1760-06-23 - Battle of Landeshut

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Battles >> 1760-06-23 - Battle of Landeshut

Austrian Victory

Prelude

For 1760, the Prussian General of Infantry Heinrich August de la Motte Fouqué, at the head of approximately 13,000 men, was assigned to the defence of the Silesian frontier. He had his headquarters at Landeshut (present-day Kamienna Góra). On the Austrian side, Feldzeugmeister Ernst Gideon Baron Loudon was stationed on the Moravian border with 32,000 men.

Around mid March, Fouqué assembled his force at Steinau and Oberglogau.

At the end of May, Loudon assembled his army at Rothkosteletz (present day Červený Kostelec). On May 29, Loudon quit Rothkosteletz and broke in upon Silesia, a long way to eastward of Fouqué. Fearing for Schweidnitz (present-day Swidnica) and even Breslau (present-day Wroclaw), Fouqué hastened down into the plain to manoeuvre upon Loudon. The Austrian seized this opportunity to capture Landeshut. On June 11, Frederick II sent order to Fouqué to recapture Landeshut which was done by June 17. However, he was now occupying a large area with insufficient troops. Loudon manoeuvred to encircle his positions.

On June 21 and 22, Loudon while waiting for the arrival of the main body of his army, reconnoitred the Prussian positions.

In the night of June 22 to 23, a violent thunderstorm broke out, accompanied by torrential rain. The Prussian troops remained under arms. The rattling of wagons could be heard from the direction of Schwarzwaldau (present-day Czarny Bór), indicating that numerous artillery pieces were on the move. Deserters confirmed that the Austrians were preparing to attack around 2:00 a.m.

By June 23, Loudon was ready to launch an attack on the Prussian positions.

Map

Map of the battle of Landeshut on June 23 1760.
 
Source: Die Schlachten und Hauptgefechte des Siebenjährigen Krieges by C. Decker from Prinz Henrich's collection


Map of the northern part of the battlefield of Landeshut on June 23 1760.
 
Source: Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, volume 12 by the German Grosser Generalstab
Copyright Tony Flores
Map of the southern part of the battlefield of Landeshut on June 23 1760.
 
Source: Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, volume 12 by the German Grosser Generalstab
Copyright Tony Flores

Since 1758, the Prussian had fortified the position of Landeshut. The positions occupied by Fouqué, since his return on June 17, extended on approx. 6 km from the Blasdorferberg, on the eastern bank of the Bober River, up to the heights east of Vogelsdorf (present-day Ptaszków). This front was defended by a force of approx. 11,500 men, much too small to effectively occupy such positions. The village of Zieder (present-day Czadrów) was located in the Valley of Ziederbach. A series of hills ran along its eastern bank: the Ziederberg, Buchberg, Mummelberg and Leuschnerberg (aka Doktorberg). Similarly, the heights of the Hahnberg, Galgenberg and Kirchberg dominated its western bank.

The field of fire from the positions north of the Ziederbach was limited, since the forests on the ridge reached close to the entrenchments on the Buchberg and Mummelberg. These woods had been partially cut down to provide wood for the palisades and blockhouses, but the free space created was not sufficient to prevent the enemy from approaching. There were redoubts on the Buchberg, Mummelberg and Leuschnerberg, the two latter ones were linked together with entrenchments. There were several small flèches on the Ziederberg. Behind this line of defence, there was a star fort at the northern exit of Landeshut on top of the Thiemenberg. A small redoubt had also been established on the steeply sloping Burgberg, bordering Landeshut.

The main positions were located south of Landeshut and blocked the road leading to Liebau (present-day Lubawka). They did not form enclosed positions, but consisted of a series of fortified points on several heights, separated by streams running towards the Bober. Furthermore, they were dominated by the heights near Reichhennersdorf (present-day Przedwojów).

The Kirchberg, an approximately 600 m long, rather steep and bare sandstone rock stood south of Landeshut. A large entrenchment with several protruding and re-entrant angles had been erected at the northern end of the Kirchberg, facing in the direction of Nieder-Zieder (probably Czadrówek). A flèche had also been erected at the southern end of the ridge, facing the Langen Berg northeast of Reichhennersdorf. From the Kirchberg, the line of sight extended up to the chain of hills east of the Zieder Valley. Separated from the Kirchberg by a small trough, a mountain ridge stretches south-west. It had two summits: the Gerichtsberg to the south and the Galgenberg to the north. The Gerichtsberg was defended by an enclosed entrenchment facing the Langen Berg and several flèches crowned the summit, facing the Hahnberg. This mountain ridge, whose north-western foothills were called the Altarberg, stretched, separated by a 300 m wide valley, parallel to the heights of the Gerichtsberg and Galgenberg. Each of its three fairly similar crests were crowned by a series of entrenchments facing southwest, in front of which there were two small flèches. Finally, the entrenchments of the Blasdorferberg formed the extreme right wing of the positions. A small stream flowed between the Hahnberg and the Blasdorferberg. This valley was partly occupied by the elongated town of Reichhennersdorf. The Bober River flowed around the Blasdorferberg in the west and north-west in a flat arc, but could be forded in many places.

The town of Landeshut was located where the Ziederbach flowed into the Bober. Although it was surrounded by walls and moats, it did not constitute a strong position because it was enclosed in a deep valley.

Fouqué's small army was deployed in these entrenchments as described in the section on the Prussian order of battle at the end of the present article.

Loudon himself planned to go to Hartmannsdorf (present-day Jaczków), and later to advance to the Leuschnerberg. The signal for the attack would be four howitzer shells bursting in the air over the Buchberg.

Description of Events

On June 23 at 1:00 a.m., all of Loudon's columns were ready for the attack. There were 5 batteries (a total of 22 artillery pieces) aimed at the Prussian left wing.

Around 1:45 a.m., Loudon gave the signal to attack. Immediately his artillery opened against the Prussian entrenchments linking the Leuschnerberg to the Buchberg.

Attack against the Prussian Left Wing

Loudon advanced in four columns on Fouqué's positions.

The first column (A on the map), under Loudon's direct command, marched on Vogelsdorf to turn the Prussian left wing. The second column (C on the map), under Müffling, was charged to conquer the Mummelberg. These 2 columns were supported by General Campitelli (B on the map) with 14 bns.

While the Grün Loudon Grenadiers, belonging to Naselli's Brigade, advanced against the Leuschnerberg, the 2 converged grenadier bns of Ellrichshausen's column (D on the map) advanced at full speed up the height of the Buchberg.

Finally, the fourth column (E on the map) under Jahnus and Wolfersdorff, planned to attack the Prussian right towards Blasdorf. Thus the Austrians were attacking the Prussian southward front, both flanks and the rear. Fouqué, by detaching and otherwise, had only 10,680 men.

Loudon Infantry slipped between two heights and drove back a Prussian battalion defending the left of the Mummelberg entrenchment. It then threw itself against the rear of the II./Fouqué Fusiliers while several Austrian grenadier bns attacked it frontally.

Frontally attacked and threatened on their left flank, the defenders of the, especially I./Mosel Infantry on the Mummelberg, put up the most stubborn resistance against the second Austrian column. 3 bns stood there wide apart holding an overextended front (1500 m), without reserves in the face of an enemy who was constantly feeding new forces to its front line. Soon the Grün Loudon Grenadiers managed to surround these forces. The IV./Garrison Regiment Mellin, which was covering the left flank, tried to oppose them, but after a brief struggle it was overwhelmed by their superior numbers, then attacked by Kinsky's cavalry and routed. The remnants of the battalion under Major von Hoven took refuge in the entrenchments on the Thiemenberg.

Everything then started to fall apart for the Prussians. At 2:30 a.m., the column of General von Ellrichshausen managed to seize the entrenchments on the Buchberg after repeated assaults. When they saw that they were also threatened on their left, the 2 Prussian bns defending the Buchberg abandoned their entrenchments.

This success then forced the Grenadier Battalion Wobersnow, with its rear threatened and its right flank exposed to the lively fire of the Austrian artillery posted on the heights south of Ober-Zieder, to evacuate the small entrenchments on the Zierderberg.

The entire Prussian left wing was in full retreat when Fouqué sent it a feeble reinforcement of 1 bn (Grenadier Battalion Arnim), which was returning from Ruhbank under the wounded Colonel von Rosen against the Austrian troops pursuing the retreating Prussian battalions. The remnants of the retreating battalions rallied and joined him. But the complete defeat of this wing could no longer be averted. Despite the courage of its commanding officers, it was impossible that such a small reinforcement could restore the situation. During their retreat, the Prussian troops were attacked and routed by Podstatzky's cavalry squadrons. Colonel von Rosen was severely wounded and taken prisoner while Major von Wachholtz and Major von Wobersnow were killed. The remnants of the Prussian battalions retired to Landeshut, crossed the Ziederbach and took refuge on the Kirchberg.

Major-General von Malachowski fought his way through this tumult with the Malachowski Hussars and 2 sqns of Alt-Platen Dragoons and took position behind the Kirchberg.

Meanwhile, Lieutenant-Colonel Lizzeni with his Grenzer light troops was advancing on the Thiemenberg, which was defended by a platoon of the II./Fouqué Fusiliers under Lieutenant von Budberg and the remnants of the IV./Garrison Regiment Mellin under Major von Hoven. The attack was supported by 2 bns of the first line, which had meanwhile moved up to this height. However, the small Prussian detachment held out in its entrenchments until Major von Hoven, Lieutenant von Budgerg and most of their men had fallen. The Austrians then managed to break into the defensive work. The brave resistance of this detachment had bought time for the retiring Prussian troops to reach the Kirchberg.

Finally, the small entrenchment on the Burgberg, occupied by part of the I./Mosel Infantry, was captured by the Austrians, who entered Landeshut at 3:00 a.m. It was close to dawn, but a dense fog still obscured the view.

Loudon then formed his troops for the assaults on the Kirchberg and Galgenberg. His heavy artillery was moved forward to the recently conquered heights to prepare these assaults. He then allowed his troops to rest for a time. They were exhausted by the march under heavy rain, the climbing of the heights and the fierce fighting against the Prussian defenders. During this time, his heavy artillery opened against the entrenchments on the Kirchberg.

General von Nauendorff crossed the Bober River near Krausendorf with his cavalry, which was joined by the Kolowrat-Krakowski Dragoons under Major-General Caramelli. He wanted to block the road to Schmiedeberg which represented the only remaining line of retreat for the Prussians.

Wolfersdorff attacks the Blasdorferberg

When the thunder of cannon echoed from the right bank of the Ziederbach, Wolfersdorff's columns (E on the map) also advanced. Their first attack collapsed under the fire of Schenckendorff's units. The latter was also transferring the Grenadier Battalion Sobeck from the Hahnberg to the Blasdorfer heights.

The Austrians launched another assault against the redoubts defended by Schenckendorff's bns and, after a long struggle their right wing, with heavy casualties, managed, aided by the prevailing darkness and fog, to climb the hills from Reichhennersdorf and turn the positions of the defenders.

Schenckendorff fell back, fighting, towards the Hahnberg. To relieve him, Fouqué ordered Major von Koschembahr to send 2 coys of the Grenadier Battalion Koschembahr down from the Hahnberg against the rear of Wolfersdorff's troops. However, Major von Koschembahr fell during the advance and his men retreated.

On the Hahnberg, Major-General von Schenckendorff rallied the rest of his bns and joined a bn of the Bülow Fusiliers previously posted on the Galgenberg and the I./Braun Fusiliers. Once he had reinstated some order in his troops, Schenckendorff launched a counter-attack, driving the Austrians back to Reichhennersdorf. The I./Braun Fusiliers and the rest of the Grenadier Battalion Koschembahr, under Captain von Tresckow captured two colours and a standard. Schenckendorff then resumed his retreat towards the Hahnberg.

Wolfersdorff's artillery, which had taken position on the Blasdorferberg, then opened against the entrenchments of the Hahnberg to prepare the assault of his infantry. Meanwhile, General St. Ignon with 3 Grenzer bns and the Pálffy Hussars advanced to the height west of Ober-Leppersdorf, thus turning Schenckendorff's positions. He had left Preysach Infantry and Sachsen-Teschen Cuirassiers on the heights to the northwest of Johnsdorf.

Wolfersdorff briefly rested his troops and then advanced against the Hahnberg. Once more, he met with the most stubborn resistance. Wolfersdorff's advance was hindered by the Prussian artillery posted on the Gerichtsberg and by the Bober, forcing him to attack Schenckendorff's positions frontally and was initially driven back.

Despite the fire of the Austrian artillery from the Blasdorferberg and the renewed attacks of Wolfersdorff's troops, Schenckendorff would hold his position until 7:00 a.m., when he would be recalled to the Galgenberg by Fouqué.

Breakthrough of the Prussian Cavalry

Fouqué gathered the remnants of his left wing on the Kirchberg. He also ordered all the cavalry still on the right bank of the Bober to recross the river, because he could not make use of them in the narrow terrain of the battlefield and he could use them to secure his line of retreat.

General von Malachowski crossed the Bober upstream from Landeshut with 15 sqns (5 sqns of Werner Hussars, 6 sqns of Malachowski Hussars and 4 sqns of Alt-Platen Dragoons and ran through Ober-Leppersdorf. Beyond this village, he bumped into Nauendorff's regiments and the Kolowrat-Krakowski Dragoons, so that he had no choice but to attack. The Prussian cavalry resolutely charged the Austrians, and after bitter hand-to-hand fighting, a large part actually managed to break through and reach the road to Kupferberg by way of Reussendorf. Malachowski, whose horse had been shot out from under him, was taken prisoner. Major von Owstien from the Werner Hussars managed to gather 900 horse near Rodelstadt, east of Kupferberg. During combat, the Alt-Platen Dragoons had lost their silver kettle-drums and two standards to the Kolowrat-Krakowski Dragoons.

Contest for the Kirchberg

Fouqué reinforced the troops defending the entrenchments of the Kirchberg with the remnants of his left wing. They steadfastly endured the artillery fire aimed at them from the Burgberg, Buchberg and Langen Berg.

Until then, the Austrian had seized only secondary posts and the Prussian main corps was still holding the heights of the Galgenberg and Kirchberg where all routed battalion had rallied. Loudon took his dispositions to capture these heights.

Loudon's right wing cavalry being useless against such steep positions was transferred, along with 1 infantry brigade, to the left bank of the Bober to seize the road to Schmiedeberg and thus cut Fouqué's last retreat. Fouqué, who did not want to abandon his post, just sent 3 hussar sqns to observe this movement.

Loudon planted a battery of 12-pdrs on the Ziegleberg opposite to the Kirchberg. He also divided his infantry into 2 columns. The first column would advance against Landeshut to turn the left of the Prussian positions while the second column would march through the village of Zieder and attacked the Kirchberg frontally.

Around 6:00 a.m., Austrian columns advanced from Zieder frontally against the Kirchberg, while other columns advanced through Landeshut, by way of the evangelical churchyard against the left flank of the defenders. The Freibataillon Lüderitz, which was deployed by companies along the Bober River, fiercely defended the stone bridge over the Bober and part of the unit was taken prisoners. The rest of the unit escaped west of the river to the heights of Reussendorf with a battalion gun.

Fouqué threw the Below Volunteers (1 bn) at the column advancing through Landeshut, halting its advance for a moment. Meanwhile, the second Austrian column clashed with the Prussians, before the first column had had time to take position, and was forced to retire in disorder on Zieder.

Below volunteers were soon outflanked on both wings and forced to retire towards the Kirchberg. Loudon seized Landeshut and moved through the town. The Grün Loudon Grenadiers pursued Below volunteers so closely that they and the Prussians entered the star redoubt of the left wing on the .

Their attack also opened the way for the column which had launched a frontal assault and had initially been driven back by the heavy fire of the defenders. It immediately charged from Zieder.

Threatened in front and flank, the Prussians battalions defending the Kirchberg had to retire in good order from the Kirchberg to the Galgenberg.

Around 7:00 a.m., as Schenckendorff bns reached the Galgenberg, Fouqué had assembled the remnants of his small army on this height. He rejected repeated summons from Loudon to surrender.

The Austrian columns, which were attacking up from all sides, were driven back three times by the steady volleys of the Prussians.

Around 9:00 a.m., Fouqué realised that, despite all the bravery of his troops which were running short of ammunition, he could not hold his positions any longer. He decided to retreat across the Bober River. He sent instructions to Schenckendorff, who was defending the area facing the Langen Berg at the head of the Bülow Fusiliers, to retire in good order, to expel the Grenzer light troops posted on the banks of the Bober and to take position on the wooded heights of Reussendorf, north-west of Landeshut, with the Below Volunteers and 1 coy of the I./Braun Fusiliers. However, the officer carrying his orders was killed. Fouqué then sent his son with the same instructions.

The Below Volunteers crossed the Bober River, marched through Ober-Leppersdorf and formed a square. Fouqué then harangued the remnants of his army and tried to break through. He then formed square with the wrecks of his infantry and cut his way with bayonet and bullet, managing to cross the Bober. However, when he reached Leppersdorf, he found the the cavalry of Nauendorff and St. Ignon in possession of all the passages.

The Prussians repelled the first cavalry attacks; but when most of them had run out of ammunition and the Austrian infantry arrived on the scene, Colonel Baron Voit succeeded in breaking into the square with the Jung-Löwenstein Chevauxlegers. The combat was fierce till a bullet killed Fouqué's horse and carried the general himself, wounded thrice, to the ground. A desperate fight raged around Fouqué, whose servant Trautschke defended him until Colonel Voit rushed in to free Fouqué from his situation. Chivalrously, he offered the badly wounded general his parade horse. Fouqué handed him his sword, but rejected the offer of a horse with the words: "I would soil this beautiful saddlery with my blood." To which Voit answered "My saddlery could only gain if it were stained with a hero's blood."

General von Schenckendorff had briefly stopped on the Galgenberg and then retreated as well. However, his horse was shot under him before he could reach the Bober and he was taken prisoner. The rest of his bns resumed their retreat under the command of Major von Arnim and took the direction of Reussendorf. Harassed from all sides by cavalry they managed to reach the height where they were received by the fire of a light detachment (150 Grenzer light troops and 300 Splényi Hussars under Major von Semsey) posted in the nearby woods. This detachment had been dispatched from Hirschberg by way of Schmiedeberg by FML Beck at Loudon's request.

Major von Arnim, assisted by Captain von Werner and Lieutenant von Tresckow, repelled a few cavalry attacks, in which the hussars of Beck's corps also took part, but then the brave troops were overwhelmed and mostly massacred by the furious cavalrymen, who gave no quarter. Only a few hundred men (19 officers and 350 men, including the remnants of the Freibataillon von Lüderitz) managed to escape, bringing with them five colours (four belonging to Fouqué Fusiliers and one to I./Mosel Infantry. Near Rudelstadt, they were joined by Major von Owstien's cavalry and marched by way of Volkenhain towards Breslau. Altogether, only 1,500 Prussians managed to escape.

Outcome

The Prussians lost 27 officers and 1,900 men killed, 8,315 taken prisoners (including 3 generals, 11 colonels, 1 lieutenant-colonel, 14 majors, 46 other officers, 150 lieutenants, 7,809 men and 246 servants), 67 artillery pieces, 34 colours, 2 standards and the drums of Alt-Platen Dragoons.

The Austrian losses amounted to about 2,888 men (19 officers and 755 men killed; and 90 officers and 2,054 men wounded, missing or taken prisoners).

The town of Landeshut was mercilessly looted.

The gate of Silesia was now open and Loudon could consider taking Glatz.

Order of Battle

Austrian Order of Battle

Commander-in-chief: Feldzeugmeister (FZM) Ernst Gideon Baron Loudon

Summary: about 27,000 foot and 7,000 cavalry in 31 line bns, 8 light infantry bns, 50 sqns, 16 light cavalry sqns

Brigade under Major-General Count Naselli on the eastern bank of the Ziederbach (to attack the Leuschnerberg)

First (rightmost) column (A on the map) under Loudon's direct command (to attack the redoubt on the Thiemenberg near Vogelsdorf)

Second column (C on the map), under Lieutenant-Field-Marshal (FML) Baron von Müffling seconded by Major-General Baron Viela (to attack the Mummelberg)

Support columns (B on the map) (in support of Loudon and Müffling)

Third column (D on the map) under Major-General Ellrichshausen from Gaisruck's Corps (to attack the Buchberg)

Fourth column (E on the map) under Jahnus and Wolfersdorf on the eastern bank of the Ziederbach (to attack Blasdorferberg)

Left behind on the heights of Reichhennersdorf under FML Count Gaisruck

Detachment posted on the road from Landeshut to Freiburg to prevent a breakthrough of any Prussian detachment by way of Ruhbank

Detachment under Major-General Saint-Ignon seconded by Colonel Ljubibtatić (to cross the Bober at Blasdorf and make himself master of the heights west of Johnsdorf, from there he should threaten the defenders of the Blasdorferberg in flank and rear and block their line of retreat)

Artillery: 5 batteries totalling 22 pieces

Note: Pálffy Cuirassiers are mentioned in the Albertina as well as in the history of the regiment as being present at this battle. However, we did not yet find an order of battle listing this regiment among the units who participated.

Prussian Order of Battle

Commander-in-chief: General of Infantry Heinrich August de la Motte Fouqué

Summary: 9,542 foot and 1,885 cavalry, 33 battalion pieces and 35 heavy pieces

Right wing under Major-General von Schenckendorff

  • on the Blasdorfer heights
    • Freibataillon le Noble (1 bn, 571 men)
    • Freibataillon Collignon (1 bn, 491 men)
    • Borcke's Volunteers (1 bn, 240 men) 30 men of each bn of Markgraf Friedrich Fusiliers, Braun Fusiliers, Bülow Fusiliers, Mosel Infantry and Garrison Regiment Mellin
  • in the forest on the Lerchenberg, southeast of Nieder-Blasdorf
    • a picquet of 200 men detached from the freikorps
  • on the Hahnberg
  • on the Galgenberg and Gerichtssberg
    • Artillery 6 pices in front of Bülow Fusiliers)
      • 2 x 10-pdr howitzers
      • 2 x heavy 6-pdr guns
      • 2 x heacy 12-pdr guns
    • Bülow Fusiliers (2 bns, 999 men) excluding 257 men detached
    • Below's Volunteers (1 bn) in support, 30 men of each of the four grenadier bn and of the 2 bns of Fouqué Fusiliers
  • on the Kirchberg
  • in Landeshut: 1 officer and 70 men
  • in the meadows near Reichhennersdorf
  • behind the Kirchberg

Left wing under Colonel von Rosen

  • on the Ziederberg
    • 3 x 10-pdr howitzers
    • 2 x heavy 12-pdr guns
  • in the entrenchments on the eastern bank of the Ziederbach and on the Buchberg
  • on the Mummelberg
  • in the forest east of the Mummelberg
    • a picquet of 200 men detached from the freikorps
  • in the entrenchments near the Mummelberg and on the Leuschnerberg
  • on the Thiemenberg
  • on the left flank
  • behind the infantry of the left wing
  • in an outpost on the Vogelberg, east of Vogelsdorf: 50 hussars
  • in the suburb of Landeshut

Posted at Ruhbank under Colonel von Rosen

Artillery

  • Field artillery (41 pieces)
    • 32 x 3-pdr guns
    • 1 x light 6-pdr gun
    • 8 x light 12-pdr guns exceptionally attached to battalions
      • 1 to Grenadier Battalion Sobeck
      • 1 to Grenadier Battalion Koschembahr
      • 1 to I./Mosel Infantry
      • 2 to Fouqué Fusiliers
      • 2 to Bülow Fusiliers
      • 1 to an undidentified unit
  • Heavy artillery (35 pieces) see deployment above for the exact locations of these pieces

References

This article is essentially a compilation of texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Carlyle, T.: History of Friedrich II of Prussia, vol. 20
  • Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 12 Landeshut und Liegnitz, Berlin, 1913, pp. 99-112, Anhang 2
  • Jomini, Baron de: Traité des grandes opérations militaires, Vol. 3, 2nd ed., Magimel, Paris, 1811, pp. 250-255
  • Vanicek, Fr.: Specialgeschichte der Militärgrenze aus Originalquellen und Quellenwerken geschöpft, Vol. II, Vienna: Kaiserlich-Königlichen Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, 1875, pp. 481-482

Other sources

Duffy, Christopher: By Force of Arms (The Austrian Army in the Seven Years War, Vol II), Emperor's Press, 2008, pp. 232-239

Skala, Harald: Österreichische Militärgeschichte - Das Treffen bei Landshut am 23.6.1760

Wilson, Peter: The Three Battles of Landshut, Seven Years War Association Journal Vol. XI No. 4