1760 - Siege of Cosel
The Fortress of Cosel (present-day Kędzierzyn-Koźle), one of the medium sized fortresses in Silesia, occupied an important position on the left bank of the Oder where the smaller Klodnitz River (present-day Kłodnica) flowed into it.
Loudon soon sent small detachments towards Cosel, Ratibor (present-day Raciborz), Leobschütz (present-day Głubczyce) and Neustadt (present-day Prudnik). On March 26, one of these detachments appeared in front of Cosel but soon retired to Kranowitz (present-day Krzanowice).
In July, Frederick II, ordered to execute all deserters without trial.
In the Fall, Loudon appeared in front of Cosel. He held a council of war where it was decided to lay siege to the fortress.
At this time, Christoph Fredrich von Lattorf was the commander of the fortress of Cosel which was defended by some 50 guns and 5 battalions (see detailed order of battle below).
From October 7, heavy rain delayed the beginning of the siege.
On October 20, Loudon (20,000 men) marched in 2 columns from Oberglogau (present-day Głogówek) and surrounded Cosel. His army encamped on the hills between Reinschdorf (present-day Reńska Wieś), Wiegschütz (present-day Większyce) and Komorno on the left bank of the Oder. Loudon established his headquarters at Kranowitz (present-day Krzanowice) and sent Colonel Faber with a detachment (Loudon's Grenadiers, 100 husssars) to Zülz (present-day Biała) to escort the arriving siege park.
On October 22, the Austrians cut the communications of the fortress from the east and threw two pontoon bridges at Brzezetz (present-day Brzeźce) and Rogau (present-day Koźle Rogi). Once these bridges ready, some units crossed the Oder to complete the encirclement of the fortress from the right bank. The Austrian cavalry was encamped at Reinschdorf and detachments were posted at Juliusburg (present-day Radziejowo) and Wiegschütz.
On October 23 and 24, the Austrians started to dig the first parallel and to erect earthwork to set up batteries for the siege artillery. They made 30,000 fascines.
On October 25, additional Austrian Corps arrived under Ferdinand Filip Count von Harsch and Joseph Count von Bethlen to reinforce Loudon. In the evening, Loudon launched an assault from the left bank of the Oder against the isolated redoubts of Kobelwitz and Wiegschütz. The Prussian Major Johann Leopold von Arnswald distinguished himself during this combat. Finally, at 9:30 PM, the fire of the Prussian artillery forced the Austrians to retreat. Loudon also tried another of his trick, sending catholic soldiers to Cosel to convince the garrison to surrender. Loudon promised pardon to all soldiers who would surrender. According to Lattorf's letter to the king, not a single soldier decided to abandon his post.
The same day, a Prussian relief force (22 bns, 36 sqns) under General von Goltz reached Glogau (present-day Głogów). Loudon was surprised to learn that such an important force was on its way to relieve Cosel. He was now impatient to capture the fortress before Goltz's arrival because he did not want to meet this Prussian force on the field. However, heavy rain made it almost impossible to make regular siege with parallels and trenches. Furthermore the Austrian siege artillery had insufficient ammunition.
On October 26, Loudon launched a general attack to storm the fortress, destroying some magazines and damaging the palisade and main wall. Grenzers, supported by grenadiers, tried to penetrate into the fortress but were repulsed. After this assault, the defenders repaired the most serious damages. During this combat, the Prussian Major Sebastian Friedrich von Braxein distinguished himself.
In the night of October 26 to 27, from 2:00 to 5:00 AM, the Austrian siege artillery continued to fire on the fortress. Loudon sent a messenger to summon the garrison but he received a negative answer.
On October 27, Loudon sent back the siege park.
On October 28, the Austrian main forces withdrew.
On October 30, the rest of the Austrian units retreated, burning all fascines before leaving. One small detachment under Colonel Hieronim Baron Liubibraticha von Trebynia (2 grenzer bns, 100 hussars), which had been previously sent to Urbanowitz (present-day Urbanowice) to reconnoitre the region around this stronghold, was now forced to retreat to Ratibor (present-day Racibórz) due Loudon's retreat from Cosel. The Austrian main forces went to Oberglogau.
Lattorf admitted that he had lost no more than 7 men wounded during the siege. Other sources mentions only 2 dead and wounded overall. Austrians losses are unknown.
Orders of battle
Commander: Feldzeugmeister Baron Ernst Gideon Loudon
- IR. 23 Baden-Baden (2 bns)
- IR. 13 Moltke (2 bns)
- IR. 16 Königsegg (2 bns)
- IR. 9 Los Rios (1 bn)
- Toscana (2 bns)
- IR. 49 Angern (2 bns)
- IR. 18 Marschall (2 bns)
- IR. 4 Deutschmeister (2 bns)
- IR. 11 Wallis (2 bns)
- IR. 29 Loudon (2 bns)
- IR. 19 Leopold Pálffy (1 bn)
- IR. 57 Andlau (2 bns)
- IR. 43 Platz (2 bns)
- IR. 24 Starhemberg (1 bn)
- IR. 34 Batthyányi (1 bn)
- IR. 35 Waldeck (1 bn)
- Loudon's Grenadiers (2 bns) aka Green-Loudon
- Unidentified Grenzer Units (4 bns)
- Converged Grenadier (4 bns)
Engineers, miners and sappers
- Converged Carabiniers (9 sqns)
- Kolowrat-Krakowski Dragoons (5 sqns)
- Sachsen-Teschen Cuirassiers (5 sqns)
- Anspach Cuirassiers (5 sqns)
- Alt-Modena Cuirassiers (5 sqns)
- Trautmansdorf Cuirassiers (5 sqns)
- Schmerzing Cuirassiers (5 sqns)
Detachment under Generalfeldwachtmeister Nauendorf
- Herzog Württemberg Dragoons (? sqns)
- Saint-Ignon Dragoons (? sqns)
- Nádasdy Hussars (? sqns)
- Bethlen Hussars (? sqns)
In 1758, the fortress of Cosel was garrisoned as follows:
- Garrison Artillery (1 coy of about 130 men)
- Miners (1 detachment)
- Hussars (1 unidentified detachment of about 100 men)
- Artillery (unknown quantity) N.B. in 1746 the artillery of the fortress consisted of
- 7 iron guns
- 2 x 10-pdr iron howitzers
- 1 x 30-pdr mortar
- 17 x 12-pdr bronze guns
- 8 x 6-pdr bonze guns
- 14 x other bronze guns
- 4 x 10-pdr bronze howitzers
Tomasz Karpiński from Gniezno/Poznań for the initial version of this article.