused to surrender. The French brigades contributed 72 men to serve their artillery. The trench guard was relieved by 3 grenadier coys and 6 piquets under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel de Senezergues and Major Joannès. Some 230 workers were assigned to the completion of a batteries and to the erection of a third one.
Some 2,000 New York Militia had now reached Fort Edward, bringing Webb's forces to some 3,600 men. Even by stripping all the forts downriver, Webb could gather up at most 4,500 men.
In the evening, a British engineer inspected the bastion fort. Even though there was damage to the top of several parapets, he estimated that fortifications were very little damaged. However, 8 guns and 2 mortars had already burst or been destroyed. Furthermore, artillery stores and other supplies were running short and the men had been without rest for five nights.
On the night of August 7 to 8, the French sappers had worked their way to the angle of the lake by continuing the gallery begun the previous day which was conducted to 180 m. from the ditch. They opened a hook at the end of this gallery to establish a third battery and lodge some musketry. Around midnight, two men came out of the fort to reconnoitre with a view to a sortie but they were greeted by a general volley. At the sound of this volley, the mountains surrounding the fort rang from the shouts of all the Indians who were calling and answering each others. This likely demoralized the besieged from attempting a sortie which they were on the verge of doing. Meanwhile, the French sappers were stopped by a marshy hollow about 90 m. wide covered by a nearby hillock.
On August 8, even though it was now day time, Montcalm ordered to build a passage over the marsh. The sappers worked with liveliness. Logs and fascines in large quantities were thrown into the hollow and hurdles were laid over them to form a causeway for the guns. Then the sap was continued up the acclivity beyond, a trench was opened in the garden and a battery begun, not 230 meters from the fort.
The position of the besieged was now deplorable. More than 100 of them had been killed and wounded, small-pox was raging in the fort and the casemates were crowded with the sick. A sortie from the entrenched camp and another from the fort had been repulsed with loss. All their large cannon and mortars had been burst, or disabled by shot; only 18 of the smaller pieces were left fit for service and the whole of Montcalm's 31 guns and 15 mortars and howitzers would soon open fire. An assault was imminent.
At 4:00 p.m. (August 8), Indian scouts reported that a large body was marching on the highway from Fort Edward to the rescue of the place. Lévis moved towards the highway with most of the Canadians and all Indians. Montcalm quickly followed at the head of La Reine brigade and Gaspé militia. He left the La Sarre, Royal Roussillon and St-Ours brigades behind under Bourlamaque to guard trenches, boats and camp. At 6:00 p.m., the French army was advancing in battle order ready to receive the enemy, battalions in columns on the highway, Indians and Canadians in the woods on the wings. The whole incident soon turned to a false alarm and troops returned to camp. Siege works had not been disturbed by this alarm.
At 5:00 p.m. (August 8), the trench guard was relieved by 3 grenadier coys and 6 piquets under the command of the Chevalier de Lévis, Lieutenant-Colonel Bernet and Major Bellecombe while 100 workers were assigned to the battery and 450 workers to complete the bridge and establish a lodgement.
In the night of August 8 to 9, the French debouched from the marsh through a gallery used as communication with the second parallel which was opened on the ridge of the hillock. It was from this parallel that the breaching batteries were to be established. The defenders kept a lively fire and the French lost 2 men killed and 8 wounded.
In the morning of August 9, 300 workers relieved their comrades to improve the lodgement. The British officers held a council and all agreed to surrender if honourable terms could be had. The "large" artillery in the bastion had been reduced to a single 12-pdr, two 9-pdrs, one 8-in howitzer, and one 8-in mortar with the shot and shell for those pieces at or near exhaustion.
At 8:00 a.m., a white flag was raised, a drum was beat and Lieutenant-Colonel Young, mounted on horseback, for a shot in the foot had disabled him from walking, went, followed by a few soldiers, to the tent of Montcalm who informed him that he could not sign anything before having communicated the articles to the Indian nations and obtained they approval. Montcalm then summoned a general council in which he exposed to the chiefs the conditions under which the British offered to surrender and those that he had decided to grant them. He asked them if they were approving these conditions and if their young men would not infringe them. The chiefs assured Montcalm that they approved everything that he would do and that they would stop their young men from committing any disorder. Montcalm then sent Bougainville to write the capitulation with colonel Monro. The main articles were that:
- the troops, from the garrison as well as from the entrenched camp would leave with their baggage and the honours of war
- they would retire to Fort Edward the following morning
- to protect them against the Indians, they would be escorted by a detachment of French troops and by the main officers and interpreters attached to the Indians
- these British troops could not serve for 18 months against the French and their Allies
- within three months all French, Canadian and Indian prisoners captured on land in North America since the beginning of the war would be brought back to Fort Carillon
- all sick and wounded would remain under the protection of Montcalm who would sent them back as soon as they had recovered
- the stores, munitions, and artillery were to be the prize of the victors, except one field-piece, which the garrison were to retain in recognition of their brave defence.
The capitulation was signed at noon and immediately the British garrison left the fort. At 11:00 a.m., Bougainville and the chevalier de Bernets took possession of the fort. They were charged with the demolition of the fort. The French captured 16 guns, 1 mortar, 17 swivel guns, 1 howitzer, a large quantity of powder and 4 months supplies. More precisely, the captured pieces were:
- 1 x 12-pdr iron gun
- 1 x light 12-pdr brass gun
- 2 x 9-pdr iron guns
- 4 x 6-pdr brass guns
- 4 x 6-pdr iron guns
- 4 x 4-pdr iron guns
- 1 x 7¾-in iron howitzer
- 1 x 7¾-in iron mortar
- 17 swivel guns
Prior to the surrender, the British lost some 70 men killed and 80 wounded; the French, 20 killed and 40 wounded.
Unfortunately, when the British column retired on August, Indians disobeying orders attacked it. Some 50 persons were killed while about 700 hundred were carried off. Montcalm succeeded in recovering more than 400 of them in the course of the day. All the refugees and redeemed prisoners were afterwards conducted to the entrenched camp where food and shelter were provided for them and a strong guard set for their protection.
This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Bougainville, Louis Antoine de, Relation de l'expédition et de la prise du fort Guillaume Henry le 9 août 1757, Pièce A2-32s - Collection de pièces relatives à l'histoire de la guerre commencée entre la France et l'Angleterre en 1756, Service historique de la Défense
- Brodhead, John Romeyn: Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York: Procured in Holland, England and France - Vol. X, Albany: Wees Parsons, 1858, p. 625
- Fortescue J. W., A History of the British Army Vol. II, MacMillan, London, 1899, pp. 305-306
- Lévis, chevalier de, Journal des campagnes du chevalier de Lévis en Canada de 1756 à 1760, Montréal, Beauchemin, 1889, pp. 81-112
- Malartic, Comte de Maurès de: Journal des Campagnes au Canada de 1755 à 1760, Dijon: Damidot, 1890, pp. 138-144
- Parkman, Francis, Montcalm and Wolfe, Collier Books, New York, 1884, pp. 276-306
Dunne, Kenneth P.: The 35th Regiment of Foot and the British Artillery at the Siege of Fort William Henry and the Role of Lord Loudoun, James Campbell, August 1757, pp. 11-55
O'Callaghan, E. B. 1858. Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York: Procured in Holland, England and France. Vol. X, Weed Parsons and Company, Printers, Albany, pp. 625, 629
Kenneth P. Dunne for his kind authorisation to use his research paper to improve our article