1759-08-01 - Battle of Minden
Prelude to the Battle
|Did you know that...|
|In 1759, Voltaire published the satire Candide ou l'optimisme. To preserve Voltaire's anonymity, the satire was initially attributed to Dr. Ralph, a German doctor.
A new edition with amendments was published in 1761. The English title of this edition was Candide, or Optimism. Translated from the German of Dr. Ralph. With the additions found in the Doctor's pocket when he died at Minden, in the Year of Grace 1759.
In 1762, Candide was listed in the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, the Roman Catholic Church's list of prohibited books.
In 1768, Voltaire finally recognized paternity of this controversial satire.
Acknowledgement: Leonard Dorn for this interesting anecdote
At the beginning of July 1759, a French force under the duc de Broglie captured the town of Minden by surprise, thus securing a bridge over the Weser and getting access to Hanover. By July 16, the marquis de Contades had joined Broglie at Minden with the main French army. Meanwhile, Ferdinand of Brunswick concentrated the Allied army and methodically approached the town.
On July 29, Ferdinand, leaving Wangenheim's corps in its entrenched positions at Todtenhausen, advanced to Fredewald and Hille with the rest of his army. The British held the place of honour on the right of the line and picquets were pushed on forward. A small corps under Gilsa was sent to Lübbecke to maintain communication with the Hereditary Prince. Furthermore, Ferdinand made sure that his left could rapidly link with Wangenheim's right. Ferdinand had ordered his army to hold itself ready to march at 1:00 AM. the following day.
Contades, ignoring these dispositions, considered that the Allied army was dispersed. With his lines of communication with Kassel cut, it looked very tempting to engage a battle against Ferdinand. In preparation for such an endeavour, Contades detached the duc de Brissac with 8,000 men to Gohfeld to cover the Hereditary Prince, he also threw 19 bridges over the Bastau for the passage of his troops across it in as many columns, and he ordered Broglie to be ready to cross the Weser with his corps to form a 9th column upon his right and to attack Todtenhausen and Bevern's camp at Petershagen. To do so, Contades reinforced Broglie with the Grenadiers de France, the Grenadiers Royaux, 6 guns and 4 howitzers. The grenadiers were destined to form Broglie's 3rd line.
Contades could bring 51,000 men with 162 guns into the plain of Minden while Ferdinand could oppose him 41,000 men and 170 guns.
Ferdinand's posts extended from the Weser river and Todtenhausen round by Stemmern, Holzhausen, to Hartum and the bog of Bastau, in various villages and woody patches and favourable spots, all looking in upon Minden. His positions formed a kind of arc 8 or 11 km from Minden.
Initially Contade was deployed south of the Bastau to the west of Minden.
Wikimedia Commons also propose the following high resolution maps of the Battle of Minden:
Description of Events
On Tuesday evening July 31, the French camp was all alert in the darkness. More than 50,000 French were in motion. Contades had 19 bridges ready on the Bastau brook, in front of him. He planned to march his army across these bridges, to its various stations on the plain of Minden. The same evening, Ferdinand ordered that, at 1:00 AM, the army should be ready to march; that the cavalry must be saddled (Sackville never received or ignored this order for his cavalry got saddled only by 4:00 AM) ; the artillery horses harnessed, and the infantry gathered; but tents were not to be struck, nor the troops put under arms till further orders.
On August 1, about midnight, Contades' army came out of its camp in 8 columns. Meanwhile, Broglie passed the Weser by the town bridge, formed a ninth column to the right of the French army and gradually ranked himself opposite Todtenhausen.
Around 1:00 AM, two French deserters were brought in by a picquet to the prince of Anhalt, general officer of the day in the Allied army, with the important intelligence that the whole French army was in motion. Ferdinand had seen signs of some stir on the previous evening, and had directed that, on the observance of the slightest movement at the advanced posts, information should be brought to him at once.
Around 3:00 AM, a messenger arrived at Ferdinand's headquarters from Anhalt with the news. Instantly Ferdinand called the whole of his troops to arms, and ordered them to march to their appointed positions. His orders had already been issued, and were clear and precise enough. At about the same moment, a French battery of 6 guns began to cannonade Ferdinand's headquarters at Hille. A French corps was deployed nearby to make a false attack on Hille to distract Ferdinand's attention from their main effort on the Allied left wing. However, Ferdinand contented himself with sending 2 heavy guns to Hille and instructing the Allied forces posted there to hold to the last extremity.
The morning was very misty. Broglie's instructions were to root Wangenheim and then to take advantage of the 5 km gap between Ferdinand and Wangenheim. Even though his plan called for an attack on the Allied army at 5:00 AM, Contade's troops wasted many hours to form after crossing the Bastau.
By 5:00 AM, Broglie, a capable officer, had crossed the Weser, taken up his appointed position on the right close to the Weser, and made his dispositions to fall upon Wangenheim, punctually and in good order. But he dared not attack until the rest of the army was formed. Meanwhile, Contades' main army was forming in order of battle on the plain of Minden. His cavalry occupied the heath in the centre and his infantry on the left extended to the morass near the village of Hahlen.
From 5:00 AM, Ferdinand was issuing from his camp, advancing eastward, closing on Contades. The advance was to be in 8 columns:
- 1st column: cavalry of the right wing
- 2nd column: heavy artillery of the right wing
- 3rd and 4th columns: infantry of the right wing
- 5th column: heavy artillery of the centre
- 6th and 7th column: infantry of the left wing
- 8th column: cavalry of the left wing
The Allied centre included 6 British infantry battalions. With the Allies, 7 out of the 8 columns were formed and marched off with great promptitude but in Sackville's column all was confusion and delay. Some of the regiments were ready and others were not. Sackville himself was not to be found. It was no good beginning for the British cavalry who was supposed to form the right wing at Hahlen. There was therefore every likelihood that the village on which Ferdinand had intended to rest his right flank, might be occupied by the French before Sackville could be there to prevent them.
Around 5:00 AM, Wangenheim's corps moved out of its camp through the openings previously made in the dyke and formed in order of battle as follows (from right to left):
- 18 cavalry sqns
- 8 infantry bns in the hedges of Kutenhausen
- batteries of Thonhausen
While Ferdinand's columns were on the march, Broglie began to cannonade Wangenheim's positions around Todtenhausen. Broglie persisted in this tactic for 3 hours.
To compensate for the delay of Sackville's column, Ferdinand galloped away to Hartum and ordered the picquets stationed therein to move at once to Hahlen, and then hurried back with all speed to the latter village, only to learn the bad news that it was already in possession of the French. Meanwhile not a word had come from Wangenheim, who, for aught he knew, might be in serious difficulties. Ferdinand then despatched his solitary aide-de-camp to Todtenhausen to ascertain how matters were going on the left.
Between 6:00 and 7:00 AM, the Allied columns deployed in order of battle from Hartum and Hahlen to their right and Stemmeren to their left. According to Ferdinand's instructions, the Allied picquets under the prince of Anhalt were deployed in front of the cavalry of the right wing near Hahlen.
About 7:00 AM, a French battery of the left wing opened against the second Allied column of artillery on its march and raked it. The British brigade forming part of this column deployed and returned fire and silenced the French battery within 10 minutes.
By 7:00 AM and even by 8:00 AM, Contade's troops were still struggling to take position. Some columns were too close, others too distant. His line was convex in form, following, as it were, the contour of the walls of Minden, with the right resting on the Weser and the left on the morass. At the extreme right, Broglie's corps on the right was drawn up in two lines, the first of infantry, the second of cavalry, with two powerful batteries in advance. The ground on both wings was rough and quite unfit for cavalry. Therefore, Contades put his entire cavalry in the centre. These 10,000 horses were the flower of the French Army, they had firm open ground ahead of them and strong batteries and masses of infantry to support on each flank. The batteries were positioned to catch any assailant in cross-fire. However, the French left wing of infantry was late in arriving at its position, and its tardiness was not without effect on the issue of the action.
By 8:00 AM, the British cavalry under Sackville had finally taken position at the village of Hartum. Contades and Broglie together had 57,000 foot and horse. Ferdinand's entire force was near 42,000 men, excluding the detachment sent towards Gohfeld under the Hereditary Prince. Broglie, realising that his cannonade was producing no tangible results and that Wangenheim was opposing him a larger force than expected, went to Contades to request reinforcements.
Soon after 8:00 AM, combats began. As Ferdinand feared, the French right wing advanced against Wangenheim, attacking him at Kuttenhausen. But meanwhile a furious cannonade began about Hille on the French left, where the causeway issued from the western end of the morass. However, Ferdinand had already sealed up the outlet of the causeway with 500 men and two guns. Nevertheless, to make assurance still surer, Ferdinand then ordered two more guns and Gilsa's detachment from Lübbecke to Hille. He also sent information to the Hereditary Prince of what was passing. After making sure that his columns were advancing, Ferdinand turned his attention back on Hahlen. There, the prince of Anhalt had duly brought up the picquets and 2 howitzers from Hartum before Hahlen, as directed, but had halted instead of clearing the French out of the village. This inaction had delayed the deployment of the whole of Spörcken's column. Ferdinand then ordered the prince of Anhalt to take at once the village, occupied by 2 French bns during the night, which Anhalt finally did after three assaults, driving the French back to Dützen along the marshes.
After the occupation of Hahlen, matters on the right began to adjust themselves for the Allies. Ferdinand ordered captain Foy's battery to the front of the village, to cover the formation of the troops, and was soon satisfied by the admirable working of these British guns that all was safe in that quarter. Meanwhile his aide-de-camp returned from Todtenhausen with intelligence that Wangenheim was holding his own, though the enemy had gained ground on Wangenheim's right, where his flank was uncovered.
Observing the excellent practice of Foy's battery before Hahlen, Ferdinand had already sent Macbean's British battery to join it and ordered Haase's Hanoverian brigade of heavy guns to the same position. Then seeing Spörcken's column of British infantry in the act of deployment, he sent orders that its advance, when the time should come, should be made with drums beating. The order was either misdelivered or misunderstood, for to his surprise the leading British brigade shook itself up and began to advance forthwith. A flight of aides-de-camp galloped off to stop them and the British line halted behind a belt of fir-wood to await the formation of the rest of the army. In the first line of Spörcken's division stood, counting from right to left, the 12th Foot, 37th Foot and 23rd Foot under brigadier Waldegrave. In the second line, which extended beyond the first on each flank, the 20th Foot, 51st Foot and 25th Foot under brigadier Kingsley, Hardenberg's Hanoverian battalion, and 2 battalions of Hanoverian Foot Guards. There then they stood for a few minutes, while the second line, which was only partially deployed, hastened to complete the evolution. Suddenly, to the general amazement, the drums again began to roll and the first line stepped off once more, advancing rapidly but in perfect order, straight upon the cavalry deployed on the left of the French centre. The second line, though its formation was still incomplete, stepped off likewise in rear of its comrades, deploying as it moved, and therefore of necessity dropping somewhat in rear. And so the 9 battalions, with the leading brigade far in advance, swung proudly forward. Two French batteries of 30 and 36 guns took the advancing line in cross-fire. Alone and unsupported from the rest of the line, the British line continued its advance.
No aide-de-camp, gallop though he might, could stop the British infantry brigades now. The British battalions deployed on the right were the more exposed to destruction, for the French batteries at Malbergen on their left were too remote to maintain a really deadly fire. For nearly 150 paces of the advance, the French guns tore great gaps in their ranks. However, Allied batteries soon silenced the French battery, and the British brigades pressed on with steadiness against the motionless lines of French cavalry. Then at last the wall of men and horses started into life, and 11 squadrons of the French first line coming forward from the rest bore straight down upon the British first line. The British and Hanoverian battalions stood firm until the enemy were within 10 meters. They then poured a deadly volley which strewed the ground with men and horses, throwing back the French first line of cavalry and continuing their advance.
Ferdinand, perceiving the disorder of the French, sent an aide-de-camp at full speed to lord George Sackville to bring up the British cavalry and complete the rout. Sackville disputed the meaning of the order for a time, and then advancing his squadrons for a short distance, as if to obey it, brought them once more to a halt. A second messenger came up in hot haste to ask why the cavalry of the right did not come on, but Sackville remained stationary, and the opportunity was lost.
Indeed, Contades arrived in the centre and ordered Beaupréau to occupy a few houses and hedges situated in front of the French cavalry with Touraine brigade and 8 guns. While Beaupréau marched to his new positions, 3 additional French infantry brigades and 24 guns were coming forward from the French left to enfilade the audacious British and Hanoverian battalions. Ferdinand, since Sackville would not move, advanced Phillips's brigade of heavy guns in order to parry, if possible, this flanking attack.
Then the second line of the French cavalry came thundering down, eager to retrieve their defeat, upon the 9 isolated battalions. For a moment the Anglo-Hanoverian lines seemed to waver under this attack, but recovering themselves they closed up their ranks and met the charging squadrons with a storm of musketry which blasted them off the field. At this moment, Scheele's infantry brigade along with Wangenheim Infantry and Hessian Garde then brought a timely support to this attack. The comte de Lusace attacked these Allied units with the Saxons deployed to the left of the French cavalry and momentarily forced them back. But the Allied infantry soon rallied, resumed its advance and routed the Saxon regiments with terrible loss. The Aquitaine and Condé infantry brigades, under the command of Maugiron, wanted to march to the support of the Saxons but they were driven back. Maugiron was wounded during the action.
Again an aide-de-camp flew from Ferdinand's side to Sackville, adjuring him to bring up the British squadrons only, if no more, to make good the success. However, it was not jealousy of the foreign squadrons under his command that kept Sackville back. The messenger delivered his order; but not a squadron moved.
Now the French reserve, consisting of the Gendarmerie de France and the Carabiniers, attempted a third attack upon the 9 brave battalions. It charged and broke through the first line of Allied infantry. However, the second line received them with a deadly fire and forced them to retire. Poyanne, commanding the reserve, suffered several wounds during this charge. A fourth messenger was sent to Sackville, but with no result. Ferdinand's impatience waxed hot. “When is that cavalry coming?" he kept exclaiming. "Has no one seen that cavalry of the right wing? " But no cavalry came. “Good God! is there no means of getting that cavalry to advance," he ejaculated in desperation, and sent a fifth messenger to bring up lord Granby with the squadrons of Sackville's second line only. Granby was about to execute the order, when Sackville rode up and forbade him and then, as if still in doubt as to these repeated orders, Sackville trotted up to Ferdinand and asked what they might mean. “My Lord," Ferdinand is said to have answered, calmly, but with such contempt as may be imagined, “the opportunity is now passed."
The rightmost French cavalry brigade, under the command of Vogué, then launched a fourth charge. But this brigade was caught in flank and routed by general Urf who was arriving from the left wing with a few squadrons. The French cavalry was now totally beaten.
Meanwhile, the French battery at Malbergen had been taken. Several cavalry regiments (Hanoverian Garde du Corps, Hammerstein Cavalry, Prussian Holstein-Gottorp Dragoons and some Hessian cavalry) along with the Hessian grenadiers distinguished themselves in this attack on Malbergen. They gained the right flank of Touraine and Rouergue infantry brigades and drove them back, capturing a large part of Rouergue brigade and taking possession of the houses and hedges previously occupied by these brigades.
The astonishing attack of the British infantry had virtually gained the day. Ferdinand's line had gained time to form and to join with Wangenheim's. On the Allied left wing, the battery in front of Thonhausen totally silenced the French batteries on their right and made great havoc among the Swiss infantry and Grenadiers de France. Ferdinand's left wing then took the offensive, and the German cavalry by a brilliant charge dispersed the whole of the infantry opposed to them.
About 9:00 AM, the French began to give way.
About 10:00 AM, the whole French army fled in disorder, taking shelter under the guns of Minden or recrossing the bridges over the rivulet to their camp behind the marsh. These bridges were then broken for fear of being pursued. Contandes sent the second line French right wing infantry (Auvergne and Anhalt brigades) to cover the retreat but the Prussian cavalry swept them home again. The duc de Broglie, who was still cannonading Wangenheim's corps and had never seriously engaged his force, sent his cavalry to support the right flank of the main French army, badly mauled by Hammerstein Cavalry. However, this French cavalry was driven back by the Prussian Holstein-Gottorp Dragoons. La Marche then advanced and fired on the Prussian dragoons who wheeled left, attacked La Marche and captured it along with 10 guns and 2 colours. After covering the retreat of the right wing of the French army, Broglie withdrew into Minden.
Meanwhile, the Saxon brigades had covered the retreat of the left wing of the French army into its old camp. Ferdinand ordered the British artillery to advance as near the morass as possible to dislodge the French units who had taken refuge in this camp. The British artillery then forced the French to retire.
Gilsa's corps pushed forward from Lübbecke over the morass by Eickhorst, reaching the old French camp. About this time, the remnants of Brissac's corps defeated during the engagement of Gohfeld arrived in the neighbourhood of Minden and joined the main army in its retreat.
Had Sackville's cavalry come forward when it was bidden, it might have cut the flying French squadrons to pieces, barred the retreat of most if not all of the French left wing and turned the victory into a decisive one. As things happened, it fell to Foy and Macbean of the British Artillery to gather the laurels of the pursuit. Hard though they had worked all day, these officers limbered up their guns and moved with astonishing rapidity along the border of the marsh, halting from time to time to pound the retreating masses of the enemy.
The victorious Allied army encamped on the battle field for the night. The headquarters were established at Süd-Hemmern.
French lost 7,086 men killed, wounded and taken prisoners. Prince Camille was killed in action while the count of Lutzelburg and the marquis de Monti were taken prisoners. Tha Saxon Contigent suffered heavily with a loss around 33% and its commander Prince Xavier (aka Comte de Lusace) was wounded. The Allies captured 43 guns, 10 pair of colours and 7 standards. The Allies lost 2,822 men, half of it falling on those rash 6 British battalions who, from 4,434 men and 78 officers, lost 1,252 men. The heaviest sufferers were the 12th, which lost 302 men and the 20th, which lost 322 of all ranks, these regiments holding the place of honour on the right of the first and second lines.
During the following night, abandoning his communications with Paderborn, Contades crossed the Weser, broke down the bridge of Minden, burned his bridges of boats and retired through a difficult and distressing country to Kassel, with an army not only beaten but demoralised.
After this victory, the Allied army advanced into Hesse recapturing Kassel, Marburg and Münster, recovering all territories previously lost during this campaign.
For his conduct at the battle, lord Sackville was considered disgraced and, in order to clear his name, he requested a court martial. However, the evidence against him was substantial and the court martial declared him "...unfit to serve His Majesty in any capacity whatsoever."
Maréchal de Contades was subsequently relieved of his command and replaced by the duc de Broglie.
Order of Battle
Allied Order of Battle
Commander-in-chief: Ferdinand of Brunswick
Summary: 42,000 men in 48 bns, 65 sqns and 105 artillery pieces
Main Army under Ferdinand of Brunswick
|First Line||Second Line|
|First column: Cavalry Right Wing under lieutenant-general lord Sackville|
|First Line of Cavalry under lieutenant-general lord Sackville
||Second Line of Cavalry under lieutenant-general marquis of Granby|
|Second column: Artillery under major Haase|
|Third column under lieutenant-general von Spörcken|
|Major-general Waldegrave's Brigade||Major-general Kingsley's Brigade|
|Fourth column: Prinz Anhalt Division under lieutenant-general Scheele|
|Major-general von Scheele's Brigade||Major-general Wissembach's Brigade|
|Fifth column: Artillery under colonel Braun|
|Sixth column under lieutenant-general von Wutginau|
|Major-general von Toll's Brigade||Major general von Bischausen|
|Seventh column under lieutenant-general von Imhoff|
|Major-general von Einsiedel's Brigade||Major-general von Behr's Brigade|
|Eighth column: Left Wing under lieutenant-general duke of Holstein|
|Lieutenant-general duke of Holstein's Brigade||Lieutenant-general von Urff's Brigade|
Wangenheim Corps between the village of Kutenhausen and the Weser
|First Line||Second Line||Third Line|
|Cavalry Right Wing|
|Prussian Ruesch Hussars (1 sqn)|
Reinecke Detachment near Hille guarding the Eickhorst causeway crossing the peat bog
- Brunswicker Imhoff Detachment (500 men)
- 2 x 12-pdrs
- 2 x 6 pdrs
Gilsa Detachment at Lübbecke
- Hanoverian Linstrow (1 bn)
- Hessian Prinz Karl (1 bn)
- Brunswicker I./Behr (1 bn)
- British Dragoons (300 men from an unidentified unit)
- Prussian Ruesch Hussars (2 sqns)
Laffert Detachment on the left bank of the Weser
- Hanoverian Luckner's Hussars (2 sqns)
- Hanoverian Converged Grenadiers (1 bn) under Wense
- Hanoverian Converged Grenadiers (1 bn) under Sydow
- Hanoverian Jägers
French Order of Battle
Commander-in-chief: maréchal de Contades assisted by lieutenant-general comte de Noailles and maréchal de camp de Raugrave
Summary: 57,000 men in 84 bns (avg. 500 men per bn), 85 sqns (avg. 120-140 men per sqn) and 90 artillery pieces
Main Army under maréchal de Contades deployed in front of the fortress of Minden
|First Line||Second Line||Third Line|
|Right Wing Infantry|
|Chevalier de Nicolaï's Division assisted by lieutenant-general Beaupréau||Comte de Saint-Germain's Division
assisted by maréchaux-de-camp Leyde and Glaubitz
|Duc de FitzJames' Division
assisted by lt-gen. Vogué and Castries
|Du Mesnil's Division
assisted by lt-gen. Andlau and d'Orlick
|Marquis de Poyanne's Division|
assisted by maréchaux-de-camp Bellefonds and Bissy
|Left Wing Infantry|
assisted by maréchaux-de-camp Laval and Maugiron
|Saxon Division under comte de Lusace
assisted by comte de Solms
N.B.: out of the Saxon division, one battalion
N.B.: The rightmost battalion of each brigade was formed in column. The battalions of the second line were spread wider than those of the first. Exceptionally, Auvergne Infanterie had its first battalion formed in column on the left to link with the cavalry centre. Each line of the French army maintained a distance of 400 paces. The 64 pieces in front of Contades infantry would include 8 12-pdrs, a good number of 8-pdrs, and the most being long barreled 4-pdrs.
|Attack||First Line||Second Line|
|Infantry, probably under chevalier du Muy||Cavalry, probably under prince Camille|
N.B.: Each infantry brigade was preceded by 100 workers with the necessary wagons and tools. Once ordered to only contain Bevern’s grenadiers and Wangenheim’s corps, Broglie redeployed in a different formation with his infantry in 3 lines and the horse to their left.
Broglie also commanded the following light troops:
- Apchon Dragoons (4 sqns)
- Volontaires de Schomberg (3 sqns) probably on the far bank of the Weser watching Luckner’s detachment
- Royal Nassau Hussars (4 sqns)
Duc d'Havré Corps in an advanced post at Eichhorst to the left, opposing Hille.
- Navarre (4 bns)
- Volontaires du Dauphiné (approx. 500 men)
- Volontaires Liégeois (approx. 500 men)
- Volontaires de Muret (approx. 150 men)
- Artillery (4 x 8-pdrs)
Garrison of Minden under maréchal de camp de Bisson
N.B.: Lowendahl brigade occupied the ramparts of Minden and the 3 bridgeheads. Most heavy artillery pieces were placed on the cavaliers of Minden and some pieces in the work covering the stone bridge.
This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Anonymous: A Complete History of the Present War, from its Commencement in 1756, to the End of the Campaign, 1760, London, 1761, pp. 398-404
- Carlyle, T.: History of Friedrich II of Prussia, Vol. 19
- Fortescue, J. W.: A History of the British Army Vol. II, MacMillan, London: 1899, pp. 487-494.
- Hotham: The operations of the Allied Amy under the command of his Serene Highness Prince Ferdinand Duke of Brunswic and Luneberg beginning in the year 1757 and ending in the year 1762, London: T. Jefferies, 1764, p. 99-104
- Jomini, Baron de: Traité des grandes opérations militaires, Vol. 3, 2nd ed., Magimel, Paris, 1811, pp. 30-46
This article also incorporates texts from the following articles published in Wikipedia:
- Bruns, J.C.C.: Die Schlacht bei Minden, Bruns Verlag, Minden in Westfalen: 1959
- Rogge, Christian: The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt: 2006
- Salisch, M. von: Treue Deserteure – Das kursächsische Militär und der Siebenjährige Krieg, Munich, 2009
- Schirmer, Friedrich: Minden (1. August 1759), in: Die Zinnfigur (1959) Neue Folge, 8. Jg., H. 5, page 81-94
- Schuster, O. and F. Francke: Geschichte der Sächsischen Armee, 2. part, Leipzig 1885
- Vial, J. L.: Nec Pluribus Impar
Hannoverdidi for the information supplied
Harald Skala for information on the Saxon Contingent