1758 - French operations on the coast of Coromandel
The campaign took place from April 1758 to February 1759
Arrival of British and French reinforcements
The previous year (March 6 1757), a French squadron under the command of admiral d'Aché had left Brest to reinforce the French posts in India. The squadron consisted of 3 king's ships, and 1 ship and 1 frigate belonging to the French East India Company, with about 1,200 troops on board under the command of the comte de Lally. D'Aché's squadron had initially been driven back to Brest by foul weather. Then 2 ships of the line had been taken from it for service in Canadian waters, and the squadron had waited till May 1757 for their place to be supplied by 5 French East Indiamen fitted out as ships of war.
On May 4, d'Aché finally sailed from Brest towards Île de France (Mauritius).
In June 1757, a British squadron under the command of commodore Stevens left England.
Since the death of Watson in August 1757 at Calcutta (today Kolkata), vice-admiral Pocock commanded in chief the British squadron operating in India.
On December 18 1757, comte d'Aché reached Île de France where he joined the small squadron under M. Bouvet (4 additional East Indiamen).
On January 20 1758, the small British squadron of commodore Charles Stevens, which had been much delayed at Bombay (today Mumbai), finally arrived on the coast of Coromandel.
On January 27, d'Aché and Bouvet sailed from Île de France and made for the coast of Coromandel in India. Owing to the monsoon, he was much delayed.
On March 24, Stevens' squadron reached Madras (today Chennai) and joined with vice-admiral Pocock's squadron in the Hooghly river. With these reinforcements, Pocock's squadron now consisted of:
- Yarmouth (64) 500 men under Pocock
- Elizabeth (64) 595 men under Stevens
- Cumberland (66) 520 men
- Weymouth (60) 420 men
- Tiger (60) 400 men
- Newcastle (50) 350 men
- Salisbury (50) 300 men
- Queensborough frigate (probably belonging to the East India Company)
- Protector storeship
On March 27, Pocock put to sea with his squadron with design to intercept a French squadron under the command of M. d'Aché.
On April 17, the combined squadrons of Pocock and Stevens sailed, with the object of getting to windward of Fort St. David, to intercept the French squadron under the command of d'Aché which was expected on the coast of Coromandel. Pocock missed the French squadron on his voyage south and bore up to the northward.
On April 25, the French squadron arrived near Fort Saint-David. This was the long-expected armament on which the French had built all their hopes for the expulsion of the British from India, and it had consumed nearly twelve months in its passage. It had lost about 350 men through sickness during its journey. The squadron carried on board Lally Infanterie (1,080 men) and 50 French artillerymen, together with comte Lally himself, who had been appointed to the supreme command of the French in India.
On April 28 at daybreak, a fleet of 11 sail was seen standing into the roadstead of Fort St. David and was presently recognised to be d'Aché's squadron. The French cut off the escape of the Bridgewater (24) of captain John Stanton, and Triton (24) of captain Thomas Manning, which were lying there, and which, to save them from capture, were run ashore and burnt. Their crews were added to the garrison. Lally's instructions from Versailles directed him first to besiege Fort St. David. Accordingly, d'Aché detached the Comte-de-Provence (68) and the Diligente (24) to carry M. de Lally to Pondicherry (today Puducherry) to give the necessary orders. The rest of the French fleet then worked down 3 km to southward and dropped anchor off Cuddalore.
Combat of Cuddalore
On the morning of April 29, Pocock came in sight of d'Aché's squadron at its moorings before Cuddalore. D'Aché at once weighed anchor and stood out to sea but owing to the heavy sailing of some of the British vessels it was not until the afternoon that Pocock could engage him, with 7 ships against 9. The combat of Cuddalore that ensued though indecisive was to the advantage of the French. Nevertheless, they lost 600 men killed and wounded, while one of their ships of the line was so badly damaged that she was perforce run ashore and abandoned. For their part, the British ships lost little over 100 men but their rigging was so much cut up that they were unable to pursue the French and were forced to return to Madras (today Chennai) to refit. Meanwhile the French fleet anchored some 30 km north of Pondicherry in the roadstead of Alumparva (unidentified location). The same day, under the energetic impulse of Lally, 1,000 French and 1,000 Sepoys under comte d'Estaing arrived before Fort St. David from Pondicherry and exchanged shots with the garrison.
Siege of Fort St. David
On April 30, M. de Soupire joined d'Estaing with additional troops (among which part of Lorraine Infanterie) and with siege-guns.
On May 1, appeared Lally himself escorted by 2 troops of hussars. He immediately detached a force under d'Estaing against Cuddalore. Lally dreaded the return of Pocock from Madras so he hurried the first detachment forward to Cuddalore without any transport or supplies whatever. The defences of this town were slight and the garrison consisted of only 5 companies of Sepoys and some British artillery. About 50 French were kept prisoners at Cuddalore. The same day, Pocock came to an anchor near Madras.
On May 4, the fort of Cuddalore capitulated on condition that the garrison should retire to Fort St. David with its arms, and that the French prisoners should be transported to neutral ground in the south until the fate of Fort St. David should be decided. During the short siege, French troops, having no supplies, had been obliged to plunder the suburbs for food.
On May 6, d'Aché's squadron anchored again before Fort St. David and disembarked the remaining troops.
On May 10, Pocock, having received some additional men from Madras including 80 lascars and having repaired the worst damages of his ships, stood to sea as far south as latitude 9° 30'. He endeavoured to fetch to the windward of Fort St. David.
On May 15, the French began the erection of their first battery for the siege of Fort St. David, about 1,000 m. from the fort. Lally had now the considerable force of 2,500 French and about the same number of Sepoys assembled before the town; but his difficulties none the less were very great. The authorities at Pondicherry were disloyal to him; the military chest was absolutely empty; and, long though his arrival had been expected, no preparation had been made for his transport and supplies. With no other means open to him, Lally decided to impress the natives for the work of carriage, without respect to custom, prejudice, or caste. The defences of Fort St. David were respectable, but the garrison was too weak in numbers to man them properly, and the quality of the troops was remarkably poor. The Sepoys numbered about 1,600 and the British about 600; but of the latter less than half were effective, while 250 out of the whole were sailors, recently landed from the burnt frigates and most defective in discipline.
On May 16, Lally opened fire on Fort St. David. Major Polier, who was in command, made the mistake of attempting to defend several outworks with an inadequate force, instead of destroying them and retiring into the main fortress.
During the night of May 17, the French stormed 4 outworks and drove their defenders out. The French successes sufficed to scare nearly the whole of the Sepoys into desertion.
On May 18, the French opened the trench in front of Fort St. David, even if they had yet no siege artillery.
On May 26, Pocock, being unable to get higher than Alumparva, anchored there. The same day, 4 French batteries opened their fire on Fort St. David.
On May 28, Lally was informed of the approach of the British squadron and immediately set off for Pondicherry with 400 regulars and 200 sepoys.
On May 30, Pocock sighted Pondicherry, and saw the French squadron in the road. D'Aché, upon descrying the British, called a council of war, which decided that the ships should remain moored close under the batteries to await attack; but M. de Lally, arriving from before Fort St. David, insisted that the British should be met at sea. He also sent out as a reinforcement to the fleet the troops which had accompanied him from Fort St. David. As de Lally had the supreme command in India, d'Aché weighed with 8 ships of the line and a frigate; yet, instead of bearing down on Pocock, who could not work up to him, he kept his wind and plied for Fort St. David to prevent any communication between the fleet and the fort. Lally then returned by land to prosecute the siege, the trenches being now within 200 m. of the fort. But no sooner had Lally departed than the governor and council of Pondicherry, who had full powers during Lally's absence, recalled d'Aché to protect their town. This order was most serviceable to the British; for, soon after the return of the French squadron, 3 valuable East India company's ships, which must otherwise have been taken, got safely into Madras.
On June 1, the French artillery (21 guns and 13 mortars) kept up an incessant fire on Fort St. David. For want of powder, the British artillery could not return fire. At noon, d'Aché's squadron entered the roads. Major Palier decided to negotiate surrender.
On June 2, Fort St. David, though not yet breached, capitulated, its garrison surrendering as prisoners of war and Lally's first great object was gained. Among the hostages held in confinement in the fort, the French found a pretender to the throne of Tanjore (today Thanjavur). Moreover, Lally was not a man to be content with a single success. On the very day of the surrender, he detached a force under d'Estaing against Devicotah (unidentified location), which was perforce abandoned by the British (30 British and 600 sepoys) at his approach ; and there was every reason to fear that his energy would now be bent towards the capture of Madras. Furthermore, Lally destroyed Fort St. David. On this same day Lally returned to Pondicherry with his army from Fort St. David and made triumphant entry. Te Deum was sung, and thanksgiving was followed by banquets and festivities - all at a time when the public treasury was empty.
The fall of Fort St. David gave great alarm at Madras, and with reason, for the defence had been discreditably feeble. Polier had formerly proved himself in repeated actions to be a gallant soldier; but making all allowance for the defects of his garrison, his conduct was not such as was to be expected. The British government at Madras called in all its scattered garrisons in the Carnatic, maintaining only that of Trichinopoly (today Tiruchirapalli), and concentrated them in Madras; thus adding 250 British and 2,500 Sepoys to the strength of that city.
In fact, however Lally might long for it, there was no possibility for him yet to attack Madras.
French invasion of Tanjore
On June 4, declaring that his duty summoned him to cruise off the coast of Ceylon, d'Aché sailed for the south. He refused to spare the fleet to aid in the enterprise against the seat of British power in the Carnatic. With the fleet gone, Lally's army required equipment for a march overland upon Madras. However, equipment meant money, which the authorities at Pondicherry averred that they could not supply. Acting therefore on the advice of a Jesuit priest, Lally resolved to march into the region of Tanjore and to extort the sum of money which he needed from the rajah. The civil authorities in alarm recalled d'Aché to protect Pondicherry.
On June 6, Pocock was informed that Fort St. George near Madras was likely to be invested; and, realizing that should this be so, his ships would be unable to re-water on the coast, he made for Madras, where he brought his defaulting captains to court-martial. Captain George Legge of the Newcastle, was dismissed the service; captain Nicholas Vincent of the Weymouth, was dismissed his ship; and captain William Brereton of the Cumberland, was sentenced to the loss of one year's seniority as a post-captain.
On June 17, d'Aché arrived at Pondicherry.
On June 18, Lally ordered out a force of 2,500 men (including 1,600 French troops and a large number of Sepoys) and started with them for the south. He had left behind 600 Europeans and 200 Sepoys for the defence of the French territory. His march was one long succession of blunders and misfortunes. The harsh measures employed towards the Indians during the advance to Fort St. David had alienated every man of them from taking service with the army, so the force started without transport.
The French force had barely reached Cuddalore that Lorraine Infanterie had to leave their tents behind for want of carriages. Gross excesses committed by the French troops in plundering the country drove the villagers to hide away all their cattle, hence neither transport nor supplies were to be obtained on the march. The soldiers were therefore of necessity turned loose to find provisions as best they might, and their discipline, already seriously impaired, went rapidly from bad to worse. When they entered Devicotah, they had not tasted food for 12 hours; and finding that only rice in the husk awaited them there, they set fire to the huts within the fort and went near to kindling the magazines.
On June 25, Lally's corps reached Karaikal, after traversing fully 160 km. There the troops at last received a real meal. Fresh follies marked the progress of the march. The town of Nagore (today Nagoor) was seized and its ransom farmed out to the captain of the French hussars, a corps which had only recently arrived in India and had distinguished itself above all others by violence and pillage. Ammunition again, for even this was not carried with the army, was extorted by force from the Dutch settlements of Negapatnam (today Nagapattinam) and Tranquebar. Finally, two pagodas of peculiar sanctity were plundered, though to no advantage, and the brahmins were blown from the muzzles of guns. Lally's difficulties were doubtless great but it is hard to understand how a man calling himself a soldier could deliberately have led about 3,500 men for a distance of 160 km from his base without making the slightest provision for its subsistence, or the least effort to maintain its discipline.
On Lally's arrival at Karaikal, 7,000 Tanjorines under the rajah's general, Monacjee, advanced to Trivalore (unidentified location) to oppose him. The Tanjorine army was soon reinforced by Indian allies and by 500 British Sepoys and 10 British gunners who had been lent by Caillaud from Trichinopoly. The French remained at Trivatore until July 12, sweeping the country around of all the cattle. When the French finally advanced, Monacjee fell back before Lally step by step to the city Tanjore, but his cavalry never ceased to harass the French foraging-parties, to drive off the cattle which they had collected, and to intercept supplies.
On July 18, Lally arrived within sight of the city of Tanjore, and in the evening, after breaking all negotiations, occupied the town and suburbs.
On July 19, the French erected batteries in front of Tanjore, but being exposed to superior fire from the wall, they lost many men and were unable to make any impression.
On July 25, vice-admiral Pocock sailed from Madras with a favourable wind southward along the shore to seek the French fleet.
On July 26, Pocock anchored off Alumparva where he took or burnt some small French craft.
On the evening of July 27, Pocock got within 15 km of Pondicherry and saw the French fleet at anchor in the road.
On July 28, at 10:00 am, the French got under sail and stood to the southward with a land breeze; on which Pocock signalled for a general chase; but the enemy kept to windward.
Early in the morning of July 29, d'Aché's squadron anchored off Porto Novo (today Parangipettai). When the land breeze arose, the French weighed and stood to windward and at about 8:00 am were out of sight. In the afternoon Pocock burnt the French ship Restitution, a British prize, off Porto Novo.
Combat of Negapatam
In early August, the authorities at Madras appealed to Bengal for assistance. It was refused. Clive was not indifferent to the peril of the sister Presidency, but he had matured designs of his own for a diversion in favour of the Carnatic.
At 10:00 am on August 1, Pocock again sighted d'Aché who was getting under sail off Tranquebar and who soon afterwards formed his line of battle ahead with starboard tacks on board, and seemed to edge down towards the British. But when Pocock made sail and stood for the French, they hauled on a wind. At about 1:00 pm, however, they formed line of battle abreast and bore down on Pocock under easy sail. He, at 1:30 pm, signalled for a line of battle ahead with the starboard tacks on board, and stood to the eastward under topsails, or with the maintopsails square so as to allow his ships to take station, in waiting for the enemy. At 5:00 pm the French van was abreast of the British centre at a distance of about 3 km. The French stood on till their van was abreast of the British van, and then kept at about that distance until 6:30 pm, when they hoisted topsails, set their courses and stood to the south-east. Admiral Pocock signalled to his van to fill and stand on, and made sail to the southward, keeping his line until midnight, when he judged the French to have tacked. The same day in the besieged Tanjore, the rajah rejected the terms offered by Lally.
During the night of August 1 to 2, Pocock signalled his fleet to wear, and stood after the French to the westward.
On August 2, Lally's batteries opened fire on the city of Tanjore. Caillaud immediately sent to the rajah a further reinforcement of 500 of his best Sepoys, 2 sergeants and 27 men from the Madras European Battalion. The same day Pocock was vainly trying to locate the French squadron which was not to be seen. In the evening, however, 4 sails were sighted inshore to the north-west.
On August 3 at 5:00 AM, the British sighted the French fleet off Negapatam, about 5 km to windward, formed in line of battle ahead, with the starboard tacks on board. The combat of Negapatam lasted two hours. The British had so battered the French squadron that it had crowded all sail to escape and taken refuge under the guns of Pondicherry. D'Aché then refitted and, being apprehensive of an attack there, anchored his ships close under the town and forts. Feeling also that he could not, in his then state, again fight the British, and that his remaining on the coast might lead to disaster, he again announced his intention of proceeding to Île de France.
On August 6, the reinforcements recently sent by Caillaud reached Tanjore.
On August 7, French batteries opened against the south side of Tanjore and a practicable breach effected.
French retreat from Tanjore
On August 8, disquieting intelligence reached Lally of the defeat of a French squadron by the British, and of a British occupation of Karaikal, the only port from which his army, already much distressed by want of stores and ammunition, could possibly be relieved. Lally resolved to raise the siege of Tanjore.
On August 9, Lally sent the sick and wounded (more than 150 men) to the rear and made preparations for a retreat.
On the morning of August 10, the Tanjorine troops attacked the French camp, a party of horse managed to penetrate towards Lally's tent. He was severely wounded and trampled upon but saved. The British Sepoys captured 2 field-pieces and the French camp was thrown into the greatest confusion before they could repulse their assailants.
On the night of August 10 to 11, Lally raised the siege of Tanjore and retreated towards Karaikal, leaving 3 heavy guns behind him. Instantly the Tanjorines were after him, hovering about him on every side during his march, swooping down on stragglers and cutting off supplies. The sufferings of the French troops were frightful. During his retreat to Karaikal, Lally was informed of d'Aché's decision to sail for Île de France. He immediately despatched comte d'Estaing to d'Aché to protest against it. But d'Aché was supported by his captains and maintained his decision.
It was only with the greatest difficulty that Lally brought his force through to Karaikal, to find on his arrival that the British fleet was anchored at the mouth of the river.
Meanwhile, the British Sepoys and the few Europeans sent to Tanjore as reinforcements returned to Trichinopoly.
On arriving with his army at Pondicherry from Karaikal, Lally repeated his remonstrances to d'Aché, but in vain. D'Aché had secured 30,000 pounds by illegal capture of certain Dutch ships in Pondicherry roads, and this he was content to leave with his colleagues, but he was resolute as to his departure from the coast.
On August 18, Lawrence with 520 men of the Madras European Battalion, 1,200 Sepoys and a party of the nawab's troops left Madras and took Trivatore by assault.
On August 20, Pocock's squadron sailed from Madras for Bombay (today Mumbai), calling at Trincomalee on the island of Ceylon for water.
During the month of August, the French took all the small British posts in the neighbourhood of Madras, except Chingleput which was soon reinforced with 3 Sepoys coys under lieutenant Airey.
At the end of August, the authorities at Madras being thrown on their own resources resolved to recall Caillaud and all his British troops from Trichinopoly, and to leave captain Joseph Smith in charge of that city with 2,000 Sepoys only.
Departure of the French fleet
On September 3, having landed 500 marines and seamen to reinforce the army on shore, d'Aché sailed away from Pondicherry. Pocock could not believe that d'Aché had any idea of withdrawing from the scene of operations and supposed that he would presently set out on a cruise. The Queenborough (24) was therefore despatched to get news of the French but she failed to obtain any.
The money taken by d'Aché, however, furnished Lally with sufficient funds to initiate preparations for a march on Madras and since the British had seized the opportunity of his own absence to recapture some of the scattered forts in the Carnatic, he despatched expeditions to Trinomalee (unidentified location, maybe Thiruvannaamalai), Carangooly (unidentified location), and Trivatore (unidentified location) to clear the way to Arcot, ordering them to concentrate about 55 km south-east of Arcot, at Wandewash (today Vandavasi). The several columns having done their work, Lally joined the united force in person at Wandewash and marched with it on Arcot.
On October 4, Arcot, having no British garrison, surrendered without resistance.
There now remained but two posts in the occupation of the British between him and Madras, Conjeeveram (today Kanchipuram) on the direct road from Arcot to Madras, and Chingleput on the river Palar, neither of them strongly garrisoned and both therefore easy of capture. Failing, however, to appreciate the importance of these two forts, and finding that his stock of ready money was exhausted, Lally sent his troops into cantonments, and returned to Pondicherry to collect funds. Thereby he threw away his last chance of worsting the British in India.
While at Trincomalee, Pocock ordered the Revenge, a company's ship, to cruise off that port and she actually sighted, and was chased by, d'Aché on his way to Île de France. The British squadron put to sea but could not come up with the French. Pocock afterwards continued his voyage to Bombay.
Siege of Madras
On September 14, several ships of the East India Company escorted by 2 men-of-war arrived at Madras with a most reinforcement in the shape of the 79th Draper's Foot (850 men) with Draper himself, lately an officer of the First Guards, in command.
On September 25, Caillaud who had embarked his troops at Negapatam, arrived at Madras with 180 men. Such an accession of strength made it possible to profit by Lally's omission to capture Chingleput. That post covered a district which, being rich in supplies, would spare Madras the exhaustion of the stock which had been laid up for the expected siege; and in view of its importance the troops at Conjeeveram were withdrawn to it, and the garrison gradually strengthened to a force of 100 British and 9 Sepoys coys (1,200 men) with 12 gunners. The garrison of Chingleput was placed under the command of captain Richard Smith. Further, it was determined to hire a contingent of Mahrattas and of Tanjorines so as to harass the enemy's convoys and lines of communication during the siege.
On November 2, a French force consisting of 800 Europeans with some Indian cavalry and Sepoys, marched against Chingleput. However, Draper and Lawrence preceded it and the French force retired.
The British preparations were well completed some time before Lally was ready to move. That general was indeed concentrating all French forces for his great effort against Madras, but in blind pursuance of this object he had removed the most dangerous enemy of the British from the post in which, of ill others, he would have been most formidable. In plain words, he had recalled Bussy, with his army, from the court of Salabad Jung and from the administration of the Deccan. Further, he had ordered him to entrust the occupation of the Northern Circars to M. Conflans, an officer who was only just arrived from France, together with the smallest possible force that would enable him to maintain it. Bussy obeyed, but in perplexity and despair; for it was hard for him to abandon the work at which he had toiled for so long with unwearied zeal and unvarying success; and it was scarcely to be expected that he should feel cordially towards this new and impulsive commander who, whatever his merits, possessed not a quarter of his own ability. Lally on his side entertained decided antipathy towards Bussy. He therefore treated Bussy's supplications to return to Hyderabad as designed merely for the thwarting of his own enterprise, and disregarded them accordingly. The junior officers of the army, with a sounder appreciation of Bussy's powers, generously petitioned that he might rank as their superior, to which request Lally, though with no very good grace, was forced to accede. Thus, for one preliminary disadvantage, there was little prospect of hearty accord and cooperation in the French camp. Then there was the deficiency of funds to be faced, which was only overcome by subscriptions from the private purses of Lally and other officers; though Bussy, the wealthiest of all, declined, if Lally is to be believed, to contribute a farthing. Finally, there were endless troubles over the matter of transport, for which Lally had no one but himself to thank; and, what with one embarrassment and another, it was the end of November before the French troops were fairly on the march for Madras.
Lally's force comprised in all 2,300 French, both horse and foot, and 5,000 Sepoys. The main body moved from Arcot along the direct road towards Conjeeveram, and a large detachment followed the bank of the Palar upon Chingleput.
Hoping to delay the French advance, captain Joseph Smith, who commanded at Trichinopoly, detached 2,000 Sepoys under Mohamed Issuf to operate behind their lines.
On November 29, the main French army left Conjeeveram and advanced against Madras.
On December 4, Lally in person joined the column along the Palar, but having reconnoitred Chingleput decided to leave it in his rear, and to continue his march northward to Madras.
On December 8, Lally advanced from Vandalur to St. Thomas' Mount. The defending force collected by the British in Madras amounted, not counting officers, to 1,758 British (including 64 Topasses, 84 Caffres and 24 mounted Europeans) and 2,200 Sepoys, the whole under command of colonel Stringer Lawrence. He had also at his disposition 500 horse from the nawab's force. The colonel drew the greater part of these troops into the field to watch the French movements. He then fell back slowly to Choultry Plain (unidentified location). It was never the intention of the British commander to risk an action with so superior a force. Lally's army had alone 300 European cavalry, excellently mounted.
On December 12, the French cavalry lost some men while occupying the Triplicane road, when 2 British field-pieces fired on them. The same day, Lawrence retired into the fort after placing guards at the different avenues leading into Black Town. The French soon occupied the ground abandoned by the British. Lally also detached 300 Europeans and two 12-pdrs against Poonamalle defended by a small detachment under Crowly. The British managed to repulse the first assault where the French lost 30 men killed. However, his garrison wavering, Crowly marched out at midnight in silence, reaching Madras early the next morning.
On December 13, Lally's entire force encamped in the plain, about 2 km to south-west of Fort St. George. Nearer approach to the fort was barred by two rivers, the more northerly of them, called the Triplicane, entering the sea about 1,000 meters south of the glacis; the other, known as the North River, washing the actual foot of the glacis, but turning from thence abruptly southward to join the Triplicane and flow with it into the sea. Lally therefore passed round to the other side of Fort St. George, the British evacuating the outer posts before him as he advanced, and established himself in the Black Town on the north-western front of the fort, and thence along its northern side to the sea. With his right thus resting on the town and his left on the beach, be prepared to open the siege of Madras.
On December 14 nearChingleput, lieutenant Airey captured on its way from Pondicherry the only French mortar.
The siege of Madras lasted from December 14 1758 to February 17 1759. The French had neglected to capture the town of Chingleput before opening the siege and this proved to be a fatal error. Furthermore, on February 16, a British relief force arrived at Madras aboard 8 vessels under the command of captain Richard Kempenfelt. Lally was forced to raise the siege the following day.
So ended the last offensive movement of the French in India. Lally retired with bitter rage in his heart against the authorities at Pondicherry, to whose apathy and selfseeking he attributed his failure.
This article is essentially a compilation of texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Anonymous, A Complete History of the Present War, from its Commencement in 1756, to the End of the Campaign, 1760, London, 1761, pp. 249-252
- An anonymous staff officer; Historical Record of the Honourable East India Company's First Madras Regiment, London: Smith, Elder and Co; 1843, pp. X-xvi, 137-143, 148-163
- Clowes, Wm. Laird, The Royal Navy – A History from the Earliest Time to the Present, Vol. III, Sampson Low, Marston and Company, London: 1898, pp. 164, 174-181
- Fortescue, J. W., A History of the British Army, Vol. II, MacMillan, London, 1899, pp. 428-438
Castex, Jean-Claude, Dictionnaire des batailles terrestres franco-anglaises de la Guerre de Sept Ans, Presse de l'université Laval, Québec: 2006, pp. 213-215, 244-246