1760 - Russian campaign in Brandenburg

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The campaign lasted from May to December 1760

Description

State of the Russian Field Army

The units of the Russian Army which had been involved in the campaigns of 1757, 1758 and 1759, had never been at full strength. Furthermore, they had suffered heavy losses in several battles. Many additional losses had been due to the long marches with sporadic supply and often inadequate provisions. After the sanguinary Battle of Kunersdorf (August, 1759), General Saltykov had already requested a reinforcement of 30,000 men to replenish the ranks of his units. Accordingly, on September 18, 1759, the Russian Konferéntsiya (Conference of the Highest Court) had announced new recruitment, where each group of 128 conscripts had to provide 1 men to serve in the army. This measure allowed to enlist approx. 7,000 recruits. However, these recruits could not reach the theatre of operation before the second half of 1760. Additional measures had to be taken to reinforce the army in time for the coming campaign, The Konferéntsiya then decided to reinforce the army with 30,000 men, more precisely:

  • 9,000 convalescents and previously enlisted recruits
  • 5,000 men from the regiments still stationed in Russia
  • 6,000 men taken from the garrison and land militia units
  • 3,000 men initially destined for the now disbanded Shuvalov's Corps
  • 7,000 men of the 12 third bns, which had reached the Vistula in the second half of 1759

By the end of November 1759, the Russian field army numbered only 52,000 men. One year later, when Field Marshal Buturlin took command, it counted 80,000 men. So it seems that the measures taken by the Konferéntsiya had given tangible results.

In the same way that King Frederick of Prussia was openly recruiting in occupied Saxony, Tsarina Elizabeth decided to recruit in occupied East Prussia. However, the governor of Königsberg (present-day Kaliningrad/Kaliningrad Oblast), General von Korff, mentioned that the province was seriously depopulated and thus prevented enlistment of recruits in East Prussia. In St. Petersburg it was also considered advisable that the home provinces should initially make greater sacrifices than East Prussia, which Russia intended to incorporate into the empire within a short time.

By the time the army set off from its quarters in mid-June 1760, each infantry regiments had completed its two field battalions and two grenadier companies to almost full strength. The third battalions, which had taken post on the Vistula, stayed behind and received recruits from Russia after the departure of the army. They were used to protect the towns of the Lower Vistula and East Prussia, the bases of operation of the army, against Prussian raids from Eastern Pomerania.

The cavalry completed its regiments with men and horses of the "Replacement Squadrons" sent from Russia to the Lower Vistula during the previous year (Masslovski also mentions that 1 sqn of Tobolskiy Dragoons and 1 sqn of Tverskoy Dragoons were used to replenish the ranks of the cavalry). Like the third battalions, these "Replacement Squadrons" remained posted on the Vistula. Finally, the Leib-Cuirassiers joined the army before the opening of the campaign.

Saltykov wanted to keep his Cossack regiments, so important for reconnaissance, in a single corps instead of distributing them among the divisions of his army. The poor discipline of these light troops must also have played a part in his decision. Only the 2,000 Malorussian Cossacks (probably the so-called Companeiskiy Cossacks) were allowed to serve with the field divisions. The Don Cossacks for their part were destined to be used in large units. For the campaign of 1760, nine Cossacks regiments (including the Chuguev Cossacks) served with the Russian army. They totalled 5,000 men.

Saltykov also assigned light guns (probably two 8-pdr unicorns) with mounted crews to each of his hussar and cossacks regiments. The horse grenadiers and the dragoons were already equipped with similar guns and crews.

The Observation Corps, which had not met the expectation of the Russian generals during the previous campaigns, was disbanded at the beginning of 1760. Its artillery (including the Bombardier Corps and the Secret Howitzer Corps) joined the main army and the entire field artillery was organised in brigades. These brigades were assigned to divisions or independent corps. Furthermore, a special artillery reserve remained at the commander-in-chief's disposal.

As in previous campaigns, groups of 2 or 3 field artillery pieces were allocated to infantry regiments in addition to their 4 regimental pieces. Even in 1760, the field army did not have siege artillery because it would have required a disproportionately large number of horses to allow it to follow the army.

Saltykov still wanted the army to be accompanied by a supply of provisions for one month. However, carts and wagons were still in poor conditions and it was not possible to find enough horses. It was only in late autumn, when 7,000 draft oxen arrived from Ukraine, that the situation somewhat improved. So for most of the campaign, an excessively large train seriously impeded the movements of the Russian field army.

Tottleben's raids in Eastern Pomerania, Neumarkand on the Silesian border

The Russian army reached its winter-quarters on the Vistula only at the beginning of 1760. The headquarters were established in Marienburg (present-day Malbork). The light troops (approx. 4,500 cossacks and hussars) under Major-General Gottlob Curt Heinrich Count Tottleben were charged of the protection of the winter-quarters. These light troops remained on the left bank of the Vistula and established outposts from Oliva (present-day Oliwa) by way of Konitz (present-day Chojnice) and Nakel (present-day Nakło nad Notecią), up to Gnesen (present-day Gniezno). They had no provisions and had to constantly roam Poland, East Pomerania and the eastern borders of Silesia to collect food. Wherever they went, these detachments committed great depredations, plundering and abusing the inhabitants and taking away the horses they found. What could not be carried away was often willfully destroyed. Often, local authorities were forced to issue reports, in which they acknowledged the good discipline maintained by the raiders.

Tottleben found additional reasons to conduct raids, when he learned that the Prussians were making extensive recruiting in Pomerania, the Mark and Silesia, that their fortresses were being resupplied with everything they needed and that magazines were being set up. To disrupt these preparations and to prevent the export of grain from Poland, Tottleben sent three large detachments to Eastern Pomerania, the Neumark and the Silesian border.

The Russian detachment sent to Eastern Pomerania broke through Neustettin (present-day Szczecinek) into the district of Stolp (present-day Slupsk). It roamed the country up to Köslin (present-day Koszalin) and then turned back and marched by way of Schivelbein (present-day Świdwin) and Polzin (present-day Połczyn-Zdrój) to Neustettin.

The Russian detachment (1 cossack rgt and 50 hussars) sent to the Neumark rode by way of Filehne (present-day Wieleń) and Driesen (present-day Drezdenko).

On January 9, the detachment operating in Neumark reached Landsberg/Warthe (present-day Gorzów Wielkopolski) and drove the Neumark Kammer Hussars (1 sqn) out of the place. A group of 500 Cossacks attacked the towns of Tirschtiegel (present-day Trzciel) and Schwiebus (present-day Świebodzin). The detachment then retired by way of Pyritz (present-day Pyrzyce), Berlinchen (present-day Barlinek) and Driesen, confiscating gold and horses along the way.

The strongest Russian detachment (3 cossack rgts) was sent by way of Lissa (present-day Leszno) and Fraustadt (present-day Wschowa) towards the Silesian border.

On January 22, part of the largest Russian detachment surprised a Prussian outpost (a detachment of Gersdorff Hussars), which had been sent forward from Breslau (present-day Wroclaw) to Militsch (present-day Milicz).

At the end of January, General Fouqué took position near Löwenberg (present-day Lwówek Śląski) and Lauban (present-day Luban) with his corps.

At the beginning of February, Colonel von Hacke, the Prussian commander in Glogau (present-day Glogow), reported to Frederick that a strong Cossack corps had reached Reisen (present-day Rydzyna), Lissa, Fraustadt and Schmiegel (present-day Śmigiel). They had then spread the rumours that they were followed by a much larger corps. These incursions caused a large part of the rural population of the right bank of the Oder to take refuge on the opposite bank of the river.

On February 2, Reimer, the Prussian resident in Danzig (present-day Gdańsk) sent a report to Frederick, informing him that the Russians planned to send a corps under Lieutenant-General Rumyantsev to assist the Austrians in Saxony. According to Reimer, this corps should leave before the end of the month and Tottleben's incursions were just the initial phase of the operations.

On February 3 at Konitz, General Tottleben issued a proclamation disapproving of the conduct of his light troops, about which he had received numerous complaints, and announcing that Russian units would occupy Stolp, Neustettin and Arnswalde (present-day Choszczno) to protect these towns from depredations. The inhabitants were warned against supplying forage, money and recruits to the Prussian garrisons. At the same time, Russian light troops moved back into Eastern Pomerania.

On February 5 on the Silesian border, a Cossack party plundered Herrnstadt (present-day Wąsosz), while another party tried to take foot on the opposite bank of the Oder near Beuthen (present-day Bytom Odrzański). Another troop, bumped near Zerbau (present-day Serby) into an advanced guard sent from the Fortress of Glogau. Detachments of the Garrison Regiment Alt-Sydow, together with a few Gersdorff Hussars, advanced from Breslau to protect the Bartsch (present-day Barycz River) Line leading to Militsch and Winzig (present-day Wińsko). They were joined by 1 sqn of Werner Hussars sent from Upper Silesia. The 2 first bns of Garrison-Regiment Jung-Sydow were posted in Steinau (present-day Ścinawa) and Grünberg (present-day Zielona Gora). The troops in Grünberg also secured Crossen (present-day Krosno Odrzańskie) and the ferry crossing at Beuthen.

On February 7, as Frederick had received numerous reports confirming the presence of Russian light troops on the Silesian border, he instructed General von Fouqué to send a few hussar sqns to the frontier to contain their incursions.

When Frederick received Reimer's report, he dismissed the warning, estimating that the Russians could not be ready to advance before the end of March. Nevertheless, he ordered Fouqué to send hussars across the Oder to reconnoitre and determine in which direction the Russians would march. As soon as their line of advance would be known, the inhabitants of the threatened region should be ordered to retreat with their belongings.

On February 11, concerned by the situation on the border between Poland and Silesia, Frederick ordered Fouqué to send a stronger force towards Glogau to stop the Russians, specifying that, if necessary, Fouqué should accompany this force. Fouqué then sent Lieutenant-Colonel von der Dollen with the IV./Garrison Regiment Lattorff and 40 Malachowski Hussars from Kirschberg (probably present-day Tłustoręby) to the vicinity of Glogau. Soon afterwards, he also sent Major-General von Werner with 3 sqns of Werner Hussars by way of Köben (present-day Chobienia) to secure the passages on the Bartsch River.

By mid-February, Russian light troops were everywhere in Eastern Pomerania. They reconnoitred the vicinity of the Fortress of Colberg (present-day Kołobrzeg) and tried to interrupt its supply.

On February 18 in Eastern Pomerania, Russian light troops pillaged Stargard and its mayor was taken as hostage. Everywhere, the Russians raised contribution in forage, gold and horses.

On February 19 on the Silesian border, a party of cossacks and hussars pillaged Carolath (present-day Siedlisko) and attacked the Prussian outposts near Beuthen.

On February 20 on the Silesian border, a party of cossacks and hussars appeared in front of Crossen. Fouqué let Major-General von Ramin march to Grünberg with Thile Infantry and 2 other sqns of Werner Hussars. Ramin was also given command of 2 bns of Garrison-Regiment Jung-Sydow.

Ramin occupied Beuthen, Grünberg and Crossen. Grenadier Battalion Kleist, which was in the process of being rebuilt, went to Steinau. Soon afterwards Freibataillon Lüderitz was sent to Militsch. The Oder now seemed secured from Crossen to Breslau. The Prussian commander in Glogau let ice accumulate on the banks of the Oder River and had all vessels transferred to the left bank.

When the cossacks were informed of the advance of General von Werner, they evacuated Lissa and Fraustadt and retreated northwards by way of Schwiebus and Meseritz (present-day Międzyrzecz). Werner followed them along the right bank of the Oder up to the vicinity of Glogau. He detached Captain von Rosenkranz towards Lissa. This detachment dispersed a party of cossacks between Lissa and Fraustadt. Furthermore, Lieutenant von Krahnert of Gersdorff Hussars advanced from Militsch and attacked another party of cossacks near Adelnau (present-day Odolanów) capturing a wagon of forage.

On February 22 in Eastern Pomerania, Captain Dekovatch attacked the town of Schwedt with Russian light troops, capturing Margrave Friedrich Wilhelm von Schwedt and his son in law, Lieutenant-General Prince Friedrich Eugen von Württemberg, who was recovering there from wounds suffered at the Battle of Kunersdorf the previous year. They were soon released after a ransom had been paid.

Meanwhile, the governor of Stettin (present-day Szczecin), the Duke of Bevern, had sent 2 sqns of the Pomeranian Provincial Hussars and the 2 free companies (probably the Pomeranian Frei-Grenadier-Corps von Hullesem) under Major von Stülpnagel to cover the region of Stargard against Russian raids.

On February 23, Stülpnagel's detachment intercepted Dekovatch's retiring light troops in the vicinity of Pyritz. It attacked them thrice and followed them. During these skirmishes, the Prussians recaptured the contributions raised by the Russians in Königsberg for the ransom of the Margrave of Schwedt. Stülpnagel then remained near Pyritz and secured the region of Arnswalde where the large Russian detachment returning from the Silesian border had appeared.

On February 24, Frederick, after receiving many complaints about the advance of the Russian light troops into Eastern Pomerania, instructed the Duke of Bevern and Major-General von Stutterheim, who commanded in this province, to arrange joint operations and to send without delay a detachment of infantry and cavalry to Stargard.

At the beginning of March, a cavalry unit consisting of convalescents (45 hussars from Ruesch, Dingelstedt and Malachowski rgts, and 130 Schorlemmer Dragoons) set off from Stettin under Major von Podewils of Schorlemmer Dragoons, along with Grenadier Battalion Köller and Pomeranian Grenadier Battalion Ingersleben, and marched towards Stargard.

At the beginning of March, disagreements arose between Tottleben and Count Fermor, who was assuming command during Saltykov's sojourn at St. Petersburg. The latter reproached Tottleben to send very imperfect and informal reports about the movements of his troops.

In the night of March 11 to 12, Podewils advanced towards Arnswalde with his cavalry and 2 weak sqns of Pomeranian Provincial Hussars.

On March 12 at daybreak, Podewils attacked the Russians posted in Arnswalde and drove them back with heavy losses. He pursued them and drove other detachments out of Tempelburg (present-day Czaplinek) and Neustettin. He then redirected his march towards Köslin by way of Belgard (present-day Białogard) to clear the region from Russian detachments.

In Köslin, Podewils received order to escort Major-General von Wylich from Bütow (present-day Bytów), where this general had negotiated from November 1759 until March 7 exchanges of prisoners with the Russian Major-General Yakovlev, before being recalled by Frederick.

By mid-March on the Silesian border, the Prussians had the following units deployed along the Oder River:

Frederick sent Major-General von Grabow to Eastern Pomerania with Finck Infantry, which had been reestablished in his garrison of Prenzlau, and the Grenadier Battalion Schwerin that had been rebuilt in Berlin.

On March 25, Grabow reached Stargard and sent the Grenadier Battalion Schwerin to join Podewils' detachment by way of Belgard and Köslin.

On March 27, after renewed reproaches from Fermor, Tottleben brusquely offered his resignation.

On March 28, Podewils, who was marching towards Bütow to escort Wylich on his return, fought a skirmish against a strong party of cossacks near Rummelsburg (present-day Miastko).

On March 29, Podewils reached Reddies (present-day Radusz), only 20 km to the northwest of Bütow. He was joined there by Major-General von Wylich.

On ???, Grenadier Battalion Schwerin joined Podewils's detachment near Zanow (present-day Sianów), east of Köslin.

Tottleben now did everything he could to cut the line of retreat of Podewils' detachment by blocking the crossings on the Grabow River (present-day Grabowa) east of Köslin and taking position on the Gollenberg (present-day Chełmno Słowieńskie) with the main body of his light troops and 10 guns. When he heard of the arrival of additional Prussian units, Tottleben abandoned his project and Podewils escaped by marching along the coast by way of Schlawe (present-day Sławno) and Rügenwalde (present-day Darłowo). For his conduct, Podewils was promoted to lieutenant-general. After reaching Stargard, Grabow deployed in cordon from Pyritz by way of Reetz (present-day Recz) and Nörenberg (present-day Ińsko) up to Freienwalde in Pommern (present-day Chociwel). Grenadier Battalion Köller and the Pomeranian Grenadier Battalion Ingersleben then returned to Stettin.

After his failure to block the retreat of Podewils' detachment, Tottleben remained in the vicinity of Köslin and Belgard. His light troops raided as far as Treptow an der Rega (present-day Trzebiatów), Greifenberg (present-day Gryfice), Polzin, and Neustettin.

At the beginning of April, Tottleben asked Fermor for infantry support and provisions, since it was becoming difficult to obtain food in Eastern Pomerania. Fermor, however, had not approved of Tottleben's far-reaching advance, which in his opinion was fruitless. Nevertheless, Fermor sent an infantry brigade with 12 unicorns under General von Treyden to Konitz to support Tottleben's light troops. Tottleben received orders from Fermor to retire to Rummelsburg and Neustettin.

In April, Frederick sent Lieutenant-General von Forcade with reinforcements (Grenadier Battalion Benckendorff, Hülsen Infantry (2 bns) and Jung-Schenckendorff Infantry (1 bn)) to join Grabow's detachment to better protect East Pomerania and to prevent the Russians from approaching Colberg.

On April 6, Prince Heinrich assumed command of the Army of the Oder, destined to oppose the Russians. His army would assemble in Sagan (present-day Zagan) on the Silesian border. From this position, he could advance towards Frankfurt/Oder or Pomerania, or he could make a junction with Fouqué's Corps in Upper Silesia. His army consisted of 40 bns and 70 sqns. There was also a small Prussian corps under Stutterheim in Western Pomerania.

On April 12, Frederick granted Prince Heinrich "full power" on the Army of the Oder.

In mid-April, Tottleben retired to Rummelsburg and Neustettin with his light troops. He then resigned his command and went to Marienburg to await the decision of St. Petersburg.

On April 19, Frederick and Prince Heinrich met in Meissen in preparation for the campaign. The troops destined to form the army of Prince Heinrich were mostly stationed in Silesia, with only a few regiments still attached to Frederick's main army.

On April 28, Prince Heinrich set off from Torgau with 7 bns (Grenadier Battalion Schwartz, Grenadier Battalion Bähr, Kleist Infantry and Lindstedt Infantry, I./Frei-Infanterie Wunsch), 7 sqns of the Ruesch Hussars and 31 heavy artillery pieces (20 x 12-pdrs, 6 x 10-pdr howitzers, 5 x 7-pdr howitzers), previously attached to Frederick's main army, and marched by way of Herzberg and Cottbus towards Sorau (present-day Żary) and Sagan.

Considering that Forcade's Corps in East Pomerania had not enough cavalry to face the Russian light troops, Frederick decided to gradually send him cavalry units. The 5 sqns of Schmettau Cuirassiers were the first to join this corps.

At the beginning of May, Frederick sent the 5 sqns of the temporarily converged Vasold and Horn Cuirassiers and 5 sqns of the Dingelstedt Hussars to join Forcade's Corps.

By the end of April, the Russian army started to come out of its winter-quarters. During the previous month, they had established bridges on the Vistula near Marienwerder (present-day Kwidzyn) and Kulm (present-day Chełmno) in preparation for their advance. They also had a permanent bridge at Thorn (present-day Toruń).

On May 2, Fermor informed Tottleben that General Yeropkin was now in command of the light troops. In this letter he once more accused Tottleben of having unnecessarily campaigned with the light troops during the winter, without achieving any success. A quarter of the light cavalry had already lost their horses. The Konferéntsiya (Conference of the Highest Court) in St. Petersburg initially approved the appointment of Yeropkin.

Yeropkin retired behind the Küddow River (present-day Gwda), east of Neustettin with the Russian light troops. Lieutenant-General Platen followed the retiring Russians by way of Dramburg (present-day Drawsko Pomorskie) with Schmettau Cuirassiers and Dingelstedt Hussars. Meanwhile, Forcade advanced with the main body of his corps to Dramburg.

On May 4, Prince Heinrich reached the vicinity of Sorau and Sagan, where he quartered his troops (7 bns, 7 sqns) after having marched from Torgau by way of Herzberg and Cottbus. Prince Heinrich personally rode to Sagan. He planned to take position between Cüstrin (present-day Kostrzyn nad Odrą) and Landsberg with his army.

On May 14, Platen advanced on Bärwalde (present-day Barwice) with his cavalry, the 2 grenadier bns and the two Pomeranian free coys. The 2,000 Russians posted there retired to Neustettin and soon afterwards evacuated this place as well.

In mid-May

  • Prussians
    • Prince Heinrich detached Colonel von Thadden with 3 bns (Grenadier Battalion Kleist from Steinau, Diericke Fusiliers from Glogau) and 4 sqns (2 sqns of Bayreuth Dragoons, 2 sqns of Werner Hussars) to Friedeberg (present-day Strzelce Krajenskie) to get some news about the operations of the Russians in the Neumark. This detachment occupied Driesen and Woldenberg (present-day Dobiegniew).
    • Frederick decided to transfer the Meinicke Dragoons from West Pomerania to join Forcade's Corps.
    • Forcade was now at the head of 7½ bns and 22 sqns with 24 heavy artillery pieces. However, most of this force consisted of units which had been captured at Maxen and newly re-established during winter.

By mid-May, a Russian division was encamped on the left bank of the Vistula near Dirschau (present-day Tczew), Pelplin, Münsterwalde (present-day Gniew) and Neuenburg (present-day Nowe), while the two other divisions encamped in groups of 3 to 4 rgts near Marienburg, Riesenburg (present-day Prabuty), Marienwerder, Graudenz (present-day Grudziądz) and Thorn. Furthermore, 3 rgts were sent to secure the main magazines in Poland.

On 16 May, Platen retired from Neustettin by way of Bublitz (present-day Bobolice) to chase Russian light troops out of this area. However, the Russians followed him during his retreat. This led to a few skirmishes.

On May 17

  • Russians
    • An ukase arrived at the Russian headquarters in Marienwerder, in which Tottleben's behavior was indeed disapproved of as rash, but he was nevertheless reinstated in his command.
  • Prussians

On May 20, Tottleben assumed once more command of the Russian light troops , but also of 6 bns which would soon join him near Neustettin. The complete plundering of Eastern Pomerania, which was his work, undoubtedly caused severe limitations to Prussia, which were to make themselves felt in the next summer. It is thus understandable that the Konferéntsiya had reinstated this active and indefatigable cavalry leader.

Tottleben then decided to advance against the left wing of the Prussian positions.

On May 26, Tottleben appeared in front of Belgard with his light cavalry and 6 artillery pieces. The place was defended by 300 men of the Grenadier Battalion Schwerin with 1 artillery piece, 1 sqn of Meinicke Dragoons and a hussar commando. This garrison was under the command of Captain von Schönfeld. It bravely defended the place and Tottleben abandoned his design.

On May 29 early in the morning, Tottleben attacked Köslin. His artillery bombarded the town where fire broke out. The place was defended by Major von Benckendorff with the Grenadier Battalion Benckendorff, 1 sqn of Meinicke Dragoons and approx. 40 hussars. Benckendorff rejected several summons to surrender.

On May 31, Major von Benckendorff capitulated at Köslin under conditions of free withdrawal, to avoid the total destruction of the town. His bn had suffered heavy casualties during an unsuccessful sortie.

The greater part of the troops sent from Silesia to reinforce Prince Heinrich's army formerly belonged to Schmettau's Corps. During the month of May, these 15 bns (Grenadier Battalion Carlowitz, Grenadier Battalion Busche, Grenadier Battalion Bock, Alt-Stutterheim Infantry, Jung Braunschweig Fusiliers, Jung-Stutterheim Infantry, Ramin Infantry, Queiss Infantry and Zieten Fusiliers) and 15 sqns (Spaen Cuirassiers, Schlabrendorff Cuirassiers and 5 sqns of Dingelstedt Hussars) remained in the vicinity of Lauban and Naumburg/Queiss (present-day Nowogrodziec).

Prelude to the Campaign

Detailed order of battle of the Russian Army on May 24.

Detailed order of battle of the Prussian Army at the beginning of June.

By the end of May

At the news of Tottleben's offensive against his left wing, Forcade concentrated his corps at Schivelbein. He was soon joined by Grabow's detachment at Körlin/Persante (present-day Karlino).

On June 1, Count Fermor arrived at Posen.

On June 3, the presence of Forcade's Corps did not prevent Tottleben from capturing Belgard. Tottleben occupied the place with the infantry, which had recently joined him at Neustettin.

Forcade decided to give up the defence of the line of Persante River and to retreat behind the Rega to Regenwalde (present-day Resko), Plathe (present-day Płoty) and Greifenberg. Before retiring, Grabow sent the Grenadier Battalion Benckendorff to reinforce the garrison of Colberg (Landbataillon Schmeling, Landbataillon Kleist, 500 men of Garrison Regiment I Puttkamer).

Immediately after Forcade's withdrawal behind the Rega River, the Russian light troops followed and thoroughly plundered the country between the Persante and Rega rivers. Most of the inhabitants fled. The main body of Tottleben's Corps remained in the vicinity of Körlin, Belgard and Köslin.

Forcade's behaviour aroused the understandable anger of Frederick. This general, at the head of a force of 3,600 foot and 2,400 horse with 24 heavy artillery pieces, had given up the country he was supposed to protect without opposing any serious resistance. However, Forcade's reports about Tottleben's bold advance into Pomerania and the increasing signs that the main Russian forces would soon be leaving had prompted Prince Heinrich to give up his position at Sagan and to begin the planned march towards Cüstrin and Landsberg.

On June 8, General von der Goltz received orders instructing him to march with the troops posted at Lauban and Löwenberg and make a junction with Prince Heinrich's Army.

On June 9, Frederick wrote Prince Heinrich to suggest him to replace Forcade by another general.

As soon as Goltz's Corps set off from Löwenberg, FML Beck was instructed by Field-Marshal Daun to advance with his corps from Zittau to Greiffenberg (present-day Gryfów Śląski), southwest of Löwenberg.

On June 11

  • Russians
    • Saltykov joined his army at Marienwerder. The Russian army then marched towards Posen in three divisions:
      • the 3rd Division under Lieutenant-General Count Rumyantsev, marched from Neuenburg by way of Tuchel (present-day Tuchola), Schneidemühl (present-day Piła) and Czarnikau (present-day Czarnków)
      • the 1st Division, under General-en-Chef Fermor, marched from Schwetz by way of Nakel, Rogasen (present-day Rogoźno) and Murowana-Goslin (present-day Murowana Goślina)
      • the 2nd Division, under General-en-Chef Count Browne, marched from Bromberg by way of Znin and Kletzko (present-day Kłecko).
  • Prussians
    • Goltz reached Naumburg/Bober (present-day Nowogród Bobrzański) with his corps.

Frederick ordered Prince Heinrich to concentrate his force and to march on the Russians. Prince Heinrich assembled the troops posted at Sagan and Sorau near Sommerfeld (present-day Lubsko).

On June 13, Prince Heinrich set off in two columns from Sommerfeld with his army. He himself advanced by way of Guben and Fürstenberg while Goltz marched by way of Crossen and Ziebingen (present-day Cybinka).

In mid-June, Tottleben resumed his offensive in East Pomerania. In Poland, most of Chernishev's Corps had reached Posen and secured a line of outposts extending from Wronke (present-day Wronki), to Birnbaum (present-day Międzychód), Tirschtiegel, Grätz (present-day Grodzisk Wielkopolski) and Schrimm (present-day Śrem).

On June 15

  • Russian attack on Greifenberg
    • Tottleben's Corps appeared before Greifenberg, which was defended by Colonel von Flanss with the Grenadier Battalion Schwerin, 2 sqns of Meinicke Dragoons and 2 sqns of Dingelstedt Hussars.
    • As General von Grabow, who was in Plathe, rushed to their aid with 1 bn of Jung-Schenckendorff Infantry, the Cossacks plundered Plathe, which was now devoid of troops.
    • Forcade then sent a detachment from Regenwalde which forced the Cossacks to retire from Plathe.
    • As soon as Grabow turned back to return to Plathe, Tottleben renewed his attack on Greifenberg. The town was bombarded by his artillery and fire broke out. Without any help in sight, Flanss finally accepted to capitulate under condition of free withdrawal.
    • Flanss was already on the road when he was joined by Grabow, who, at 9:00 p.m., had been ordered by Forcade to renew his attempt to relieve Greifenberg.
  • Prussians
    • Heinrich's and Goltz's columns made a junction at Frankfurt/Oder. Prince Heinrich then sent detached Major-General von der Gablentz with 4 bns (Thile Infantry, I./Garrison Regiment Alt-Sydow, II./Garrison Regiment Jung-Sydow, 7 sqns of the Ruesch Hussars and two 7-pdr howitzers by way of Landsberg towards East Pomerania. On his arrival, Gablentz would replace General von Forcade. Forcade and Gablentz had both been instructed to make a junction near Polzin, east of Schivelbein, on June 25.

On June 16

  • Prussians
    • Forcade concentrated his entire corps near Plathe. He now had the opportunity to cut Tottleben's line of retreat towards the Vistula by advancing on the right bank of the Rega River, but he did not dare to do it, having received intelligence that the Russians had 10,000 men with 30 artillery pieces in the area.
    • Forcade decided to abandon his positions along the Rega and to retire to Naugard (present-day Nowogard).
    • Upon receiving Prince Heinrich's orders, Forcade detached the Grenadier Battalion Schwerin, the Meinicke Dragoons, 2 sqns of Dingelstedt Hussars and 4 heavy artillery pieces to rejoin Gablentz's Corps. Forcade himself then retired with the rest of his corps by way of Dramburg and Neuwedell towards Driesen. Indeed, Prince Heinrich had also ordered him to take revenge on Totleben before or during his retreat with a surprise attack.
  • Russians
    • The Russians chose Posen as place-of-arms.

On June 17

  • Prussians
    • Gablentz set off from Frankfurt/Oder and marched by way of Cüstrin, Landsberg and Friedeberg to cover East Pomerania while Forcade would try to surprise part of Tottleben's Corps.
    • Informed that the Russians had crossed the Vistula and were on the march towards Posen, Prince Heinrich sent Major-General von Werner with I./Frei-Infanterie Wunsch and 3 sqns of Werner Hussars towards Driesen to take command of Thadden's detachment. Werner had been instructed to cover the right flank of Gablentz's detachment during its march towards East Pomerania. Werner then advanced from Driesen and took position at Neuwedell with I./Frei-Infanterie Wunsch, 2 sqns of Bayreuth Dragoons and 3 sqns of Werner Hussars; while Thadden remained at Friedeberg with his 3 bns.

On June 18

  • Prussians
    • Prince Heinrich marched from Frankfurt/Oder with 12 bns and 8 sqns by way of Cüstrin towards Landsberg.
  • Russians
    • Cossacks plundered the magazine in Gollnow (present-day Goleniów), behind the Prussian positions.

From Naugard, Forcade advanced towards Freienwalde. He finally decided to make a junction with Gablentz's Corps at Labes before advancing northwards to turn Tottleben's positions.

On June 22

  • Prussians
    • General von der Goltz set off from Frankfurt/Oder with 11 bns and 18 sqns and marched towards Drossen (present-day Ośno Lubuskie).
    • Colonel von Dinglestedt with 3 sqns of Dingelstedt Hussars, 200 cuirassiers and the Grenadier Battalion Busche took position at Zielenzig (present-day Sulęcin). The Grenadier Battalion Carlowitz remained in Frankfurt/Oder and 2 sqns of Dingelstedt Hussars in Müllrose.
    • Gablentz's Corps reached Reetz.
  • Russians
    • Tottleben's light troops kept him well informed of the movements of the Prussian corps. However, he had also received orders from Saltykov to move towards the Netze River (present-day Noteć River), he then decided to retire to Neustettin.

On June 24,

  • Russians
    • Tottleben's Corps reached Schivelbein and continued its march unmolested. However, its baggage were attacked on the road leading from Regenwalde to Schivelbein by a party of Ruesch Hussars under Lieutenant-Colonel von Lossow, who captured 150 men and many wagons.
  • Prussians
    • Forcade's and Gablentz's corps made a junction near Labes.
    • In the evening, Forcade realised that Tottleben's had escaped his trap.

On June 26, the 6 Russian cuirassier rgts under Lieutenant-General Prince Volkonski set off from Preussisch Stargard (present-day Starogard Gdański) and marched by way of Konitz and Nakel towards Posen. Major-General Yeropkin followed them with 4 dragoon rgts and 2 horse grenadier rgts, marching from Thorn on the left wing of the army.

At the end of June, Tottleben advanced from Neustettin to Märkisch-Friedland (present-day Mirosławiec).

On June 30, Saltykov confirmed to the Austrian FZM Loudon that he had received orders from St. Petersburg instructing him to march on Breslau and support Loudon's enterprises against this city.

In June, the Russian Konferéntsiya had also revisited the plan of a siege of Colberg, which had already been considered in February. Russia wanted to get a fortified base of operation for its army in Eastern Pomerania. Furthermore, this fortress could then be used as a bargaining chip for the permanent cession of East Prussia to Russia during peace negotiations. The operation against Colberg was intended to be completely independent of the operations of the main army. The fortress was to be surrounded and taken under concentric fire from land and sea. For this purpose, a squadron of 21 ships of the line, 3 frigates and 3 bombs was assembled at Kronstadt and Reval (present-day Tallinn/EE) under Admiral Mishukov. In addition, there was a transport fleet of 40 ships, which would transport a landing corps of about 6,000 infantry (mostly recruits) and artillery and the necessary siege equipment to Colberg. This corps would be placed under the command of Major-General Demidov.

On July 1, Forcade set off from Schivelbein and retired towards Landsberg.

On July 2

On July 3

  • Russians
    • Browne's 2nd Division reached Posen.
    • The advance of the other two divisions was delayed when the Russian generals learned that Prince Heinrich was approaching the Polish border with 40,000 men by way of Frankfurt/Oder. It now became necessary to secure the right flank before resuming the advance with these two corps. Totleben was recalled from Eastern Pomerania for this purpose. While waiting for his arrival, the 3rd and 1st Divisions halted on the Netze River.

When Prince Heinrich was informed that Totleben's Corps was leaving Eastern Pomerania and marching towards the Netze River, he recalled his own troops from Pomerania and sent Goltz's Corps eastwards.

On July 5

On July 8, the Rizhskiy Horse Grenadiers and Sankt-Peterburgskiy Horse Grenadiers, belonging to Chernishev's Corps, finally reached Posen.

Prince Heinrich was still uncertain about the intentions of the Russian generals. From their positions at Posen, they could advance on Frankfurt, Crossen, Glogau or Breslau. From his present positions between Zielenzig, Landsberg and Driesen, Prince Heinrich could hinder the march of the Russian army towards Frankfurt and Crossen. However, if the Russians decided to march on Glogau or Breslau, they could easily reached these places before him. Prince Heinrich finally decided to move closer to the Russian army.

On July 9, Prince Heinrich established a pontoon-bridge near Landsberg.

On July 12, Prince Heinrich began to cross the Warthe River (present-day Warta).

In the first half of July, the troops of generals Forcade and Gablentz returned to Landsberg, while Werner's detachment advanced to Driesen. Gablentz had also recalled the Grenadier Battalion Benckendorff from Colberg. Major-General von Werner was at the head of:

On July 14, Prince Heinrich encamped at Gleißen (present-day Glisno) with 7 bns and 15 sqns and extended his lines to protect the country from Russian raids.

Until July 16, General von der Goltz was posted with 11 bns and 20 sqns between Kloster Paradies (a monastery in the village of Gościkowo) and Meseritz. He had sent Major-General von Spaen forward with 6 bns and 10 sqns to Alt-Höfchen an der Obra (present-day Stary Dworek). Werner's detachment (6 bns, 13 bns) advanced to Birnbaum but II./Diericke Fusiliers was left in Driesen. Prince Heinrich had left Grenadier Battalion Benckendorff and II./Garrison-Regiment Jung-Sydow in Landsberg, Grenadier Battalion Schwartz and 2 sqns of Ruesch Hussars in Terek (unidentified location), Queiss Infantry in Königswalde (present-day Lubniewice), and Grenadier Battalion Bähr and Manteuffel Infantry in Osterwalde (unidentified location). From his new positions, Prince Heinrich could still hinder any advance of the Russians towards Frankfurt/Oder and Crossen, but he was better posted to move swiftly towards Glogau.

On July 16 and 17, the Russian 3rd and 1st Divisions finally reached Posen.

On July 17

  • Russians
    • Count Saltykov had now completed the concentration his army at Posen. His army consisted of 60,000 regulars and 7,000 Cossacks. Rumours indicated that a separate corps, under Fermor, would join Tottleben's Cossacks and besiege Colberg.
  • Prussians
    • Prince Heinrich was informed by a spy that the Russians were planning to march on Breslau, by way of Kalisch (present-day Kalisz). This spy estimated the Russian forces to approx. 70,000 men, of whom 10,000 were already assembled near Posen.

At about this time, Tauentzien, who was posted at Breslau, informed Prince Heinrich of Loudon's movements.

On July 20, Saltykov sent Chernishev with his vanguard to Winkowitz (unidentified location).

On July 23, Frederick urged Prince Heinrich to attack Loudon in Silesia before the arrival of the Russians.

On July 25, Frederick informed Prince Heinrich of his intention to march towards Silesia with his own army.

By July 26

  • Russians
    • Saltykov had his depots at Siradin (unidentified location) and Kalisch and considered how to get it carted out in case of an advance of Prince Heinrich’s forces.
    • Saltykov had finally decided to besiege Glogau. But St. Petersburg rather ordered to besiege Breslau. Therefore, Saltykov started from Posen in 3 columns with 45,000 men, faster than usual, and marched southwards to Moschin (present-day Mosina).
    • Chernishev remained at Winkowitz with the vanguard.
  • Prussians
    • Prince Heinrich, still at Gleißen, answered Frederick that, with the approach of the Russians, he was unable to march against Loudon, because this would leave Frankfurt/Oder and Berlin defenceless. Furthermore, he doubted that he could successfully storm Loudon's entrenchments along the Katzbach.
From this point the operations of Saltykov's Russian army and Prince Heinrich's Prussian army, which were both heading for Silesia are described in our article 1760 - Austro-Russian campaign in Silesia.

Siege of Colberg

In July, a few Russian ships reconnoitred the roadstead of Colberg.

On August 10, Russian ships sailed from Kronstadt to make a junction with another squadron sailing from Reval.

In mid-August, a cossack regiment took position at Stargard to cover, the enterprise against Colberg from any intervention from the Prussian force posted at Stettin.

On August 26, a Russian fleet arrived in front of Colberg with an army of 8,000 men to lay siege to Colberg by land and see.

On August 27, this fleet was joined by a Swedish squadron.

The Siege of Colberg really lasted from August 26, when bombardment began, to September 21, after a relief force under Major-General Paul von Werner entered Colberg.

Raid on Berlin

In September, Saltykov fell sick and Fermor took command of the Russian army.

On September 11, after endless prevarications about various joint plans of operation, Fermor finally made his mind for the plan proposed by Montalembert, the French ambassador, calling for a concentration at Frankfurt-an-der-Oder and then a rapid advance on Berlin with a strong corps. Accordingly, the Russian army left Herrnstadt and marched to Guhrau (present-day Góra Śląska). A force of 20,000 Russians under Chernishev with Tottleben as second in command was assigned to this task. The Russian plan for the attack on Berlin called for Tottleben's Cossacks Corps, reinforced with 2,000 grenadiers, 2 horse grenadier rgts and all light troops; to march with all speed by Guben (present-day Gubin) and Beeskow. Meanwhile, the Russian vanguard under Chernishev would take position on the Spree to support Tottleben. A third part of the Russian Army would take post at Guben while Rumyantsev would remain in observation at Crossen on the right bank of the Oder.

On September 13, Fermor quitted Guhrau and marched towards Carolath.

On September 19, Fermor reached Carolath. He was now only 43 km from Frankfurt-an-der-Oder and 130 km from Berlin.

On September 20, Tottleben with a vanguard of 5,000 men crossed the Oder at Beuthen in Sagan Country and marched directly upon Berlin. This vanguard consisted of:

N.B.: the German Grossergeneralstab work (vol. 14) also mentions the Gruzinskiy Hussars as being part of Tottleben's vanguard.

On September 22 in Silesia, Lacy and Loudon considered that the general situation was ideal to send a corps directly towards Berlin. Plunkett had been instructed to invite Fermor to take part in these operations. Daun wanted to wait for Fermor's answer before executing this plan.

In the night of September 25 to 26, Major-General Count Tottleben set off from his camp near Schönau (present-day Świerzawa) and hurried by way of Sagan, Guben, Beeskow and Storkow to take Berlin by surprise. To conceal his departure, the Vengerskiy Hussars and 2 Cossack rgts were left behind near Schönau.

On September 26

  • Russians
    • While on his way, Tottleben was reinforced with 4 grenadier bns and 2 horse grenadier rgts with 15 howitzers and unicorns.
      • Melgunov's Cavalry Brigade (about 900 men)
      • Bachmann's Grenadier Brigade (about 1,800 men)
        • Converged Grenadier Battalion of Colonel Maslov (3 coys)
        • Converged Grenadier Battalion of Lieutenant-Colonel Prince Prozorovski (3 coys)
        • Converged Grenadier Battalion of Lieutenant-Colonel Burman (3 coys)
        • Converged Grenadier Battalion of Major Patkul (3 coys)
      • Artillery under Lieutenant-Colonel Glebov
        • 2 x Shuvalov howitzers
        • 2 x 190 mm unicorns
        • 5 x 150 mm unicorns
        • 2 x 120 mm unicorns
        • 4 x 100 mm unicorns
    • Tottleben reached Rückersdorf (present-day Siecieborzyce). With the recent reinforcements, he was now at the head of 3 hussar rgts, 3 Cossack rgts, 2 horse grenadier rgts, and 4 grenadier bns with 15 howitzers and unicorns for a total of 5,600 men (1,000 hussars, 1,400 Cossacks, 1,200 horse grenadiers, 2,000 grenadiers).
      N.B.: the grenadiers forming the converged grenadier battalions came from the 1st Grenadier, 2nd Grenadier, 3rd Grenadier, 4th Grenadier, 2nd Moscowskiy Infantry and Kievskiy Infantry (2 coys from each rgt).
    • Lieutenant-General Count Chernishev set off from his camp near Rengersdorf (probably present-day Krosnowice) with 7 infantry rgts and a few Cossacks, a total of approx. 12,000 men, and marched by way of Freystadt (present-day Kożuchów), Sommerfeld (present-day Lubsko) and Guben. He had sent all the cavalry of his former vanguard back to the main army. He had been instructed to follow Tottleben's Corps by way of Guben and Beeskow and to take position near Fürstenwalde to cover his operations. This did not satisfy Tottleben, who had asked for Chernishev's Corps to march up to Frankfurt/Oder and to send a brigade on the road leading to Berlin to cover his own march. Fermor had instructed Tottleben to put Berlin to contribution after the capture of the place, to bring back two magistrates and a merchant as hostages and to raze the arsenal, the artillery foundry, all armouries and cloth manufactures.
    • The 1st and 3rd Divisions of the Russian main army crossed the Oder and encamped near Költsch (unidentified location) and Beuthen, while the 2nd Division remained near Carolath on the north bank of the river, under the command of Lieutenant-General Count Rumyantsev.
    • Fermor was informed that General Werner had managed to relieve Colberg. He immediately sent orders to General von Oliz to redirect his march towards Posen and to secure the important magazines located there against any Prussian enterprise from Eastern Pomerania or Silesia.

On September 27

  • Russians
    • Tottleben's Corps reached Sorau.
    • Chernishev's Corps reached Christianstadt (present-day Krzystkowice).
    • One of Daun's officers arrived at the Russian camp with a message confirming that Daun agreed with the advance of the Russian army into Brandenburg and towards Berlin, and that he himself would not send a corps into Brandenburg until Frederick had made detachments against the Russians. Plunkett had meanwhile informed the Prince of Zweibrücken and G.d.C. Hadik of the plan of the Russians, so that they both could prevent the Prussian Lieutenant-General von Hülsen from sending a relief corps towards Berlin.

On September 28

  • Russians
    • Tottleben experienced some problems to resupply his corps and was delayed at Sorau. He finally managed to resume his march in the afternoon, continuing his advance during the night.
    • Chernishev rested his troops near Christianstadt.
    • The 1st and 3rd Divisions of the Russian main army marched from Költsch and Beuthen towards Grünberg.
  • Austrians
    • Fermor's positive answer finally arrived at Daun's headquarters in Silesia. In the meantime, Daun had decided not to use Loudon's Corps (25,000 men) for the operations against Berlin, but to send the much weaker Lacy's Corps (18,000 men), because it would take longer to Frederick to notice its departure from Lang-Waltersdorf (present-day Unisław Śląski) while Loudon's Corps was posted too close to the Prussians to benefit from this advantage.
    • Lacy's Corps set off from Lang-Waltersdorf and, in the following days, marched by way of Goldberg (present-day Złotoryja) and Bunzlau (present-day Bolesławiec).
  • Prussians
    • The Prussian garrison of Frankfurt/Oder consisted of Landbataillon de Rège and of 2 sqns of selected troops under Lieutenant-Colonel von Podewils, they had been detached by Prince Heinrich at the end of June.

In the night of September 28 and 29, the small Prussian garrison of Frankfurt/Oder, informed of the approach of a Russian corps, retired towards Cüstrin.

On September 29

  • Russians
    • Tottleben's Corps reached Guben, after a march of 50 km. There he was informed that a Prussian detachment (1,600 foot and 2 sqns under Lieutenant-Colonel Podewils) was posted near Frankfurt/Oder and that Beeskow was also occupied by a small Prussian detachment. Tottleben then sent a reconnaissance party towards Frankfurt/Oder by way of Beeskow. On its way, this party found Beeskow free of Prussian troops.
    • Chernishev's Corps marched from Christianstadt to Sommerfeld.
    • Rumyantsev marched with the 2nd Division from Carolath towards Crossen. On the way, a detachment of his division skirmished with outposts of Goltz's Corps.
  • Austrians
    • In Silesia, once out of sight of Frederick, Lacy whirled, at a furious rate of speed, into the opposite direction. Its real destination being Berlin. It took a while before Frederick realized that Berlin was under attack.
  • Prussians
    • At bout this time, Lieutenant-General Rochow, commander in Berlin, learned from a lawyer from Glogau, who did private business for Tottleben in Berlin, that a Russian expedition against the capital was underway.

On September 30

  • Russians
    • Tottleben's Corps set off from Guben and reached Beeskow after a march of 48 km. During the last forced marches, the infantry's baggage was carried on wagons, so that the troops only had to carry their muskets and ammunition. The artillery horses proved ineffective, and Tottleben had to requisition more than 100 horses along the way so that his guns could keep up with his infantry.
    • Chernishev's Corps reached the vicinity of Guben.
    • The 1st and 3rd Divisions of the Russian main army reached Bobersberg (present-day Bobrowice).
    • The 2nd Division of the Russian army was posted near Züllichau (present-day Sulechów).
    • One of Daun's officers arrived at the Russian headquarters with the surprising news that Daun had detached a corps of approx. 19,000 men from all arms under FZM Count Lacy to assist the Russians in their enterprise against Berlin. This corps had already reached Bunzlau.
  • Austrians
    • Lacy sent a messenger to the Russian headquarters to inform Fermor that the Austrian corps would reach Freiwaldau (present-day Gozdnica) on October 1 and Lübben, by way of Triebel (present-day Trzebiel) and Peitz, on October 4.
  • Prussians
    • Lieutenant-General Baron von der Goltz sent a messenger to Frederick to inform him of the march of the Russian army. It is said that, for days, he looked as if he had been struck by lightning.
    • Rochow received confirmation of the march of a Russian corps on Berlin by an outpost of Provincial Hussars at Beeskow. As soon as the first reliable news of the approach of the Russians had arrived, the generals recovering in Berlin went to the commander to discuss with him what was to be done. Kircheisen, the president of the city and Lieutenant-General Margrave Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg-Schwedt took part in this council. It was agreed that the capital should be defended at all cost despite its weak defensive works. Of course, an attempt had to be made to get reinforcements. The corps of Prince Eugen von Württemberg was posted near Zehdenick, observing the movements of the Swedish army; while Lieutenant-General von Hülsen was posted in Saxony and, at first, his intervention was not expected. However, all these forces were days away and the defenders of Berlin decided to place artillery pieces in the flèches in front of the gates. All able-bodied men were mustered and assigned to the Halle, Cottbus and Silesian gates, which would be the most seriously threatened.

At that time, Lieutenant-General Seydlitz, Major-General von Knobloch and Major-General Baron von Lentulus were in Berlin, still recovering from wounds they received in the Battle of Kunersdorf. During the next critical days, they motivated Lieutenant-General von Rochow, the commander of the place, through their determination and energy. Old Field-Marshal Lehwaldt was governor of Berlin. Together, they intervened to help and tried to boost the morale of the defenders.

On October 1

  • Russians
    • Tottleben rested his troops in the vicinity of Beeskow. However, he sent forward a detachment of hussars and Cossacks, which captured a few Prussian hussars at an outpost near Fürstenwalde. It also intercepted a convoy transporting flour.
    • Tottleben's reconnaissance party reached Frankfurt/Oder, where it established communication with troops belonging to Chernishev's Corps. The gates of Frankfurt were closed and the drawbridges lifted. However, the Russians knew that the Prussian garrison had evacuated the place, so a few Cossacks climbed the walls and opened the gates. The Russians then entered the town and ordered to raise a heavy contribution.
    • Chernishev's Corps reached Müllrose. Until then, he had had almost no cavalry, but he received a reinforcement of 10 cuirassiers sqns, who joined him in Fürstenwalde.
    • Fermor held a council of war to inform his generals of the arrival of an Austrian corps. He also suggested to Tottleben and Chernishev that they should establish communication with Lacy as soon as the latter would reach Peitz, to synchronize their operations.
    • At Tottleben's request, Fermor sent Brigadier Krasnoshtchokow towards Storkow with a few Cossack rgts. This detachment was expected to reach Storkow on October 3.
  • Prussians
    • Rochow sent a messenger to the Prince of Württemberg to inform him that a Russian corps was threatening Berlin and that he badly needed his support.
    • Goltz was informed that Lacy's Corps was probably in the vicinity of Goldberg.

On October 2

  • Russians
    • Tottleben marched by way of Storkow towards Königs-Wusterhausen. His infantry and artillery arrived very late at the camp of Königs-Wusterhausen. They were followed by the horse grenadiers two hours later.
    • A party of Cossacks belonging to Tottleben's Corps attacked a patrol belonging to Hülsen's Corps. From the prisoners, Tottleben learned that Hülsen's Corps (approx. 6,000 men) was posted at Wittenberg on the right bank of the Elbe. Tottleben was also informed that a corps of approx. 8,000 men under the Prince of Württemberg arriving from the Uckermark was approaching Berlin. Tottleben decided to launch his attack against Berlin on the next day. He asked Chernishev to support him and to cover the rear of his corps.
    • Chernishev's Corps marched from Müllrose to Fürstenwalde.
    • Rumyantsev reached Crossen with the 2nd Division after having marched by way of Boyadel (present-day Bojadła) and Züllichau.
    • Fermor informed Lacy that Tottleben would reach Storkow that day.
  • Prussians
    • The garrison of Berlin consisted of 3 bns, 1 dragoon rgt, and a few hussar sqns. The commander of the place had placed artillery pieces in front of the gates of the capital.
    • Fleeing peasants arrived in Berlin and caused the greatest consternation with their exaggerated stories.
    • The Prince of Württemberg, who commanded the small Prussian army facing the Swedes, set off from Zehdenick and marched to Templin (74 km north of Berlin).
    • Goltz received new orders from Frederick, instructing him to first march in the direction of Torgau but to then turn right and to get ahead of the Russians on the road to Berlin and make a junction with the corps of the Prince of Württemberg arriving from the Uckermark.
    • Goltz received a small reinforcements (Lieutenant-Colonel von Lossow with 4 sqns of Ruesch Hussars and 3 sqns of Werner Hussars) from Breslau.
    • Frederick was informed that Lacy was marching towards Bunzlau with a small Austrian corps to make a junction with Beck's Corps.
    • When he heard of the raid on Berlin, Hülsen resolved to abandon Saxony and to march to the relief of the city with his 9,000 men.

After Hadik's raid on Berlin in 1757, the local military and civil authorities of the city had realised how poorly Berlin was defended. The commander and the magistrates all agreed to use the unpaid remainder of the contributions demanded by Hadik to complete the fortifications of the place. On the southern bank of the Spree, these fortifications only consisted of a wall dating back to the time of the Great Elector, they started in the west on the bank of the Spree and reached the Silesian Gate. These fortifications had now been extended eastward to the Oberbaum Bridge, which crossed the Spree. In addition, flèche earthworks were established in front of all entrances on the south side of the city and wooden structure were erected at the most important points behind the city wall so that the infantry could fire over the top of the wall. Furthermore, a ditch extended along the entire southern side of the city, representing a significant obstacle. On the other hand, things were much worse in the district north of the Spree, which was only surrounded by a palisade. Oddly enough, nothing had been done to better secure this side of the city. So three years later, the capital of the Prussian state was still very poorly protected against a surprise attack.

The garrison of Berlin (1,500 men) was of poor quality and too small to effectively defend the place. It consisted of only 2 bns of the Garrison Regiment Itzenplitz, 1 bn of the Land-Regiment Lüderitz (aka Berliner Garrison Regiment) and 1 sqn of Provincial Hussars. However, there was a large number of convalescents in Berlin including many hussars. The commander of the place had already organised these horsemen in 5 sqns, totalling 500 men. A few recruit depots in the city also provided a very desirable addition to the garrison.

On Friday October 3

  • Russians
    • Early in the morning, Tottleben set off from Königs-Wusterhausen with his Cossacks and hussars and hurried towards Berlin. He rested his infantry at Oranienburg for a few hours while the cavalry continued its march.
    • Around 10:00 a.m., the first Cossack patrols of Tottleben's Corps appeared on the Roll-Berg before the Cottbus Gate.
    • Around 11:00 a.m., Tottleben himself arrived on the Roll-Berg, in front of the Cottbus Gate. He sent an officer to summon the commander of Berlin to surrender, requiring instant admittance and a ransom of four million thalers. Rochow rejected this request, pretending that Berlin was well-manned with troops and artillery, and that he was expecting reinforcements quite soon. Meanwhile, the horse grenadiers and part of the artillery had joined Tottleben. Three howitzers were immediately deployed on the Roll-Berg.
    • When Tottleben's messenger returned with Rochow's answer, the three howitzers on the Roll-Berg opened against the entrenchments in front of the Cottbus Gate. However, this bombardment did not cause much damage, because most of the houses were quite far behind the gate. The Prussian guns in the defensive work in front of the Cottbus Gate answered so effectively that the Russians had to stop firing and to move their howitzers into cover behind the ridge of the Roll-Berg.
    • Around 2:00 p.m., Tottleben's infantry and the rest of his artillery joined him. He deployed all his artillery pieces north of the Hasenheide, midway between the Halle Gate and the Cottbus Gate and directed their fire against the flèche in front of the Halle Gate and the quarter of Friedrichstadt. In these news positions, the Russian artillery was well protected by a large timber-store and the Prussian artillery could not accomplish much against it. However, the bombardment had little effect and failed to to cause any major fire. Nevertheless, the shelling caused a number of townspeople to leave the city, and the ministers of the General Directorate also took the chancellery and the most important files to safety in Rathenow. The queen, royal family, archives, principal ministries and the cabinet had already taken refuge in Magdeburg since the spring.
    • Between 4:00 and 5:00 p.m, the defenders of the Halle Gate moved their guns to other positions and managed to take the Russian batteries in flank.
    • Around 5:00 p.m., Tottleben temporarily interrupted the bombardment and moved his artillery to new positions. The heavy pieces were concentrated on the heights in front of the Halle Gate, while the smaller pieces were divided to fire on both gates.
    • Deserters informed Tottleben that only 3 unreliable bns and some cavalry defended Berlin. Tottleben decided to storm the Halle Gate and the Cottbus Gate during the next night. Two columns, each of 300 grenadiers with 2 guns, were formed to lead the assault. Each of these columns would be supported by 200 grenadiers, 1 horse grenadier sqn and 1 hussar sqn.
    • Around 9:00 p.m., all Russian batteries began to cannonade Berlin and the two targeted gates. The inhabitants of Friedrichstadt, who had returned to their home, evacuated them again. Bombardment continued through the night, however, it proved once more to be rather ineffective.
    • Chernishev reached Fürstenwalde, 55 km from Berlin.
    • Fermor marched from Bobersberg towards Guben with the 1st and 3rd Divisions. It had originally been intended to assemble the army there, but Saltykov ordered to continue the advance on Frankfurt/Oder. From this new position, the Russians would be better able to prevent Prussian reinforcements arriving from the Uckermark and Saxony from reaching Berlin.
  • Prussians
    • In the morning, the arrival of the Cossacks became known in Berlin, Rochow sent a party of hussars to reconnoitre from the Cottbus Gate towards the Roll-Berg. These hussars soon came to grip with Cossacks, who captured a number of hussars and drove the rest back towards the gate. Soon afterwards, additional Russian troops appeared on the heights in front of the Halle and Cottbus gates.
    • Hülsen left Wittenberg and marched to Coswig (Anhalt).
    • At Templin, Prince Eugen received Rochow's message. Since Frederick had specifically ordered to protect Berlin at all cost, he abandoned his designs against the Swedes and force marched towards the capital. To face the Swedes, he left only Colonel Belling with the Belling Hussars, 2 sqns of Zieten Hussars and Freiregiment Hordt at Flieth, some 21 km to the north-east of Templin.
    • Goltz received new orders instructing him to keep his corps in readiness in the vicinity of Torgau so that he could come to the assistance of Lieutenant-General von Hülsen in Saxony or hurry to Berlin, depending on the circumstances.

In the night of October 3 to 4

  • Russian attack
    • At midnight, Tottleben launched the assaults on the Halle Gate and Cottbus Gate. The Russians met fierce resistance. The left column managed to get close to the Halle Gate and to hold its ground there for two hours. But the heavy grapeshot and musket fire from the Prussians forced them to withdraw without having accomplished their task. The attack of the right column against the Cottbus Gate was not more successful. The attack on the Halle Gate had been driven back by Field Marshal Lehwaldt, assisted by generals Knobloch and Rochow with 150 men of the Garrison Regiment Itzenplitz. In this affair, the Russians had lost 1 officer and 22 men killed; and 3 officers and 68 men wounded.
  • Prussians
    • The cavalry vanguard of Prince Eugen of Württemberg arrived at Berlin. The rest of his corps, numbering 5,000 men, was expected the next day.


On October 4

  • Russians
    • Lieutenant-General Count Chernishev was informed of Tottleben's unsuccessful attempt at storming Berlin. he had also received repeated requests for reinforcements. He decided to send an infantry brigade to the assistance of Tottleben.
    • Around 5:00 a.m., Tottleben's artillery interrupted its bombardment.
    • At daybreak, the Russians saw a reconnaissance party of Prussian dragoons at the Halle Gate and they soon came to the conclusion that these dragoons belonged to Württemberg’s Corps, which had been reported as force marching towards Berlin. This was soon confirmed by Prussian deserters.
    • In the morning, Tottleben received a message of Lieutenant-Colonel Zvetinovitch, who had been detached towards Potsdam with 1 hussar rgt and 1 cossack rgt to destroy the local musket factory and the bridge over the Havel. This message informed Tottleben that a Prussian detachment had already reached Potsdam and established a camp near the town. It was not without reason that Tottleben suspected that Lieutenant-General von Hülsen's troops were already in the area, especially since rumours of this corps' approach had already reached him. Furthermore, since his troops were in bad conditions after the forced marched of the previous days and since most of his artillerymen had become unusable and a lot of ammunition had been used up, and as supplies were also becoming scarce and the support requested from Chernishev had still not shown up, Tottleben began to feel insecure in his current position. It now seemed necessary to first establish communication with Chernishev's Corps stationed near Fürstenwalde in order to obtain artillery equipment, ammunition and provisions. The shortest supply route would be along the Spree by way of Köpenick. Accordingly Tottleben instructed Brigadier Bachmann to make himself master of this town with the grenadiers, 1 hussar rgt and 1 cossack rgt. Meanwhile, Tottleben remained idle with the rest of his troops near Tempelhof. Part of his Cossacks skirmished with Prussian reconnaissance parties.
    • Around noon, Tottleben received a message from Bachmann, informing him that the Prussians were occupying Köpenick and had established a bridge on the Spree. Tottleben immediately rode to Köpenick and summoned the Prussian officers defending the town to surrender. When they refused to comply, the regimental pieces of the Russians shelled the town and soon set fire to the royal stables. Fearing that the town would be reduced to ashes, the Prussian officer and his 50 men surrendered as prisoners of war. Bachmann's troops then encamped on the northern bank of the Spree, near Köpenick.
    • In the evening, the rest of Tottleben's forces, which had remained at Tempelhof joined him at the new camp near Köpenick. They were replaced at Tempelhof by the detachment of Lieutenant-Colonel Zvetinovitch, which was returning from Potsdam. Once more, Tottleben asked Chernishev for reinforcements.
    • The 1st and 3rd Divisions marched from Guben to Fünfeichen, while the 2nd Division marched from Crossen towards Aurich (unidentified location).
  • Austrians
    • In the evening, Lacy, after marching from Silesia at a furious rate, arrived in the environs with an Austrian corps of 18,000 men. This corps consisted of 8 infantry rgts, 12 grenadier coys, 3 bns of Grenzer light troops, 1 Austrian cavalry rgt, 4 Saxon cavalry rgts, 2 Austrian hussar rgts and 2 Saxon uhlan rgts.
  • Prussians
    • In the afternoon, the infantry of Württemberg’s Corps reached Berlin. The townpeople were still confident that the Russians would retire. Even FM Lehwaldt was of this opinion. Prince Eugen rested his exhausted troops in Berlin and Dohna Infantry encamped in front of the Halle Gate.
    • Hülsen marched to Belzig in Brandenburg.
    • Frederick was informed of the desperate situation in Saxony and immediately ordered Goltz to advance towards Liegnitz to make a junction with his own army so that Frederick could march towards Saxony or Berlin.

In the night of October 4 to 5, Chernishev sent an infantry brigade from his camp near Fürstenwalde to Köpenick.

On October 5

    • Sortie of the Prussians
    • The Prince of Württemberg, informed that only a small Russian detachment was still posted at Tempelhof, made a sortie from the Halle Gate and Cottbus Gate against this detachment. Zvetinovitch escaped in time and retreated to Köpenick by way of Nixdorf, pursued by the prince whose cavalry repeatedly attacked the Russian detachment until it reached the Cöln Heath and received support from Tottleben.
  • Russians
  • Austrians
    • Lacy, who had reached Luckau with his corps, sent a message to Fermor to inform him that he planned to reach Berlin on October 9.
  • Prussians
    • The Prince of Württemberg established a camp south of Berlin on the ridge of the Weinberg (present-day Kreuzberg), leaving patrols to observe the movements of the Russians.
    • Hülsen marched to Beelitz.

On October 6

  • Russians
    • Early in the morning, answering Chernishev demand for assistance, the Russian 1st Division under Lieutenant-General Panin along with an artillery brigade set off from Frankfurt/Oder with the necessary ammunition and train, and reached Fürstenwalde in the evening.
    • Chernishev rested his troops while the damaged carriages and wheels of Totleben's guns were repaired.
    • Chernishev and Totleben, escorted by light troops, reconnoitred the positions of the Prussians to the north-east of Berlin. The Cossacks drove back the Prussian cavalry outposts and approached close to the camp of the Prince of Württemberg before being chased away by the artillery. The two Russian generals got the impression that they had to expect tough resistance from the Prussians, especially since, according to the news they had received, the arrival of the Prince of Württemberg had increased their strength to approx. 9,500 foot and 2,000 horse.
    • Realising that every day the garrison of Berlin could receive reinforcements, Chernishev and Totleben then scheduled the attack for October 7, since, if necessary, Panin's Division could also intervene from Fürstenwalde during the course of this assault. Totleben would attack the southern defensive works, while Chernishev would attack the Prussian forces posted to the north-east of Berlin. For these attacks, Chernishve transferred 2 infantry rgts and 2 heavy artillery pieces under Brigadier Benkendorf to Totleben's Corps. For his part, Totleben transferred the Moldavskiy Hussars to Chernishev's Corps.
    • The main Russian army established a camp near Lossow, south of Frankfurt/Oder.
  • Prussians
    • In the morning, with Chernishev and Lacy approaching Berlin, the Prince of Württemberg sent Dohna Infantry (2 bns), Lehwaldt Infantry (2 bns), Hesse-Kassel Fusiliers (1 bn), Plettenberg Dragoons (5 sqns), a few hundreds convalescent cavalrymen and hussars, and the sqn of Landhussar under Major von Zedmar to take position on the heights to the north-east of Berlin. To defend the southern front, Eugen kept only Kanitz Infantry (2 bns), Grabow Fusiliers (1 bn) and 200 horse, which were posted on the heights of the Weinberg in front of the Halle Gate.
    • The Prince of Württemberg sent a messenger to Lieutenant-General Hülsen to inform him of the danger threatening the capital and to ask for support.
    • In the evening, Hülsen, who was in Beelitz, received Württemberg’s message. He immediately detached Major-General von Kleist with 6 bns, 12 sqns and a few artillery pieces towards Berlin. More precisely, this detachment consisted of:
    • Kleist's detachment marched by way of Saarmund towards Rudow, in an attempt to attack the rear of the Russian positions south of Berlin.
    • The Salmuth Fusiliers arrived at Potsdam with the provisions and field bakery of Hülsen's Corps. There, the II./Grant Fusiliers assumed the guard of the convoy. Major von Cordier received an order from the Prince of Württemberg to join his force at Berlin with the Salmuth Fusiliers.
    • Goltz received Frederick's last orders to join him in the vicinity of Liegnitz.
Map of the siege of Berlin in October 1760.
 I. City of Berlin
II. Prussian positions
III. Leontiev's Corps
IV. Panin's infantry
V. Cuirasiers under Haugreven (15 sqns)
VI. Ryazanskiy Horse Grenadiers (3 sqns)
VII. Moldavskiy Hussars, Krasnoszczekow Don Cossacks, 2nd Krasnoszczekov Don Cossacks and Slaviano-Serbian Hussars
VIII. Rest of Tottleben's corps
Source: Dmitrij F. Masslowski - Courtesy: Prinz Henrich's collection


On October 7

  • Russians
    • Chernishev’s Attack
      • At daybreak, as planned, the two Russian corps set off from Köpenick and advanced on both sides of the Spree. Chernishev directed his march by way of Friedrichsfelde towards the positions of Prince Eugen von Württemberg between the roads leading from Berlin to Friedrichsfelde and Heinersdorf. In front of Eugen's right wing, a battery, covered by a small detachment, had been established close to the southern outskirts of Lichtenberg.
      • As Chernishev's column approached Lichtenberg, the Prussian battery opened. Chernishev immediately deployed all his artillery, which soon silenced the Prussian battery, the third shot hitting an ammunition cart which exploded, damaging 3 heavy artillery pieces and making them unmovable. The remaining Prussian pieces precipitously retired under escort to Eugen's main positions.
      • Chernishev did not dare to attack Eugen's positions with his remaining 5 infantry rgts, especially since he expected to receive significant reinforcements from Panin's Division. Accordingly, he occupied the heights overlooking the Prussian positions between the roads leading from Berlin to Hohenschönhausen and Friedrichsfelde. The Russians also captured the 3 heavy artillery pieces left behind by the Prussians in the abandoned battery.
      • For the rest of the day, Chernishev's cavalry skirmished with the Prussian cavalry while the Russian artillery quite ineffectually fired on Eugen's positions.
    • Totleben’s Attack
      • Soon after daybreak, the vanguard of Totleben's column reached Rixdorf, on the south side of Berlin. It came to contact with a Prussian detachment (around 100 cuirassiers, dragoons and hussars). The Prussians boldly attacked the far more numerous Russian vanguard, but were easily defeated. In this affair, the Prussians lost 19 men killed while the rest of the detachment (4 officers and 80 men) were taken prisoners.
      • Advancing from Rixdorf, Totleben then occupied the heights in front of the Cottbus Gate with 2 Cossack rgts, the Serbskiy Hussars, a squadron of horse grenadiers and 2 unicorns. With the rest of his troops, he turned left towards the Halle Gate, but he found the heights of the Wein-Berg occupied by Prussian troops. Totleben then unlimbered his artillery pieces north of Tempelhof. They opened a lively fire against the Prussian positions. His infantry then advanced under cover of his artillery. After a long cannonade, Totleben decided to launch an attack against the Prussians, whose left wing had already retired behind the ridge of the Wein-Berg to escape the fire of the Russian artillery.
      • At this moment, Totleben was informed that a Prussian infantry column with artillery was approaching on the road leading from Potsdam to Schöneberg. Shortly before, Totleben had learned from a prisoner that a detachment belonging to Hülsen's Corps was on the march towards Berlin. It was Kleist's detachment (approx. 6,000 men) marching on the road leading from Saarmund to Berlin.
      • Totleben considered that he was in no position to risk an attack against the Wein-Berg as another Prussian detachment was approaching. He then ordered to postpone the assault and to withdraw the artillery. Totleben then rode with the Horvath Hussars and 4 light unicorns towards the Prussian column advancing from Potsdam. He should be followed by 1,000 grenadiers and 1 horse grenadier rgt with some heavy artillery pieces. The rest of his corps remained on the heights of Tempelhof and in front of the Cottbus Gate to cover his positions.
      • Between Schöneberg and Steglitz, Totleben came to contact with the Salmuth Fusiliers (2 bns with 4 battalion guns) under Major von Cordier. The Horvath Hussars attacked and threw the Prussian fusiliers in disorder but were unable to take advantage of the situation because Totleben's other troops had not yet arrived. This allowed Cordier to escape and, marching by way of Schöneberg, to join the Prussian troops deployed in front of the Halle Gate.
      • The Cossacks then set fire to the town of Schöneberg.
      • During this time, Totleben received a message from FZM Count Lacy, informing him that his cavalry would arrive soon and that his infantry would join them the next morning.
      • The Horvath Hussars then came to contact with Kleist's cavalry near Mariendorf and were driven back, the Prussians capturing the 4 light unicorns. Soon, the rest of Totleben's cavalry counter-attacked and drove back Kleist's cavalry, recapturing the 4 unicorns. The Prussian cavalry rallied near their advancing infantry to the north-east of Mariendorf. Kanitz Infantry, which was posted on the Wein-Berg advanced to support Kleist's detachment. Totleben's cavalry retired to the south-west of Rixdorf, where it joined his infantry.
      • A quite ineffective artillery duel ensued. It lasted about two hours, without either party taking the offensive. Major-General Kleist then decided to retire by way of Mariendorf and to try to reach Berlin by way of Steglitz and Schöneberg. Totleben did not try to stop him because he had already been informed of the approach of a new, much larger column (Hülsen's Corps), from Saarmund by way of Teltow. Totleben just sent part of his cavalry to pursue Kleist's detachment and try to block his advance near Schöneberg. However, a few salvoes from Grenadier Battalion Nesse and Grenadier Battalion Beyer kept the Russian cavalry away and Kleist managed to reach the capital with his detachment.
      • Totleben, who had used up all his artillery ammunition, soon retreated to Rixdorf, allowing Hülsen’s main body to march towards Berlin.
      • In the evening, Totleben took position between Treptow and Rixdorf, opposite the Silesian Gate and the Cottbus Gate, while securing his left wing against any entreprise from the Halle Gate.
    • In the evening, Lieutenant-General Panin arrived at the camp near Lichtenberg with the vanguard of his division (9 bns, 5 sqns and a large number of heavy artillery pieces).
  • Austrians
    • Late in the day, Lacy's cavalry arrived in the vicinity of Berlin. Its uhlans took part in the pursuit of Kleist's detachment. The cavalry spent the night near Mariendorf.
    • Colonel Prince von Liechtenstein, who had been sent forward by Lacy, arrived in front of the Halle Gate of Berlin and vainly summoned Prince Eugen von Württemberg to surrender the place.
  • Prussians
    • Around 7:00 a.m., Hülsen's Corps set off from Beelitz and marched towards Berlin by way of Saarmund and Teltow. By that time, Kleist's detachment had not yet reached Schöneberg. Hülsen's Corps consisted of:
    • Hülsen's Corps reached Mariendorf. A few cannon shots drove the Cossacks harassing his corps away in the direction of Rixdorf. However, as it was already late in the day, Hülsen did not dare to attack the Russian positions.
    • Around 9:00 p.m., Hülsen reached the Wein-Berg in front of the Halle Gate and encamped there. This allowed the troops belonging to Prince Eugen, who had previously reinforced the garrison of Berlin on the southern front, to rejoin their corps posted to the north-east of the capital.
    • In the evening, Hülsen sent the Salmuth Fusiliers and 500 selected men from his cavalry to support Eugen's positions to the north-east of Berlin.
    • Frederick left Silesia in a hurry to relieve his capital.

After Hülsen’s arrival, the Prussian forces in and around Berlin totalled 14,000 men. However, the combined forces of Lacy and Chernishev totalled some 35,000 men.

In the night of October 7 to 8, Totleben once more summoned Lieutenant-General von Rochow to surrender.

Detailed order of battle of the Prussian corps around Berlin on October 8.

On October 8

  • Confrontation north of Berlin
    • There was a very unusually strong storm. Wind and rain affected military operations. There were only a few skirmish on the north-eastern front between Cossack parties and Prussian outposts.
    • In the morning, the main body of Panin's Division arrived and then took up positions on the right wing of Chernyshev's Corps on the heights south of Weissensee.
    • The 5 bns and 9 sqns (5 sqns of Plettenberg Dragoons, 3 sqns of convalescents and 1 sqn of Landhussar) of Prince Eugen were now facing 19 Russian bns, 20 regular sqns, and 7 or 8 light sqns on the north-eastern side of Berlin.
    • In the morning, Hülsen sent 4 bns (Bevern Infantry, I./Grant Fusiliers, Hauss Fusiliers) and 7 sqns (5 sqns of Kleist Hussars, 2 sqns of Freidragoner Kleist) with 6 twelve-pdrs under Major-General von Linden to support Eugen's positions to the north-east of Berlin.
    • On the north-eastern front, the Prussians could now oppose 14 bns and 21 sqns to Chernishev's and Panin's 19 bns and 20 sqns.
  • Austrians
    • The rest of Lacy's Corps gradually arrived at Mariendorf.
  • Russians
    • On the southern front, the Prussians had 13½ bns and 21 sqns against Totleben's 8 bns, 21 sqns and 15 Cossack sotnias. But soon, Lacy's 21 bns and 43 sqns made a junction with Totleben bringing the Austro-Russian forces in this quarter to 29 bns, 64 sqns and 15 Cossack sotnias.
    • Totleben erected new batteries for howitzers in front of the Cottbus Gate.
    • Late in the afternoon, Chernishev held a council of war where he proposed to march by way of Köpenick and make a junction with Lacy's Corps, and then attack the Prussian the following day.
  • Prussians
    • The Prussian generals in Berlin realised that in the immediate vicinity of the city, the Cossacks had plundered all available provisions, and that it was impossible to properly supply the capital. Still ignoring the recent arrival of Lacy's Austrian corps, they decided to strike a decisive blow the following day.
    • Around 3:00 p.m., the Prussians detected troop movements in the vicinity of Tempelhof. Around 6:00 p.m., deserters informed the Prussian generals that these were Austrian troops belonging to Lacy's Corps.
    • The Prince of Württemberg held a council of war with Field Marshal Lehwaldt, Lieutenant-General von Seydlitz, and Lieutenant-General von Rochow. Considering that they could oppose only 18,000 men to an Austro-Russian army of 44,000 men deployed on both side of the Spree River, they estimated that it was impossible to effectively defend Berlin and that their troops would be decimated and taken prisoners. Furthermore, they still had no news from King Frederick and they had been informed that the main body of the Russian army was at Frankfurt/Oder and that the Reichsarmee had reached Treuenbrietzen. Accordingly they decided that, with the exception of the troops belonging to the garrison of Berlin, the corps of Hülsen and of the Prince of Württemberg should retire to Spandau during the night. Then Berlin would capitulate.
    • Goltz marched to Lüben with 17 bns, 32 sqns, 19 heavy artillery pieces, 40 pontoons, the field bakery and 200 carts and wagons transporting bread and biscuits. Upon reaching Lüben, he was instructed to make a junction with Frederick's Army near Primkenau on October 10.
    • Frederick's Army marched to Jauer.

In the night of October 8 to 9

  • Prussians
    • Around 2:00 a.m., the corps of Hülsen and of the Prince of Württemberg set off from their camp. The troops under the Prince of Württemberg marched from the north-eastern side of Berlin , outside the palisades, to the vicinity of the Oranienburg Gate. Meanwhile, troops under Hülsen had marched from the south through Berlin. The two forces made a junction near the Oranienburg Gate. They then continued their march in a single column to Spandau, where they arrived around 8:00 a.m. The retreat had been covered by a rearguard of 2 coys of Feldjäger zu Fuß, the II./Frei-Regiment Wunsch and 26 sqns (Schorlemmer Dragoons (10 sqns), Kleist Hussars (10 sqns), Freidragoner Kleist (4 sqns), Freihusaren Kleist (2 sqns)) under Colonel Kleist.
    • Around 3:00 a.m., Lieutenant-General von Rochow sent two officers and a trumpeter to Totleben, to offer him the surrender of the garrison of Berlin under conditions of free withdrawal with all military equipment available in the city, including clothing supplies. However, Totleben did not agree to the free withdrawal of the garrison and to the release of the military equipment and only guaranteed the protection of civil and royal private properties and of the public authorities against plunder. He sent Brigadier Bachmann, whom he appointed Commander of Berlin, to continue negotiations with the magistrates of the city. He also sent Russian troops, with the exception of the Cossacks, to occupy Berlin.

On October 9

  • Pursuit of the retiring Prussians
    • Before daybreak, Chernishev was informed by his outposts of the retreat of the Prussians. He immediately ordered Lieutenant-General Panin to advance in the direction of Spandau with several grenadier bns, 10 cuirassier sqns and 3 horse grenadier sqns; while Krasnoshtchokov's Cossack Brigade along with the Moldavskiy Hussars immediately followed the retreating Prussians.
    • At daybreak, Kleist's rearguard was still near Berlin.
    • Chernishev's light troops caught up with the II./Frei-Regiment Wunsch, commanded by Major von Dedenroth, near the Invalid House. The Russian light cavalry, which was far superior in number, attacked the battalion twice, but it still managed to continue the retreat along the southern edge of the Jungfernheide for another hour and a half. However, when a third attack was made, the battalion was overwhelmed and completely annihilated. Major von Dedenroth, 6 officers and 180 men were taken prisoners and the Russians captured the two battalion guns. Things didn't fare any better for the two companies of Feldjäger zu Fuß under Major des Granges, who, after the destruction of the II./Freiregiment Wunsch, formed the only infantry support for the cavalry of the Prussian rearguard, which was now seriously harassed by Chernyshev's light troops. In addition, hussars and cossacks from Totleben's Corps now joined the combat.
    • Just in front of the Havel Bridge of Spandau, the Russians managed to drive the Prussian cavalry back onto the Feldjäger zu Fuß in front of the bridge and thereby to disperse one of the two companies, whereupon the Russian cavalry pounced on the remaining Feldjägers, who were forced to surrender. Major des Granges along with a few officers and 26 men managed to take refuge in Spandau. The Prussian cavalry managed to reach Berlin but it had lost 1 captain and 100 men killed or taken prisoners.
    • During this rearguard combat, the Prince of Württemberg had marched through Spandau and established a camp west of the town. Spandau was occupied by only 500 foot under Captain von Zegelin of Frei-Regiment Wunsch.
  • Austro-Russians
    • Around 5:00 a.m., Brigadier Bachmann entered Berlin by the Cottbus Gate. During the ensuing negotiations, Russian troops occupied the gates of the city and established an encampment in front of the Royal Castle. Benkendorf's Brigade remained outside of the Cottbus Gate where the garrison, which had finally surrendered as prisoners of war, was assembled after it had evacuated the city around 7:00 a.m.
    • Totleben immediately informed Chernishev of the capitulation of Berlin, but the latter had already joined his forces pursuing the Prussian army of the Prince of Württemberg.
    • Around 9:00 a.m., still uninformed of the capitulation of Berlin (Totleben's message had not yet reached Chernishev), a Russian officer belonging to Chenyshev's Corps appeared in front of the city to summon it to surrender. Similarly, as Austrian troops approached the Halle Gate, they were astounded to see that this gate was occupied by Russian troops. Despite the Russians' lively opposition, an Austrian bn entered Berlin with its guns. This was against the terms of capitulation signed with Totleben, which specified that no Austrians would be allowed in the city.
    • Around 9:30 a.m., Chernishev finally received Totleben's message informing him of the capitulation of Berlin.
    • FZM Count Lacy, Major-General von Brentano and their escort entered Berlin to consult with Totleben, who had meanwhile also gone to Berlin. As an ally, Lacy demanded an equal share of the contribution money, arguing that, without the arrival of his corps, the city would never have surrendered. Unable to come to an agreement with Totleben, Lacy rode indignantly to Chernishev's camp, with whom he later returned to Berlin. Chernishev decided that the Halle and Potsdam Gates should be given to the Austrians, while the other gates would remain occupied by the Russians. The Austrian troops who had already entered Berlin would remain in the Neustadt and Friedrichstadt, while the rest of the Austrian troops would remain outside Berlin before the Halle Gate. The main body of the Russian troops encamped before the Frankfurt Gate. Chernishev also agreed to give 50,000 Reichstaler from the contribution raised in the city to the Austrians. Otherwise he agreed with Totleben's instructions. Chernishev did not stay in Berlin long and soon rode back to his headquarters in Friedrichsfeld.
    • Around 2:00 p.m., negotiations began with Totleben about reducing the excessively high war contribution asked from the townspeople. The merchant Gotzkowsky, who was in good standing with the senior Russian officers, managed to bring the contribution from 4 million Reichstalers down to 1.5 million. At the same time, Totleben also released the city from the very high payments in nature that had initially been imposed on it, in exchange for a further payment of 200,000 Reichstalers, which were to be given to the troops in lieu of these payments.
    • By 7:00 p.m., everything was settled and Totleben had signed the conditions for the handover of the city. Nevertheless, Bachmann could not maintain order everywhere because the generals had failed to make any provision for feeding the troops camped in the city squares. The Russian and Austrian soldiers tried to get bread, beer and brandy on their own and, since most of the houses were locked and not all of them had guards, they often forced their way into them. Soon trouble broke out between Russian and Austrian soldiers and more troops were called in Berlin to bring back order.
    • Austrian hussars, Saxon cavalrymen and some Russian light troops reached Charlottenburg. The magistrate tried to protect the inhabitant and to avoid plundering by paying 12,000 Reichsthalers, but big excesses took place. The unfortunate city was entirely exposed to the ruthless behaviour of the invaders. The looting began immediately and the royal palace was not spared, the Saxon Graf Brühl Chevauxlegers smashed the furnitures, the doors, cut the pictures, maltreated people and overset Polignac's collection of antiques and classicalities.
    • For three days, Lacy was as the evil genius of Berlin while Tottleben and his Russians showed excellent discipline. The Cossacks were kept out beyond the walls.
  • Prussians
    • The Prince of Württemberg received an unexpected reinforcement of 300 horse arriving from Cüstrin. He decided to continue his retreat towards Brandenburg to maintain his line of communication with Magdeburg.

On October 10

  • Prussians
    • In the morning, the II./Grant Fusiliers left Potsdam. After their departure, the magistrates decided to hand over the now defenseless town to the FZM Count Lacy, who had set up his headquarters in Tempelhof, rather than to a general posted closer to Potsdam. People were prepared to pay Lacy a war contribution in proportion to their modest wealth. Lacy accepted their offer.
    • The army of the Prince of Württemberg marched from Spandau to Wustermark, where it was joined by the field-bakery and the supply train which had marched from Potsdam. The prince had left Zegelin's 500 men in Spandau with the instruction to hold the citadel at all cost.
  • Austrians
    • In the evening, Major-General Count Esterházy entered Potsdam at the head of a hussar rgt and 2 Saxon uhlan pulks. He assured the citizens of a tolerable fate because they had submitted to General Lacy and not to the Russian general. Nevertheless, he imposed a contribution of 60,000 thalers on the city. This sum far exceeded the capacity of the inhabitants to pay, and the Austrian hussars and the Saxon uhlans began to plunder. The citizens managed to gather only some 18,000 thalers.
  • Russians
    • In Berlin, the Russians destroyed the facilities of the foundry and the Royal Mint. At the same time, they began to remove weapons, clothing and equipment stored in the armoury, royal stables, and regimental buildings. Given the great shortage of horses and usable vehicles in their army, the Russians made a special effort to procure as many usable vehicles as possible. However, the royal castle was spared. Except for a few items that the Count Esterházy had taken away from Sanssouci, the royal castles were spared. However, the musket factory was destroyed.
    • Totleben had sent Lieutenant-Colonel Zvetinovich with Russian cossacks and hussars towards Potsdam to destroy its musket factory. However, the Austrians did not allow them to enter the town.
    • A message from Daun arrived at the Russian headquarters in Frankfurt/Oder, with the news that Frederick had set off from his camp near Dittmannsdorf (present-day Dziećmorowice) and was marching towards Saxony or Berlin. Daun also informed the Russian generals that he was following Frederick with his own army, leaving only Loudon’s Corps in Silesia. Saltykov immediately send orders to Panin to retire from the region of Berlin with his division. He also ordered General von Oliz, who was posted at Posen, to march towards Landsberg an der Warthe, where he would make a junction with the main army.

On October 11

  • Austro-Russians
    • In the morning, Chernishev received orders from Field Marshal Saltykov to immediately send back Panin’s Division to join the main army at Frankfurt/Oder. Chernishev and Totleben should then follow as soon as they had completed the destruction of military installations in Berlin, Potsdam and Spandau.
    • The Russians tried to blow up the powder mill near Unterbaum north-west of Berlin. However, most of the supplies had already been transported to Spandau before their arrival. Nevertheless, they destroyed a large quantity of powder, losing 15 men in an explosion. However, the powder mill remained mostly undamaged and could be used again within a short time.
    • The Prussian prisoners (approx. 4,000 men) under Lieutenant-General von Rochow were escorted to Frankfurt/Oder. Several of them managed to escape and to return to Berlin.
    • Chernishev received new instructions from Saltykov, ordering him to immediately retire from the area of Berlin with all Russian troops and to march towards Frankfurt/Oder.
    • Around noon, a striking calmness was noticeable among the Austrians and Russians, and there were soon clear signs that they were preparing to retire.
    • In the afternoon, the Russian garrison of Berlin began to retire through the Cottbus Gate.
    • Around 5:00 p.m., the Austrian garrison evacuated Berlin. Daun had informed Lacy of the march of Frederick on Berlin. Since Chernishev informed him that the Russian corps would also march to Frankfurt on the next day, Lacy had his infantry go back to Trebbin.
    • Lacy wrote to Lieutenant-General Lantingshausen, commanding the Swedish forces in Western Pomerania, to instruct him to make a junction with his own corps near Berlin.
  • Prussians
    • News arrived in Berlin that Frederick was coming.
    • The Prince of Württemberg reached Brandenburg and encamped near Schmertzke, south of the town.

In the night of October 11 to 12, Panin’s Division set off from the region of Berlin towards Frankfurt/Oder.

On October 12

  • Austro-Russians
    • Early in the morning, Esterházy’s detachment unexpectedly evacuated Potsdam and marched in the direction of Saarmund.
    • In the morning, only a few Russian bns and sqns were still occupying Berlin.
    • In the morning, Chernishev retired from the region of Berlin with his corps and the main body of Totleben’s Corps.
    • By noon, the magistrates of Berlin had managed to deliver only 700,000 Reichsthalers to Totleben. The merchants therefore had to issue bills of exchange for the 1 million Reichstaler that still had to be paid, payable in Hamburg in two months.
    • Lacy wanted to remain near Berlin with his cavalry. He vainly waited for the Swedish army. In fact his message had not yet reached Lantingshausen near Prenzlau. Finally, in the afternoon, Lacy decided to retire with his cavalry. He then retired with his corps towards Torgau to make a junction with the Reichsarmee.
    • Around 3:00 p.m., Totleben retired from Berlin with the last Russian troops with the exception of a few detachments.
  • Austrians
    • Daun’s Army reached Naumburg am Queis.
  • Prussians
    • Frederick’s Army reached Sagan.

On October 13

  • Austro-Russians
    • The last Russian detachments evacuated Berlin. By evening, there were no Austrian or Russian troops in Berlin.
    • Russian light troops intercepted a courier sent by Frederick to the Minister Count Finckenstein at Magdeburg. From a letter taken from him, Saltykov concluded that Frederick's march was actually directed against him and that he could reach the Frankfurt/Oder area on this day. Fearing to be cut from the Vistula, Saltykov immediately recalled the two divisions posted on the right bank of the Oder. He planned to retire as soon as the troops sent to Berlin would have joined him.
  • Prussians
    • The magistrates of Berlin estimated the total losses of the city and of its inhabitants to 1,954,306 Reichsthalers.

In the night of October 13 to 14, Panin’s and Chenishev’s corps arrived at Lossow.

On October 14

  • Prussians
    • Frederick’s Army reached Guben, 120 km south-east of Berlin.
  • Russians
    • Panin’s and Chenishev’s corps followed the main army and crossed the Oder. The main body retired towards Drossen.

On October 15

  • Prussians
    • Frederick’s Army reached Groß Muckrow in Guben Country, where Frederick first heard for certain that the Russians had occupied Berlin and had now left the town.
  • Russians
    • Totleben’s Corps reached Frankfurt/Oder.
    • Saltykov remained at Drossen, expecting that Frederick would attack his positions.

On October 16, Frederick marched to Siegadel between Lieberose and Lübben.

On October 17

  • Prussians
    • Frederick marched to Lübben, 86 km straight south of Berlin, where he rested his army some days.
  • Russians
    • Saltykov retired to Zielenzig with the 2nd and 3rd divisions. At Zielenzig, Saltykov finally realised that Frederick was not pursuing him. He considered that he had no other choice but to lead his army behind the Warthe in order to give it the rest it needed in comfortable barracks. He also hoped that by remaining on the Warthe, he would force Frederick to divert a corps to observe the Russian army and thereby weaken himself, which would be useful to the Austrians and the Reichsarmee.
    • Fermor remained at Drossen with the 1st Division. Totleben made a junction with Fermor’s forces.

On October 18

  • Russians
    • The main body of the Russian army marched from Zielenzig towards Arensdorf (present-day Jarnatów) and Königswalde.
    • The 1st Division set off from Drossen.

On October 19

  • Prussians
    • Frederick, informed of the Siege of Cosel (present-day Koźle) in Silesia, which was threatened by Loudon, detached Goltz with 16 bns and 38 sqns to relieve the fortress.
  • Russians
    • The 1sr Division made a junction with the rest of the army at Arensdorf.
    • Totleben marched from Drossen to Zielenzig.

The Russians took camp about Landsberg and the Warthe Country.

On October 20

  • Prussians
    • Frederick left Lübben and marched to Dahme on his way to Torgau in Saxony. He had previously reinforced Goltz, at Glogau, to 20,000 men to protect Silesia. Frederick's Army then entered into Saxony (for details of its manoeuvres, see 1760 - Austrian campaign in Saxony).
  • Russians
    • The divisions of the Russian army began to take up their winter-quarters north of the Warthe River.
    • The detachment under Lieutenant-General von Oliz, arriving from Posen, rejoined the army.

By the end of October, all Russian troops had reached their winter-quarters. The three divisions and the cavalry were all quartered in the areas of Landsberg, Berlinchen, Arnswalde, Woldenberg, and Driesen. The dragoons had been posted between Reetz and Kallies (present-day Kalisz Pomorski) to cover the winter-quarters from any attack from the direction of Stettin. Chernishev’s Corps secured the right flank of the army between Lippehne (present-day Lipiany) and Soldin (present-day Mysliborz) south of Madüsee and Plönesee. Totleben’s Corps was garding the region of the Oder and observing the Prussians at Cüstrin, its positions extending from Königsberg I. N. (unidentified location), by Zehden (present-day Cedynia), Fürstenfelde (present-day Boleszkowice), Quartschen (present-day Chwarszczany) and Blumberg (present-day Mościce), up to Bietz (unidentified location). Detachments had been posted south of the Warthe River, at Hammer (present-day Przetocznica) and Königswalde, to observe the vicinities of Frankfurt/Oder and Crossen.

Tottleben and his Cossacks remained in Neumark and Pomerania, even launching raids in Ueckermark across the Oder. His Cossacks appeared near Freienwalde, Schwedt, Eberswalde but also near Prenzlau and Stettin.

The Duke of Bevern was not able to stop Tottleben’s incursions and asked Werner for assistance. Meanwhile, the Russians occupied Greifenhagen (present-day Gryfino) and Stargard.

On November 1

  • Russians
    • Cossacks attacked a detachment belonging to Belling’s Army. *Prussians
    • Werner arrived from Mecklenburg at Stettin.

On the night of November 1 to 2, hoping to surprise the Moldavskiy Hussars at Greifenhagen, the Duke of Bevern sent two detachments of the garrison of Stettin towards Greifenhagen. One detachment was transported by boats on the Zoll River, while the other marched along the dam. The first detachment arrived too early, but managed to surprise the hussars and to take 8 officers and 200 hussars prisoners. The remaining hussars drove back the second Prussian detachment. The Prussians had been unable to dislodge the Russians from Greifenhagen.

On November 5, Buturlin arrived at Arnswalde to take command of the Russian army, replacing Saltykov, who still had health problem. When he received the news of the Austrian defeat at Torgau, Buturlin considered that it would be impossible to spend winter in the ruined country around Landsberg and resolved to bring back his army in Poland, leaving Chernishev with his “Corps Volant” and Tottleben with his light troops in Eastern Pomerania to cover the retreat of the main army.

On November 6, Werner came to contact with a Russian outpost in front of Vierraden, drove it back and occupied Schwedt. While escaping, some Russians drowned in the Oder River, and 50 were taken prisoners.

Werner remained at Schwedt until November 9, and established pontoon bridges on the Oder.

On November 10

  • Russians
    • Buturlin left Arnswalde and marched by way of Reetz, Dramburg, Tempelburg, and Stolp to Marienburg where he would arrive on December 11.
  • Prussians
    • Werner followed the retiring Russian army, setting off from Schwedt and marching by way of Bahn towards Stargard.

On November 15, Werner occupied Stargard, which had been evacuated by the Russians.

On November 16, Werner was reinforced with 2 bns of the garrison of Stettin, 2 free coys and the Provincial Hussars.

On November 20

  • Prussians
    • The corps (8 bns, 8 sqns) of Prince Eugen of Württemberg arrived at Schwedt.
    • The Plettenberg Dragoons and Werner Hussars arrived at Stargard, they had been sent by the Prince of Württemberg to support Werner’s forces.

On November 24, Werner set off from Stargard and marched by way of Massow (present-day Maszewo), Naugard, Plathe and Greifenberg.

On November 26, the Prince of Württemberg went from Schwedt to Mecklenburg with his infantry, reaching Malchin on December 3. Werner’s Corps was supposed to follow.

On November 28, Werner reached Groß Jestin (present-day Gościno) on the Persante River, where the the bridge had been demolished. The opposite bank was occupied by the Russians.

On November 29, Werner redirected his march towards Körlin/Persante and . The following day he turned against Cörlin and Belgard where his small army crossed the Persante.

On December 2, Werner’s Corps arrived at Köslin. Lieutenant-Colonel Courbière was detached with 4 bns, the Stettin free coys, 5 sqns and the Provincial Hussars towards Wipper (present-day Wieprza).

On December 3,

  • Prussians
    • Courbière’s detachment reached Schlawe.
    • Major von Owstien with 2 sqns of Werner Hussars and the Bayreuth Dragoons with 2 guns was surprised by a strong Cossack detachment led by Major Popov. Due to heavy rain, the guns were useless and Owstien had sent them back to Quatzow (present-day Kwasowo). His surprised hussars and dragoons broke and fled, and the guns were captured by the Cossacks. Captain von Pfeil and 1 bn of Frei-Infanterie von Wunsch, sent to support Owstien, arrived too late to intervene in the engagement. The Cossacks took 60 Prussians prisoners.

By December 10, Courbière had established a chain of outposts extending from Rügenwalde, by way of Schlawe, Pollnow (present-day Polanów), Bublitz, Bärwalde to Polzin.

On December 11, Werner set off from Köslin with 1 bn and 10 sqns.

On December 26, Werner left Stargard, as ordered by the Prince of Württemberg.

On December 30, Werner’s Corps arrived at Pasewalk.

A cordon of troops (Frei-Infanterie von Hordt) was deployed along the Peene River against the Swedes.

Only the Plettenberg Dragoons continued their march towards Mecklenburg to collect provisions and recruits.

The Prince of Württemberg took up his winter-quarters at Rostock, his troops around this city as well as Tessin, Gnoien, Ribnitz and Sülze.

An armistice was concluded with the Swedes which was to last until April 1, 1761.

References

This article is essentially a compilation of texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763
    • Vol. 12 Landeshut und Liegnitz, Berlin, 1913, pp. 26-29, 36-44, 56, 73-82, 158-163
    • Vol. 13 Torgau, Berlin, 1914, pp. 140-156, 222-281
  • Officers of the Grosser Generalstab: Geschichte des Siebenjärigen Krieges in einer Reihe von Vorlesungen, mit Benutzung authentischer Quellen, Vol. 4 – Der Felzug von 1760, Berlin 1834, p. 165-166
  • Anonymous: A Complete History of the Present War, from its Commencement in 1756, to the End of the Campaign, 1760, London, 1761, pp. 537-539
  • Carlyle, T.: History of Friedrich II of Prussia, vol. 20
  • Jomini, Baron de: Traité des grandes opérations militaires, Vol. 3, 2nd ed., Magimel, Paris, 1811, pp. 274, 323, 335-339, 341-342, 367
  • Masslowski, Dmitrij F.: Russian army in the 7YW Vol. 3, Moscow, 1891, p. 308

Other sources

Grossergeneralstab, vol. 14

Kessel, E.: Das Ende des Siebenjährigen Krieges 1760-1763, 2007, Paderborn, pp. 74-81

Zveguintzov, L'Armée Russe, 1973

Acknowledgements

Harald Skala for the translation and integration of info from Kessel’s work