1761 - Siege of Colberg

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The siege lasted from August 24 to December 16, 1761

Introduction

In May 1761, a Russian army under the command of Rumyantsev undertook a campaign in Pomerania. The main objective of this campaign was the capture of the Fortress of Colberg (present-day Kołobrzeg). From June, Rumyantsev slowly advanced towards Colberg.

On August 17, 6 Russian ships-of-war showed themselves in front of Colberg.

On August 19, Rumyantsev got possession of Körlin, Belgard and the outposts on the Persante River. Werner retired without bombardment. Rumyantsev installed his main posts at Quetzin and Degow. He was now within sight of Colberg, only 12 km west of him.

Description of the area

Description of the surroundings of Colberg

The mouth of the Persante river (actual Parsęta river) and its wharf were not far from the northern outskirts of Colberg. The town was located on the right bank of this river.

On the left bank of the Persante, there were some buildings, three surrounding hills, a lake, forests and small streams flowing into the river. The biggest hills stretched from the village of Spinhauser to those of Werder and Sellnow. Farther west, in the direction of Treptow, the village of Bork stood around a small lake in the middle of the forest along a road leading to this big hill. The other hills stretched to the south behind forests separating coastal hills from the villages of Prettmin (actual Przećmin) and Spie, towering over the track leading to Treptow. Prolonging these hills to the east, in a straight line passing to the south of Sellnow and at right angle of Kartofelsberg, the Kauzberg hills blocked the approaches. Narrow strips of forests and patches of bogs extended behind these hills to the south.

On the right bank of the Persante river stood a group of four hills stretching southeastwards. The first and widest hill, called the Binnenfeld, extended from the waterside to the almost to the small Matzweise stream which separated it from a wood to the south, a little bit lower than the fortress. The hill of Wolfenberg dominated a plateau. To the south, almost at right angle with Wolfenberg, there was a row of end moraines. These platforms formed a semicircle linking the Persante river with a pond. The highest points on this bank were Klosterfeld and Hoheberg. A thick forest extended eastwards, making the access to Colberg difficult almost from the waterside all the way to the villages of Tramm and Stoikow to the south.

Further south, an overflow area forbade the access to the Persante river from the west side while bogs and the Matzikerteich lake blocked the eastern approach. However, the Green Hill facilitated the access to this strip of moraine hills. It was a key position and the only way to get access to these end moraines. These two separate groups of hills were linked by a third one. In the front of it was the so-called Bullewinkel. This position guarded the access to the area near Colberg. It was a key position very difficult to avoid, its left slope reached the lake. To the south of the Bullewinkel and Green Hill was a tongue shaped row of hills with many rivers and woods impeding communications. The Persante river was difficult to cross from both banks since it ran in a floodplain and its banks were covered with bogs. Furthermore, the Persante branched out into 3 or 4 smaller rivers as it drew near the fortress of Colberg. These rivers then flowed into a single one at the place known as the Munde.

Fortifications of Colberg

Map of the fortress of Colberg in 1761.
 
Legend:
 1 Halberstadt bastion
 2 Munde hornwork
 3 Preussen bastion
 4 Neumark bastion
 5 Pommern bastion
 6 Magdeburg bastion
 7 Cleve bastion
 8 Geldern I bastion
 9 Geldern II bastion
10 Tête de pont
11 Batardeau
12 Geldern gate
13 Leborsk gate
 A Ravelins
 B Lunettes
 C Contregarde
 D Redans
 
Source: Tomasz Karpiński's collection

The fortifications of Colberg consisted of entrenchments surrounding the fortress, bastions and the surrounding curtain walls which extended from west to east through the swamps along the Persante river. The shape of the entrenchements was irregular. A strip of entrenchment stretched along the left bank of the Persante supported by bastions Geldern I, Geldern II and Cleve. The entrenchments on the right bank of the Persante were in the shape of a trapezium with bastions in each corners. In the suburb of Ujście, was the “Munde” hornwork. The “Bulow” ravelin ran in front of the fortress while the Lauenburg ravelin ran from the river to Matz Wiese (actual Stramniczanka). In the 4 corners of the city walls, there were bastions: Halberstadt, Preussen, Neumark and Pommern. Overall, 130 guns and 14 mortars of various calibre were planted in the entrenchments and bastions surrounding the fortress.

The outline of these entrenchments looked as illustrated below.

Profile of Colberg fortifications.
 
Source: Tomasz Karpiński's collection

Outer works

On June 8 1761, General Thadden arrived at Colberg from Glogau (present-day Glogow) with 4 battalions of grenadiers. These Prussian forces occupied the right bank of the Persante River where they began entrenching on the plateau in front Colberg. The fortifications were built over a period of 3 months under the personal supervision of General Thadden.

Besides the Prussian troops, 200 peasants from the neighbouring villages were also employed at these works (Maslowskij indicates these field works on his map). They built redoubts and trenches on the hills dominating this area. Nine redoubts were erected along the frontal moraine. Each of them was able to defend itself in front and on both sides.

From the Persante River, redoubts I to V were aligned in a straight line. Next were redoubts VI to IX forming an arc reaching the lake. These fortifications were almost 5 meters high (16 feet) with palisade and moat. Additionally, in front of these fortification, there were 11 wolf pits and 3 lines of smaller holes with sharp stakes. The Green Schanze (XVIII ) redoubt stood on a hill about 800 paces in front of the fortifications. This position was surrounded by marshes and little rivers, allowing only 2 or 3 battalions to attack it simultaneously. Furthermore, this position defended the only access to the main fortification. The second part of the Prussian camp had been established at Bullewinkel. On this hill, there was a line of fortifications consisting of irregular shaped open works and, standing near a stream, redoubts X, XII (Morastredute) and XXVII. Redoubts IX and X were linked by entrenchments. The loss of Bullewinkel would force the Prussians to abandon Colberg.

There were 3 closed redoubts (XI, XXVIII and XIII Sternschanze) on the edge of the plateau of Binnenfeld. At the edge of the forest, near the beach, stood the Verhackschanze (XIV). This work was quite exposed, being the only one which could be attacked from all sides. Additionally there were redoubts XV, XVI and XVII at Wolfsberg, defending the beach and the city against landing. On the other bank of the Persante, in front of the Kartofelsberg, stood redoubts XX, XIX, and near the village of Sellnow, fortification XXI. Near Altstadt (present-day Budzistowo) and Sellnow, pontoon bridges had been thrown over the river to ease communications.

On the beach, stood work XXXI and behind them, in the forest of Maykuhle, works XXX and XXIII. On the Kauzberg there were 3 little works: XXIV, XXV and XXVI.

Other fortifications were erected during the siege. Their construction is noted in the description of the events.

The main weakness of the Prussian positions were the marshes on their rear. Furthermore, retreat was difficult and reinforcement required a lot of time. Nevertheless, if the Russians wanted to storm these positions, they would have to launch bloody and costly attacks. Only Bullewinkel could be assaulted frontally. The right flank was protected by the Greene Schanze and the left flank by the Verhackschanze.

Prussian deployment in the outer works

Unit Outer work or redoubt
Grenadier Battalion 4/16/41/44 Beneckendorf (1 bn) I
Grenadier Battalion 21/27/37/40 Kleist (1 bn) II
47/G-VII Bock (1 bn) III
I/IR14 Lehwaldt (1 bn) IV
II/IR14 Lehwaldt (1 bn) V and XVIII
I/IR16 Dohna (1 bn) VI
II/IR16 Dohna (1 bn) VII
I/IR47 Grabow Fusiliers (1 bn) VIII
II/IR47 Grabow Fusiliers (1 bn) IX
I/IR2 Kanitz (1 bn) X and XII
Frei-Infanterie de Courbière (1 bn) XIII and XIV
Frei-Infanterie von Wunsch (1 bn) XIII later XIV
Grenadier Battalion 13/26 Schwerin (1 bn) XIX and XX
VI. "Standing" Grenadier Battalion (G-VI/G-VIII Busch) (1 bn) XXII
IR45 Hessel-Kassel Fusiliers (1 bn) XXIII, XXX and positions on Wolfsberg
Garrison Regiment I Puttkamer XXVII
II/IR2 Kanitz (1 bn) XXIX
Landbatalion Kleist (1 bn) Maykuhle
Kalckstein Volunteers (1 bn) Colberger Deep (actual Dzwirzyno)
N.B.: the deployment of the Prussian force is described in Disposition zur Vertheidungender ColbergerRetrechment by J. G. Tielke, Beyträge zur Kriegskunst, op. cit., t. 5, s. 55-58. This description has been adjusted with G. F. Tempelhoff, Geschichte des siebenjahrige Krieges,. The redoubt numbering system is from D. Masłowskij, Russkaia armiia.

Furthermore, 1 sqn of the Plettenberg Dragoons camped at Sellnow along with hussars. The second sqn of this dragoon regiment was at the Morastredute. The rest of the cavalry was stationed on the left bank of the Persante. The artillery park was at Bullewinkel. Supply depots and the bakery were in front of Altstadt where Platen would later established his quarters.

Prince Eugen had his headquarters in the Lauenberg suburb. The defense of Colberg had been organized as follow:

  • the western front under General von Werner
  • the eastern front under General Thadden
  • the fortress and the harbour under von Heyden
  • the cental front under Prince Eugen of Württemberg

Description of events

The siege

On August 24, the Russian ships finally got to their moorings and Rumyantsev opened the siege of Colberg. The same day, Rumyantsev took position at Stockow (unidentified location).

On August 25, Russian ships approached the fortress and bombarded it (firing some 3,000 bombs). The Prussian artillery on the waterfront returned fire. This artillery duel involved the Russian ships Varachail (54), Astrakhan (66), Rafail (66) and 3 frigates. The Russian fleet was then assigned to blockade the fortress and to cut all communications. Main engineer Du Moulin was removed from command because he requested too many guns and material to conduct the siege. Colonel Gerbel replaced him.

On August 27, the Swedish fleet arrived at Colberg to assist the Russians. The combined fleet consisted of 12 ships of the line with 42 frigates and gunboats. The commander of the Russian fleet, Vice-admiral Polansky assembled 2,012 volunteers among his sailors and soldiers to assist Rumyantsev for siege operations. They were grouped in a few temporary battalions armed with pistols and pikes.

On September 2, the 2,012 volunteers of the Russian Navy landed at Bodenhagen.

On September 4, the Russian army moved closer to the Prussian camp with its right to the wood of Stockow and its left to Buggentin. Rumyantsev, considering the Prussian entrenchments too strong, decided to lay siege in form instead of launching an attack. The Prince of Württemberg took the best dispositions to defend his camp, giving detailed instruction to each post.

During the night of September 5 to 6, the Prussian General Werner set off at the head of the Grenadier Battalion Beneckendorf, his own hussar regiment (10 sqns) and dragoons (5 sqns) towards Prettmin (present-day Przećmin).

On September 6, Werner with 4 troops of hussars attacked the Arkhangelogorodskiy Dragoons at Garrin and forced them to retreat.

On September 7, the volunteers of the Russian Navy along with the newly raised Russian Jägers stormed the Verchackschanze.

Werner's raid on the Russian magazines

On September 11, the prince of Württemberg instructed Werner to operate against the rear of the Russian army on its line of communications and to attack its magazines Rügenwalde (actual Darłowo), Zanow (actual Sianow), Köslin (actual Koszalin). Württemberg wished that Werner would be able to repeat his exploits of 1760, thus forcing the Russians to retreat. Werner's corps counted some 2,300 men and consisted of:

However, the screen of Russian light troops soon detected Werner's movements. The Russians then encircled and captured part of his force including Werner himself.

On September 13, the remnants of Werner's force managed to return to Neumark.

Platen comes to the rescue

On September 11, Frederick decided to send a small corps under Platen in a raid in Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) against the Russian supply lines. Platen was instructed to destroy Russian magazines in Greater Poland and to return to the main body. If this proved to be unfeasible, Platen had to head for Pomerania and to reinforce the corps of the Prince von Württemberg at Colberg.

After Platen's initial successes, Buturlin got frightened and instructed Dolgoruki with the 3rd Division to cover Rumyantsev's operation. Meanwhile, Berg also sent Filipovich toward Posen (actual Poznań).

In the night of September 17 to 18, Rumyantsev attacked the entrenchment erected on the beach and the Grüne Schantze (Green Redoubt) works, capturing the entrenchment on the beach.

In the night of September 18 to 19, Rumyantsev renewed his attack on the Grüne Schantze and the Sternschantz. The Russians initially captured the Grüne Schantze but were driven back by Thadden's counterattack at the head of 5 bns. Rumyantsev then sent additional regiments against this work and a stubborn fight ensued. The Russians finally retired after losing some 800 men killed and 2,000 wounded. After these unsuccessful attempts, Rumyantsev realized that this method did not work. He then limited his actions at firing at the fortress from the sea, blockading the place and reinforcing his own entrenchments.

On September 22, after an engagement at Landsberg, Platen decided to head for Colberg, pursued by Russian troops. During this time, the Prussian besieged at Colberg erected a second line of fortification on the Bullewinkel hill with more advanced outworks (XXIX and XXII). The Prussians had very few provisions left when they heard that general Platen was advancing to the relief of Colberg with some provisions.

On September 26, Platen reached Arenswalde (unidentified location).

On September 27, Platen formed a junction with part of the cavalry of the Prince of Württemberg.

During the following days, colonel Kleist was sent out to Stettin (actual Szczecin) for supplies (food, forage and ammunition).

On September 30, Platen attacked major Wettitz at Körlin, capturing 67 men.

Platen now headed towards Spie (actual Błotnica), approaching Colberg. Rumyantsev sent out Brandt with a strong detachment to prevent Platen from reaching Colberg. However, Brandt did not get to Spie in time and Platen was able to force the Russian defenses and to reach the camp of the prince of Württemberg with reinforcements. Supplies were now running short in the Prussian camp.

Kleist never got a chance to reach Colberg with his supply convoy which was captured near Gollnow (actual Goleniów) in mid October.

Platen ordered to build redoubt XXXII on the hills near Prettmin. Furthermore, he fortified the approaches to Spie with XXXV. At the village Bork, fortifications (XXXIV and XXXIII) were erected along the lake.

On October 8, most of the volunteers of the Russian Navy got back to their ships. A single battalion of 618, under captain Spiridov, remained with Rumyantsev's army.

On October 11, most of the ships of the Russian fleet sailed away. However, Spiridov's battalion stayed at Colberg till the end of the campaign.

Württemberg sends out Platen to bring back supply

Württemberg resolved to make another attempt to supply his army by sending out Platen with a strong force (8 bns, 42 sqns).

On October 17, Platen set off from Prettmin.

On October 18, Platen reached Gollnow.

On October 19, Platen encamped at Schwanteshagen (present-day Świętoszewo).

On October 20, Dolgoruki crossed the Persante river and encamped at Garrin. The same day, Platen detached Courbières towards Zarnglaf (unidentified location) with 1 grenadier battalion and 450 hussars to reconnoitre the Russian positions and to buy food in the surrounding country. Courbières was finally encircled and forced to surrender near Zarnglaf.

A ring of Russian forces was now rapidly tightening around Platen's force. Constantly harassed, Platen reached Gollnow where he was reinforced by IR42 Kleist Fusiliers. The convoy from Stettin joined him there.

On October 22, the Russian corps of Fermor and Berg attacked and captured Gollnow. However, Platen had previously retired and deployed in a strong position. Fermor reconnoitred his position but did not attack. Platen was now unable to return to Colberg. The same day, Rumyantsev launched an attack on the Prussian entrenched camp at Prettmin. After resisting an entire day, the Prussians retired under the cover of night and the Russians immediately took possession of the camp.

On November 1, Rumyantsev summoned the prince of Württemberg to capitulate but his offer was declined. With supplies running very short, Württemberg finally resolved to break through the Russian blockade with his corps. Hoping that winter would force the Russians to retire, he strengthened his position at Colberger Deep which was his only way out in case of a retreat. A vessel charged with grain was requisitioned and provided provisions for 15 days.

Württemberg breaks through the blockade

During the night of November 13 to 14, leaving only a garrison of 4 battalions in Colberg, Württemberg marched out of his camp.

On November 15 in the morning, Württemberg set off for Treptow (actual Trzebiatów), chasing Russian detachments before him. The same day, advancing to make a junction with Württemberg, Platen reached Greiffenberg.

On November 25, Rumyantsev ordered brigadier Brandt to take position on the left bank of the Persante from Colberg to Spie to prevent any relief to reach the fortress.

Württemberg tries to relieve Colberg

On November 29 and 30, the combined corps of Württemberg and Platen marched from Regenwalde (actual Resko) to Neugarten (unidentified location) where they waited for a convoy of supplies arriving from Stettin.

On December 10 at 10:00 PM, a Prussian convoy of 1,000 wagons arrived at Treptow with supplies, forage and ammunition.

On December 11, Württemberg marched from Treptow in 2 columns, escorting the convoy.

Second (left)column (25 sqns, 13 bns) First (right) column (23 sqns, 13 bns)
General Schenckendorf General prince von Württemberg assisted by general von Platen

The convoy was escorted by:

It was snowing and the day was cold. The first column marched by Gollantsch (actual Gołańcz Pomorska) and Drenow (actual Drzonowo), the second by Zarben (actual Sarbie). Near Neumühle (actual Namyslin), the first column came to a halt. It was facing Berg's corps consisting of 1,000 grenadiers, 4,000 horse and 6 guns covered by redoubts built 2 months earlier by the Prussians. Württemberg did not dare to attack Berg position with his sole first column, fearing heavy losses. While awaiting the arrival of his second column, he bombarded the Russian position without any siginificant result. Upon arrival of the second Prussian column, Berg retired. He also informed Rumyantsev of the movement of the Prussian army. Württemberg resumed his advance leaving the Rothenburg grenadier battalion along with Kalckstein volunteers in the abandoned Russian positions at Neumühle.

Württemberg fights at Spie (actual Błotnica)

Württemberg still had with him about 7,000 infantrymen in 31 bns and 2,600 horse in 46 to 48 sqns (a squadron of Plettenberg Dragoons and another of Malachowski Hussars had been captured at Treptow on October 25). The only road to Colberg led through the village of Spie and its river, Prettmin and Sellnow (actual Zieleniewo). To break through towards Colberg, Württemberg had to take possession of the hills near Prettmin. However, before gaining these hills, he had to capture a small redoubt defended by a Russian grenadier battalion (about 670 men with 4 unicorns) under the command of captain Stackelberg. General Berg had deployed its right wing above this redoubt while his centre and left wing extended in the forest. Moreover, the Russians had time to throw 10 bns, 10 sqns and 1 pulk of cossacks on the hills next to Prettmin. Meanwhile, Württemberg instructed Schenckendorf to attack Spie with the grenadier battalions of Bock, Busch, Kleist and Beneckendorf (about 1000 men). These battalions were supported by a second line consisting of Ramin and Dohna infantry regiments and of the Württemberg and Finckenstein dragoon regiments. Meanwhile, the Prussian artillery was planted on a hill to the left of the road leading to Spie, supported by the Grenadier Battalion Schwerin. They were just opposite the redoubt of Green Hill on which they opened fire during 2 hours. The first Prussian attack lasted about an hour but was finally repulsed.

A second attack was launched against Green Hill. This time, the second line took part to the assault. The hill was surrounded and finally captured after fierce hand to hand fighting. The Russian defenders retiring from Green Hill were caught by Werner Hussars hussars and by the Bosniaks. Captain Stackelberg, 2 officers and 270 men (mostly wounded) were taken prisoners. The rest of the unit laid on the battelfield. This Prussian success was short lived. Russian reinforcements poured on the Prettmin hill, soon 20,000 men with a strong artillery took position on the hill. The artillery started to bombard the new Prussian positions on Green hille. The prince of Württemberg decided to retreat. In this action, he had lost 2 officers, 6 NCOs and 50 privates dead; 17 officers and 542 privates wounded. Most of the wounded froze to death.

While Württemberg fought at Spie, colonel Lossau successfully defended Drzonowo against 1,000 Russian horse (probably cossacks). To do so, he could count on Ruesch and Malachowski hussars along with 200 men from Falkenhayn Grenadier Battalion under the command of captain Krahn. During the fight, they received support from IR34 Prinz Ferdinand.

Colberg surrenders and Württemberg takes his winter quarters

By December 13, Württemberg's corps now numbered less than 8,000 men. Some men died from the cold while other deserted. Many were caught by the Russian cossacks and hussars. Württemberg marched in two columns still escorting the convoy. His rearguard consisted of the grenadier battalions of Schwerin, Kleist, Beneckendorf, the Kalckstein volunteers and Wunsch Frei-Infanterie along with Ruesch and Malachowski hussars. The retreating Prussians marched by Treptow, Świerzno, Buk (unidentified location) and Stargard.

On December 17, the Prussian rearguard along with IR45 Kassel made a stand at Gollnow. They were unable to stop the Russians but gave Württemberg enough time to retire with the main body.

Meanwhile siege operations continue

On November 14, the Russian army did not immediately discover that Württemberg's corps was retiring from its camp and retreating.

On November 15, colonel Saltykov informed Rumyantsev of the retreat of Württemberg's corps. Colonel Gerbel was designated as the main engineer for the siege of Colberg. Now that Württemberg's corps had escaped from the blockade around Colberg, Rumyantsev faced only 4 Prussian battalions. While the prince of Württemberg was desperately trying to bring back supply to the garrison, Rumyantsev had much latitude to intensify siege operations.

In the night of November 16, the Russians planted a first battery of 3 howitzers on Wolfsberg. They bombarded the town from 9 to 12 AM.

On November 17, the Russians captured redoubts XIV and XV and planted a second battery of 3 x 12-pdrs and 2 mortars. They bombarded the fortress from 8 AM till 5 PM.

On November 18, the Russians mounted a third battery on Münde Kirchen and reinforced their first battery on Wolfsberg with 3 additional howitzers. A fourth battery of 3 howitzers was established between Hohenberg and the ditch by Lauenberg.

On November 19, the Russians bombarded the town for 3 hours. The same day, 2 ships trying to bring supply to the garrison of Colberg were captured near Münde where 2 small guns had been installed.

In the night of November 20, Gerbel mounted a fifth battery of 5 x 12 pndrs between Sankt Nicolaus church and the Persante river, and a sixth on the Maykuhle hill. This day, the town was bombarded during 2 hours.

On November 21, when the Russians captured another ship, Heyden ordered to destroy the bridge near the Münde gate.

On November 22, Russian troops took positions along the ditch of Laufgraben near the glacis.

On November 23 at 2:00 AM, a Prussian patrol of 11 men was captured by Lauenburg. During the day, Gerbel ordered to take Sankt Georg church where he planted a seventh battery (3 x 6-pdrs) and bombarded the town for 2 hours.

On November 24, siege work continued. During the night, Russian troops took possession of the glacis, built a redoubt, opened a parallel and planted an eighth battery (4 x 12-pdrs and 2 howitzers)

From November 25 to 30, the artillery on each side fired intensively and a large number of the city houses were destroyed. The cold was exhausting all fighting men.

On November 28, Rumyantsev sent captain Bock to summon the Prussian garrison who refused to surrender. Russian troops then moved closer to the fortress.

On November 29, the Russians took the Geldern bastion which was burned three days later.

On December 1, Rumyantsev momentarily interrupted the bombardment and sent a letter to offer to the Prussian garrison to capitulate. Upon the refusal of his offer, bombardements resumed.

On December 4, Gerbel started the construction of a great battery extending from the glacis to the Munde hornwork.

On December 7, a bridge was thrown on the Persante near the fifth Russian battery.

On December 9, the great battery (22 guns) was completed. It opened on the fortress at 8:00 ???AM/PM???.

By December 10, the Russian had captured a total of 12 Prussian ships who had attempted to supply Colberg. Nevertheless, Heyden stubbornly continued to defend the fortress.

On December 12, villagers informed Heyden of the disaster of the rescue expedition led by the prince of Württemberg.

On December 13, the marshes and rivers around Colberg froze due to intense cold. Heyden's situation was now desperate. Russian troops surrounded Colberg with strong posts at Sellnow, on the Kartofelsberg, Binnenfeld, Maykuhle and Munde. Rumyantsev's headquarters were at Skronie (maybe Krühne). His first division under the command of Dolgoruki was at Zernin (actual Czernin) while the second division commanded by Olic was deployed near Niemierzyn (probably Nehmer). Some Russian troops were also assembled in the suburbs of Colberg, preparing to assault the fortress. Finally, Iakolev occupied Colberger Deep (actual Dzwirzyno) with 2 infantry regiments.

Heyden then received a new proposal of capitulation carried by captain Bock. Answer should be given by December 16. Heyden had now no hope of being rescued, and supplies were almost exhausted. Furthermore the frozen canal and river were all but useless for the defense of the place. Finally, in such conditions, the isolated Prussian garrison of Colberg surrendered on December 16. The act of capitulation had 28 points.

Aftermath

At Colberg, Rumyantsev captured 2,929 men (2,402 privates, 71 artillerymen, 263 NCOs, 88 officers, the rest coming from services, other units and doctors), 146 guns, 50,000 rounds of ammunition, 30,000 cannonballs, 3,000 bomb, 28 standards and colours, and recovered 236 Russian prisoners.

The new Russian garrison consisted of 2 regiments of infantry (Kegsgolmskiy and Riazanskiy, 6th Converged Grenadier Battalion and 300 horse). Gerbel became commander of Colberg, assisted by Renenkampf.

Russian troops took their winter quarters in Pomerania while the prince of Württemberg took his in Mecklenburg.

References

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Acknowledgments

Tomasz Karpiński from Gniezno/Poznań for the initial version of this article