1758-03-13 - Skirmish of Snow Shoes

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Battles >> 1758-03-13 - Skirmish of Snow Shoes

French Victory

Prelude to the Skirmish

At the beginning of 1758, the British planned winter attacks on Fort Carillon (actual Ticonderoga) and Fort Saint Frédéric (actual Crown Point) from Fort Edward. However these plans were soon abandoned, being officially cancelled on February 27.

On February 28, colonel Haviland, commanding at Fort Edward, sent rangers under the command of captain Israel Putnam from the Connecticut provincials to reconnoitre the two French forts. Haviland also announced the departure of Rogers' Rangers as soon as Putnam returned.

On March 6, Putnam returned from his mission during which one man had gone missing. The same day the French ambushed a British convoy on the Hudson near Saratoga.

On March 10, colonel Haviland sent 184 Rogers' Rangers, men and officers, reinforced by several volunteers on a scouting party towards Fort Carillon. Captain Pringle and lieutenant Roche, of the 27th Regiment of Foot, were among the volunteers. Rogers commanded the whole. His force marched towards Lake George and encamped at "Half-way Brook".

On March 11, Rogers' party reached Lake George. They passed down Lake George on the ice. They camped at the Narrows.

On March 12, the rangers resumed their advance on Lake George. A dog was seen and, fearing that it could accompany an Indian party, Rogers left the lake and entered into the woods. Rogers marched under cover of night. His party reached Sabbath Day Point at 10:00 am and rested till darkness. The same day, Hébecourt, commanding at Fort Carillon, received a reinforcement of 200 Mission Indians (mostly Iroquois) and 30 men of the Compagnies Franche de la Marine. The Indians had no sooner arrived than they sent out scouts.

During the night of March 12 to 13, Rogers' force marched up to the vicinities of Montagne Pelée (actual Bald Mountain).

Description of Events

On March 13, as they neared the French outposts, the rangers pursued their way by land behind Rogers Rock and the other mountains of the western shore. They left at 7:00 am and paused at 11:00 am.

At 1:00 pm, Indian scouts came back to Fort Carillon declaring that they had found a great number of snow-shoe tracks.

At 1:15 pm, sieur La Durantaye from the Compagnies Franches de la Marine immediately set out at the head of a body of 95 Indians to meet the approaching enemy.

At 1:30 pm, another detachment of 205 men under the command of Jean-Baptiste Levreault de Langis de Montégron (aka Langis) left Fort Carillon and followed La Durantaye. It consisted of soldiers of the Compagnies Franche de la Marine and La Reine Infanterie along with Canadian militia and Indians. They took their way up the valley of Trout Brook, a mountain gorge that opens from the west upon the valley of Fort Carillon, and the Montagne Pelée (actual Rogers Rock).

Towards 3:00 pm, Rogers reached a point nearly west of the mountain that bears his name. The rough and rocky ground was buried more than 1 m. in snow, and all around stood the gray trunks of the forest. Close on the right was a steep hill, and at a little distance on the left was the brook, lost under ice and snow. A scout from the front told Rogers that a party of Indians was approaching along the bed of the frozen stream, on which he ordered his men to halt, face to that side, and advance cautiously. La Durantaye's Indians, forming the French vanguard, soon appeared and received a fire that killed 3 of them and drove back the rest in confusion on their main body.

Not suspecting that they were but an advance-guard, about half the rangers dashed in pursuit, and were soon met by Langis' force. The woods rang with yells and musketry. In a few minutes some 50 rangers were shot down, and the rest driven back in disorder upon their comrades. Rogers formed them all on the slope of the hill; and here they fought till sunset with stubborn desperation, twice repulsing the overwhelming numbers of the assailants, and thwarting all their efforts to gain the heights in the rear. The combatants were often not 20 m. apart, and sometimes they were mixed together.

At length a large body of Indians succeeded in turning the right flank of the rangers. Lieutenant Phillips and a few men were sent by Rogers to oppose the movement; but they quickly found themselves surrounded, and after a brave defence surrendered on a pledge of good treatment. Rogers now advised the volunteers, Pringle and Roche, to escape while there was time, and offered them a sergeant as guide; but they gallantly resolved to stand by him.

By then 8 officers and more than 100 rangers lay dead and wounded in the snow. Evening was near and the forest was darkening fast, when the few survivors broke and fled. Rogers with about 20 followers escaped up the mountain; and gathering others about him, made a running fight against the Indian pursuers, reached Lake George, not without fresh losses, and after two days of misery regained Fort Edward with the remnant of his band. The French, Canadians and Indians on their part suffered too, the chief loss (12 killed and 18 wounded) falling on the Indians; who, to revenge themselves, murdered all the wounded and nearly all the prisoners, and tying Lieutenant Phillips and his men to trees, hacked them to pieces.

Rogers reported his total losses at 125 men.

Map

none available

Order of Battle

British Order of Battle

Commander: major Robert Rogers

  • Rogers' Rangers (184 men)
    • Vanguard (11 men) under ensign Gregory McDonald
    • Bulkeley's division (82 men)
    • Rogers' division (82 men)
    • rearguard (11 men) under ensigns White and Waite

French Order of Battle

Commander: sieur de La Durantaye and Langis de Montegron

  • La Durantaye's division (96 men)
    • Crees, Nipissings, and Caughnawaga Iroquois (61 men)
    • Canadian militia (30 men)
    • Marine cadets (4 men)
  • Langis' division (206 men)

References

This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  1. Parkman, Francis, Montcalm and Wolfe, Collier Books, New York, 1884, pp. 309-312
  2. Lévis, chevalier de, Journal des campagnes du chevalier de Lévis en Canada de 1756 à 1760, Montréal, Beauchemin, 1889, pp. 124-128
  3. Montcalm, Account of the skirmish
  4. Rogers, Robert, Account of the skirmish

Other sources

Mitchell, James J., The Battle on Snowshoes, Seven Years War Association Journal Vol. XI No. 1