1761 - British expedition against the Cherokee Indians
The campaign lasted from April to August 1761
In 1760, Cherokee Indians stopped the advance of Montgomery during his expedition against their Middle Towns, defeating him at Etchoee on June 24 and forcing him to retire. In the first part of August, the Cherokees captured Fort Loudon. Panic and consternation reigned in Charleston at the news. A truce of six months was agreed to during which peace attempts failed.
On December 15 1760, Lord Jeffrey Amherst, the British commander-in-chief in America, being now master of Canada, sent orders to Colonel James Grant to prepare a new expedition against the Cherokee Indians for the defence of the southern provinces.
On December 23, Grant's force sailed from New York for Charleston where he arrived January 10 1761.
By 1762, the various villages of the Cherokee Country could still supply 809 fighting men coming from the following villages on the Little Tennessee River:
- Mialoquo, or the Great Island: 24 men under Chief Attakullakulla
- Tuskegee (at the confluence with the Tellico River): 55 men under Chief Attakullakulla
- Tomotley: 91 men under Chief Ostenaco
- Toqua (at the confluence with Toco Creek): 82 men under Chief Willinawaw
- Tanasi: 21 men under Chief Kanagatucko
- Chota (the capital): 175 men under Great Chief Kanagatucko
- Chilhowee (at the confluence with Abrams Creek): 110 men under Chief Yachtino
- Settacoo (at the confluence with Citico): 204 men under Chief Seroweh
- Tallassee: 47 men
On January 17 1761, Grant wrote to Amherst from Charleston, where he was assembling his force, to expose him the difficulty of his mission. It seemed impossible to find forage for cattle and horses along his line of advance before April.
On March 24, Chief Ostenaco sent a parley to Grant from his village of Tomotley.
On April 1, Chief Seroweh came in person to discuss.
By mid April, delayed by heavy rain, Grant was still encamped at Monk's Corner.
On April 14, Grant finally started his march towards the Congaree River.
- 17th Foot (2 coys)
- 22nd Foot (2 coys)
- 95th Foot (8 independent coys recently arrived from Great Britain and regimented together)
- 1st Royal Regiment of Foot (4 coys) under Hamilton
- South Carolina Provincials (about 200 men) under Thomas Middleton
- Mohawk Indians (unspecified strength)
- Stockbridge Indians (unspecified strength)
- Chickasaw Indians (20 men)
- Catawba Indians (20 men)
- 250 wagonners
By April 25, Cherokee Indians had released several prisoners taken at Fort Loudoun who rejoined Fort Prince George.
At the end of April, a Chickasaw scouting party sent forward by Grant attacked the village of Keowee, killing Chief Tistoe's wife and wounding his son, before returning to “12 Mile Run” near Saluda.
On May 4, a cyclone struck Charleston. The weather was terrible and Grant's advance very slow.
On May 18, Grant reached Fort Ninety Six where where it joined 401 rangers led by Thompson.
On May 22, Chief Attakullakulla arrived at Fort Prince George to open peace negotiations.
On May 23, Grant, still on his way to Fort Prince George, was informed of Chief Attakullakulla's arrival.
On May 24, Grant's messenger, carrying proposals for Chief Attakullakulla, arrived at Fort Prince George after the latter's departure.
On May 27, Grant's army finally arrived at Fort Prince George. Chief Attakullakulla, hearing that a formidable army approached his nation, hastened to the camp of Colonel Grant and proposed terms of accommodation but did not come to any agreement.
On May 28, Grant put his men to work to prepare for the invasion of the Middle Towns and to make a camp to protect his 150 wagons which he intent to leave behind.
On May 29, Chief Attakullakulla quitted Fort Prince George to carry Grant's condition to the Cherokee Indians.
By June 2, more than 60 Cherokee Indians had put themselves under Grant's protection at Fort Prince George.
On June 7, Grant, at the head of 2,600 men advanced towards the Cherokee country.
On June 11 at 8:00 AM, after three days of forced march, an engagement took place at Etchoe on almost the same ground where the Cherokee Indians had fought Montgomery in the previous campaign. The action fought under heavy rain lasted till 2:00 PM and the Indians were finally forced to retire. In this action, Grant lost about 60 men killed or wounded, not counting the losses of his Indian allies. In this engagement, Grant lost:
- 1st Royal Regiment of Foot: Ensign Knight wounded, 1 soldier killed, 4 wounded
- 17th Foot and 22nd Foot: 6 soldiers wounded, Ensign Monro of the 22nd killed
- 95th Foot: Lieutenant Barber and Ensign Campbell wounded, 1 sergeant and 4 soldiers killed, 16 soldiers wounded
- South Carolina Provincials: Lieutenant Terry wounded, 1 soldier killed, 1 drummer and 12 soldiers wounded
- Indian Allies: 1 wounded
- Rangers: 1 soldier killed and 2 wounded
- Pack horse men: 1 soldier killed and 5 wounded
After the engagement, Grant's force marched forward to the Cherokee village of Etchoe which they reached about midnight of June 12.
On the morning of June 12, Grant burnt the village of Etchoe. Grant then proceeded to 14 other villages of the Middle Towns where he destroyed the granaries and corn fields and burnt the villages. He drove back the Cherokee Indians to the mountains.
Grant then returned to Fort Prince George.
Chief Attakullakulla met with Grant once more at Fort Prince George.
In November 1761, the Cherokee signed a peace treaty with Virginia. They made peace with South Carolina in December of that year.
This articles contains texts from the following book which is now in the public domain:
- Ramsey, J. G. M.:, The Annals of Tennessee to the end of the Eighteenth Century, Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo & Co., 1853, pp. 61-62.
...other texts come from the following articles in Wikipedia:
Oliphant, John: Peace and War on the Anglo-Cherokee Frontier, 1756-63, Louisiana State University Press, 2001, pp. 141-152
Shaffner, Talafiero Preston: History of the United States of America – From the earliest period to the present time, Vol. II, London and New York, 1863
The Southern Quarterly Review, Vol. VI, Charleston, 1844, p. 158
Tortora, Daniel J.: Carolina in Crisis: Cherokees, Colonists, and Slaves in the American Southeast, 1756–1763, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015.
Jean-Pierre Loriot for the losses at the engagement of Etchoe