1761 - Siege of Kassel
The siege lasted from February 17 to March 28, 1761
In February 1761, Ferdinand of Brunswick, who had noticed the bad deployment of the French army in its winter-quarters and resolved to surprise and attack them. He assembled his army in three corps to launch an offensive in Hesse.
By February 9, the Allied army was completely assembled at the assigned points of rendezvous. The main body was posted on the Diemel under Ferdinand's personal command to march to the Eder, cross this river and advance on Kassel.
On February 11, Ferdinand crossed the Diemel River.
On February 13, the French evacuated Münden and Witzenhausen and the garrisons of these places took refuge in Kassel,
On February 14, at 7:00 p.m., leaving his brother the Comte de Broglie to command the garrison of Kassel (14 bns), the Duc de Broglie marched on Melsungen while Saint-Pern retreated to Friedewald.
Kassel is located on an eastern foothill (Rammelsberg and Kratzenberg) of the Habichtswald. The older part of the city was established along the Fulda River, while the newer parts of the city expanded on the slopes of these foothills. To the northeast, east and south of the city, in the direction of Wolfsanger, Sandershausen , Bettenhausen and Waldau, the terrain was flat and open. In the northwest and north, Kassel was dominated by the Rothenberg, the Hohe Eiche and the Möncheberg from which the city could be shelled.
The Fortress of Kassel was not particularly strong. Furthermore, as mentioned above, several hills dominated the place. However, the defensive works newly erected by Landgrave Friedrich II around the Ober-Neustadt (Upper New Town) had been increased and strengthened by the French.
In Kassel the Comte de Broglie was assisted by M. de Rochechouart; M. de Saint-Victor, lieutenant-colonel of Navarre Infanterie as king's lieutenant; M. d'Hallot as artillery commander; M. Vaublanc, major of Navarre Infanterie, as chief of the "Neustadt"; M. Durand, major of Belzunce Infanterie, as chief of the old city; and M. Palys de Montrepos as engineer charged with the defence of the place.
Despite the efforts of the Comte de Broglie to gather supplies, the garrison had not enough provisions and forage to sustain a long siege. However, it had enough ammunition to last until the end of April. The Comte de Broglie had placed mines and reinforced the defensive works of the place.
The garrison (14 bns for a total of 7,718 foot and 375 horse and light troops) left at Kassel consisted of:
- Navarre Infanterie (4 bns)
- Belzunce Infanterie (4 bns)
- Aquitaine Infanterie (2 bns)
- Durfort Infanterie (2 bns)
- Condé Infanterie (2 bns)
- Provence Infanterie (detachment of 300 men)
- Selected mounted troops (375 men) from
- V. and VI./Corps Royal de l'Artillerie (detachment of 16 officers, 10 sergeants, 300 men) under Lieutenant-Colonel d'Hallot
By March 1, the siege corps (7,535 men) of the Count of Schaumburg-Lippe consisted of 26 bns (each battalion counted between 200 and 400 men), 7 sqns, and some light troops:
- Hanoverian troops
- Ahlefeld Infantry (1 bn) joined the siege corps only on February 26
- Bock Infantry (1 bn)
- Dreves Infantry (1 bn) joined the siege corps only on February 26
- La Chevallerie Infantry (1 bn)
- Mecklenburg (1 bn) probably a converged grenadier bn, from February 24, it guarded the heavy artillery
- Plessen Infantry (1 bn) joined the siege corps only on February 26
- Quernheim (1 bn) probably a converged grenadier bn
- Rieben (1 bn) probably a converged grenadier bn
- Schulenburg Infantry (1 bn) joined the siege corps only on February 26
- Waldhausen (1 bn) probably a converged grenadier bn
- Wangenheim Converged Grenadier Battalion (1 bn)
- Wrede Infantry (1 bn)
- Einsiedel Cavalry (2 sqns) unidentified unit
- Jüngermann Cavalry (2 sqns)
- Hessian troops
- Brunswicker troops
- Schaumburg-Lippe- Bückeburg troops
- Siege Park
- 16 x 24-pdr guns
- 6 x 12-pdr guns
- 8 heavy mortars
N.B.: Renouard includes 4 Hanoverian bns which joined the corps only on March 12, we removed them from the list. Furthermore, 2 Hessian units are listed as counting only 1 bn while they counted 2 bns. Despite these adjustments, 2 bns are still missing in this list, maybe some Hessian rgts with 2 bns instead of 1 bn as listed.
The resources of the vicinity of Kassel had been completely exhausted. Rainy weather and thaw, that were just beginning, had transformed roads into quagmires and made the flats along the Fulda River unusable for the attack. Furthermore, the nearby Weser River was still covered with ice and could not be used to transport supply for the siege corps.
Description of events
The Allies open the trench
On February 17, Gilsa's Corps reinforced by part of the Allied army, was placed under the command of the Count of Schaumburg-Lippe for the planned siege of Kassel. This siege corps took quarters between Kalden and Ehlen.
On February 19, the siege corps (then only 19 bns and 7 sqns) moved closer to Kassel and took up quarters between Harleshausen, Obervellmar, Frommershausen, Niedervellmar and Ihringshausen. The Count of Schaumburg-Lippe established his headquarters at Obervellmar and his provision magazine in Carlshafen.
With the arrival of the siege corps, there was lively activity in Kassel, namely in the strengthening of the fortifications, particularly on its northeastern side, where three interconnected lunettes were built on the road leading to Wolfsanger.
On February 20, Ferdinand sent the Stockhausen Freikorps and the Linsing Jäger Brigade to reinforce the siege corps of the Count of Schaumburg-Lippe. Oberkaufungen, Gudensburg, Allendorf and Witzenhausen were occupied by Allied light troops. Captain von Riedesel took position at Lanwehrhagen with the Roth Hussars. The artillery park was established at Kalden, guarded by 1 bn.
On February 21, the Allies began to erect two redoubts near the Tannenwald near Obervellmar and on the Warteberg near Niedervellmar to cover the road leading from Kassel to Hofgeismar.
The Count of Schaumburg-Lippe received 4 additional mortars belonging to his own artillery and 6 twelve-pdr guns belonging to Oheimb's Corps.
On February 22, the Count of Schaumburg-Lippe established two encampments near Kassel: the first between Harleshausen and Obervellmar, the second near Frommershausen. The preparation for the siege immediately began under the direct supervision of Ingenieur-Major du Frainoy, but the bad weather delayed everything. With his small siege corps, the Count of Schaumburg-Lippe could not invest Kassel. He chose to concentrate his attack against the northeast side of the fortress
On February 23, the Allies established two camps between the Warteberg and Ihringshausen. Meanwhile, the French sent the Chevalier de Jaucourt with 4 grenadier and chasseur coys and 200 horse to reconnoitre the outposts of the Allies on the Hohe Eiche. This reconnaissance party drove the Allied troops occupying this outpost back to Ihringshausen, but was then stopped by the Bückeburg Carabiniers and 1 Hessian bn. In this action, the carabiniers had a few men wounded and 8 horses killed or wounded.
The same day (February 23), Spörcken detached Major-General Scheele with 8 bns to reinforce the Count of Schaumburg-Lippe who was taking dispositions to lay siege to Kassel which was now defended by the Comte de Broglie with 14 bns and some cavalry and light troops. On the same day, the garrison made a sortie against the Allied lines.
On February 24, a bridge was built over the Fulda near the Kragenhof to establish communication with the troops of Lieutenant-Colonel Stockhausen.
On February 25, Stockhausen's light troops captured 54 men from a French detachment of 100 foot and 30 horse, which had come to Oberkaufungen to take cattle.
On February 25 at 9:00 p.m., French detachments came out of the Fortress of Kassel to destroy the bridge established at the Kragenhof. The first detachment under the Brigadier Marquis de Rochechouart consisted of 20 grenadier coys, the Royal-Nassau Hussards, Schomberg Dragons and the Volontaires de Saint-Victor, with some pontoniers and workers and 16 artillery horses transporting material to set fire to the bridge. The second detachment under the Chevalier de Jaucourt. consisted of the Volontaires Étrangers de Clermont Prince, the Volontaires d'Austrasie, the cavalry of the Royal Brigade, 2 chasseur coys, 100 foot and 2 regimental guns. The second detachment would make a demonstration against Niedervellmar and Frommershausen while the first detachment would set fire to the bridge. Jaucourt fulfilled his mission, but Rochechouart did not accomplish anything because the swollen Nieſte stream near Sandershausen had made further advance impossible and, moreover, an Allied patrol had spotted his advance.
On February 26 at 6:00 a.m., Rochechouart's detachment entered Kassel without having fulfilled its mission. The Comte de Broglie sent 100 light troops and 60 foot to bring back cattle from Oberzwehren and Niederzwehren.
On the same day (February 26), the Count of Schaumburg-Lippe received eight additional mortars belonging to the Hessian Contingent. The same day, Scheele's detachment joined the siege corps. This infantry detachment consisted of
- Hanoverian Dreves (1 bn)
- Hanoverian Schulenburg (1 bn)
- Hanoverian Plessen (1 bn)
- Hanoverian Ahlefeld (1 bn)
- Hessian Mansbach (2 bns)
- Hessian Bischhausen (2 bns)
On February 27, the Count of Schaumburg-Lippe established his headquarters in Niedervellmar.
On March 1, Allied picquets occupied the Fasanenhof (pheasant farm) near Kassel and the village of Wolfsanger. The same day, the French sent a detachment of 12 grenadier and chasseur coys, 500 foot and 200 horse under Lieutenant-Colonel von Gelb to Bergshausen to bring back fallen trees in Kassel. The Comte de Broglie also threatened to set Kassel afire if ever the Allies attacked the "Neustadt."
In the night of March 1 to 2, Major-General von Dreves with 10 bns and 800 workers came out of the Allied camp and opened the trench on the Möncheberg between the Fasanenhof and the Schafhof, unmolested by the garrison of Kassel, whose attention had been drawn to a sham attack led against the entrenchments of the Reissberg by 400 Allied foot and 2 sqns under Colonel Jüngermann. The first parallel soon reached the Butlar Garden and was manned by 4 bns. Work immediately began on a first battery. This first parallel was some 1,300 m from the defensive works of Kassel and only 1,000 m from the new French entrenchments.
In the night of March 2 to 3, the first battery of the Allies was completed and equipped with 6 twelve-pdrs. The Comte de Broglie made a sortie but was repulsed with heavy loss.
On March 3 in the afternoon, the French artillery pieces established near the Müller Gate fired at the trenches without success. The Allies threw a bridge on the Ahne River and began to build a battery for 8 twelve-pdrs on the right bank of the Ahne stream behind the Durosey Garden.
In the night of March 3 to 4, the Allies started to work on a new battery located on their right wing, behind the Durosey Garden. From there, the Allies could take the new French entrenchments and the Annaberger Gate under their fire. This battery would gradually be transformed into a star fort.
In the night of March 4 to 5, the Allies extended their first parallel up to the Durosey Garden.
On March 5, all the infantry of the siege corps moved to a new camp with its right wing extending from the Rothenberg near Rothenditmold to the Ahne stream, and its left wing from the so-called Hohe Eiche towards the heights near Wolfsanger. A redoubt was also established on the Rothenberg, on the right wing of these new positions. The Count of Schaumburg-Lippe established his headquarters in Wolfsanger. Service in the trenches required 9 bns, including 2 bns in the parallel and the rest kept in reserve behind or occupying outposts.
In the night of March 5 to 6, the Allies continued to work at their parallel and began to build a new batteries on the left wing of the parallel for 4 twelve-pdrs and in the gorge between the Möncheberg and the Butlar Garden for 4 mortars. The same night, the French established a place of arms in front of the battery of the Allied left wing. The Comte de Broglie transferred the hospital to the Brüderkirche and ordered to erect gallows in the main place to deter any looter.
On March 6, the Allies worked to complete their batteries on each wing of the first parallel. Four mortars were placed in the now completed battery located on their left wing, between the Butlar Garden and the Möncheberg.
The French make a very successful sortie
In the night of March 6 to 7, Major-General von Dreves was posted in the trenches with 8 bns (1 bn of each of the following rgts: Mansbach, Wutginau, Leibregiment, Stammer Grenadiers, Redecker Grenadiers, Grenadier Battalion Wangenheim, Riebe??, Waldhausen??).
On March 7 just before daybreak, part of the French garrison (3,000 foot, 300 horse) under the Marquis de Rochechouart launched a surprise attack, advancing in three columns; each column was followed by 200 workers. A cavalry detachment also came out of the Kratzenberg entrenchments to attack the rear of the trenches.
The Allied troops occupying the trenches (the Hessian Leibregiment and maybe Grenadier Battalion Wangenheim) abandoned their post without opposing any resistance and the centre column (3 bns), personally led by Rochechouart, made itself master of the battery between the Möncheberg and the Butlar Garden containing the 4 thirty-three-pdr mortars, capturing these pieces and blowing up their ammunition store. Major-General Dreves personally rode to the Fasanenhof, where Mansbach Infantry was posted and ordered it to advance against the right flank of the French.
The left column (2 bns and the cavalry), under the Chevalier de Jaucourt, advanced against the large battery located behind the Durosey Garden, but no gun had not yet been deployed in it. The detachment defending the battery fled without opposing any resistance and Jaucourt destroyed it.
The right column (2 bns) of the French, under Lieutenant-Colonel von Gelb, did not meet much success. In the centre, the French reached the battery (6 x 12-pdrs) located in the Butlar Garden and started to nail the guns but were driven back before completing their task (only 1 gun was nailed).
As soon as the alarm spread, the Allied reserve hurried to the trenches. Furthermore, the Count of Schaumburg-Lippe had the rest of his corps put in readiness. Lieutenant-General Gilsa came to the rescue of the right wing with fresh bns. For his part, the Count of Schaumburg-Lippe came to the support of the centre and managed to rally the Hessian Leibregiment and then advanced against the French at the head of this regiment along with Grenadier Battalion Wangenheim and Gilsa Fusiliers. The French finally retired into the Fortress of Kassel, after filling up the first parallel.
In this action, the Allies lost 317 men killed or wounded, 2 officers and 25 soldiers taken prisoners and 4 mortars. For their part, the French lost 3 officers and 49 men killed and 6 officers and 143 men wounded.
In the night of March 7 to 8, the Chevalier de Jaucourt at the head of 8 grenadier and chasseur coys and 150 horse marched to Gudensberg to send strong patrols from there to Felsberg and Fritzlar to find out about the strength and position of the Allied army, to destroy the magazines located in Felsberg and to bring back cattle. In Gudensberg, there were some convalescent hussars and jägers and several magazines.
On March 8, Jaucourt returned to Kassel with 23 prisoners, including 2 officers.
The Allies resume the siege
By March 10 at 5:00 p.m., the Count of Schaumburg-Lippe had completed the batteries, which had been under construction since the French sortie. These three batteries (a total of 16 guns and some mortars) opened on the Fortress of Kassel. The construction of another battery for 4 twelve-pounders was also begun in front of the Kratzenberg, in the centre of the first parallel. The Count of Schaumburg-Lippe, at the instigation of Duke Ferdinand, ordered all battalions of his siege corps had to replenish their ranks with recruits and convalescents.
The Comte de Broglie organised a detachment of volunteers whose purpose was to harass the besiegers during their nightly work in the parallel.
In the night of March 10 to 11, the Count of Schaumburg-Lippe attacked Kassel and drove the French from the entrenchment made to contain his main attack.
On March 11, 4 mortars were added to the battery located in front of the parallel. The same day, Colonel von Otten arrived at Kassel with 4 bns (Alt-Zastrow, Jung-Zastrow, Post, Scheither) to reinforce the siege corps.
Still the same day (March 11), the Duc de Broglie marched with all his army to relieve Kassel.
On March 12, the batteries of the Allies cannonaded Kassel until 5:00 p.m. and the French artillery answered with a lively fire. The earthworks of the besiegers progressed as slowly because of the rocky terrain on the heights and marshes in the hollows.
On March 13, the more numerous French artillery established its superiority over the artillery of the Allies, who established an additional battery (2 x 100-pdr mortars, 2 x 50-pdr mortars, 2 x 24-pdr guns) near the twelve-pdrs battery in front of the centre of the first parallel.
In the night of March 14 to 15, the Allies established a new battery (4 x 24-pdrs) in front of the Köhler Garden, while the besieged repaired the damage inflicted to the covert way and built defensive works on the road to the Müller Gate.
By mid-March, provisions were running short in Kassel, with the lack of cattle and soldier were supplied with horsemeat.
It was also around that time that the lack of food, especially cattle for slaughter, was already very noticeable in the fortress, which is why the whole issue of horsemeat.
In the night of March 15 to 16, the Count of Schaumburg-Lippe opened a second attack from the left bank of the Fulda. Work began on a new battery (2 x 50-pdr mortars, 2 x 12-pdr guns) on this bank of the Fulda. This attack was directed against the Annaberger Gate.
In the night of March 16 to 17, the Allies threw a bridge on the Fulda River downstream from Wolfsanger. The bridge was covered by 1 bn and 100 men with 2 cannon. Furthermore, 4 thirty-pdr mortars arrived from Hameln at Hohenkirchen.
The same night (March 16 to 17) around 11:00 p.m., a party of 9 grenadier and chasseur coys under Dassat sallied from the Annaberger Gate in two columns and assaulted the redoubts of the new attack on the Fulda River, while 4 regimental guns were planted on the right bank of the Fulda, not far from the Wahlbach. This French detachment drove back the workers and then retired in good order. As soon as the detachment moved away, the 4 regimental pieces deployed on the right bank of the Fulda opened against the Allied battery located in front of the Köhler Garden, as well as on the redoubts. Simultaneously with this sortie, however, smaller detachments had sallied from the defensive works and attacked the right wing of the trenches, but they were repulsed.
On March 17 in the morning, a French detachment attacked and captured a detachment (1 officer, 22 men) of jägers and hussars stationed in Bettenhausen. The detachment then continued its advance into the village but was soon surrounded and forced to surrender.
In the night of March 17 to 18, both sides worked zealously at their entrenchments. The Allies established anew battery (2 x 12-pdr guns) on the right side of Durosey Garden.
On March 18, the Duc de Broglie, fearing for Ziegenhain and Kassel, accelerated his advance. the Count of Schaumburg-Lippe, fearing for his line of communication with the main army, detached Major-General Mansberg to Breitenbach with 2 bns (Scheither, Post).
In the following nights, the Allies continued to erect redoubts, flèches and communications, especially in the area close to the Fulda River.
In the night of March 21 to 22, the French began to lay mines, but also prepared for an attack, since the works to the left of Ahne stream were already pretty much destroyed by the artillery fire of the Allies and it could therefore be assumed that the besiegers would soon inflict more serious damage to those works. At 8:45 p.m., to prevent the expected assault, two French columns came out of Kassel. Captain von Berthamont led the right column (6 grenadier coys); while the left column (2 chasseur coys and the volunteers of the garrison) was led by the Captain de Milly.
Both columns, under cover of darkness, advanced, supported by a violent cannonade from the ramparts, against the nearest picquets of the Allies and immediately drove out the workers, who withdrew to the place of arms. Their progress was, however, soon stopped by the Allied infantry, who, aided by the flares thrown at the point of attack and by a very lively cannonade, scattered the 250 workers accompanying the French columns. In addition, the Allied troops posted in the first parallel and in Wolfsanger quickly came to the rescue, so that the Comte de Broglie, despite the efforts of many officers to rally the scattered workers, had to give the order for the two columns to withdraw under heavy fire from the Allies. During this sortie, another French detachment harassed an Allied outpost defended by 100 men in Sandershausen.
On March 22, the French cavalry tried to advance to Harleshausen from Kirchditmold but was driven back by Colonel Jüngermann.
In the night of March 22 to 23, the Allies established a new battery (2 x 3-pdr guns) in a ravine. The Comte de Broglie placed 2 bns in the covert way as the Allies progressed against the defensive works located on the left bank of the Ahne stream. From these bns, 2 chasseur coys and picquets were assigned to guard the defensive works, each day they were joined by 5 grenadier coys and 2 chasseur coys belonging to the garrison.
On March 23 in the afternoon, Captain von Wangenheim at the head of 100 fusiliers and 30 grenadiers stormed, without firing a shot, a small French redoubt behind the Mohnbach (a tributary of the Ahne stream) which was defended by 80 men. Soon afterwards, Wangenheim retired from the redoubt, leaving 24 men behind to protect the 60 workers who were demolishing it. A French detachment (the grenadier coys of I./Belzunce and III./Belzunce) under the Chevalier de Jaucourt then drove these workers out of the redoubt, which by that time had been almost completely demolished. The workers and their escort retired to the Ahne stream after suffering heavy losses. In this affair, the French lost 2 captains and 1 lieutenant killed, 3 officers wounded and 70 men killed or wounded.
On March 24, Colonel von Otten with 3 bns (Plessen, La Chevallerie, Bock) and 3 sqns (Einsiedel (2 sqns), Jüngermann (1 sqn)) was sent to reinforce Major-General Mansberg at Breitenbach. The Count of Schaumburg-Lippe also sent 10 hussars and 50 jägers to Major-General Mansberg to make reconnaissances. In the afternoon, both parties concluded a two-hour armistice to bury their dead, who lay in considerable numbers in front of the trenches.
In the night of March 24 to 25, the Allies completed their second parallel from the redoubt near Schafhof to the left bank of the Fulda River, as well as the redoubt on the hill in front of the defensive works on the left bank of the Ahne stream. The French, for their part, erected a new redoubt not far from the Müller Gate to replace the destroyed redoubt of the Mohnbach.
By March 25, the trenches of the Allies were within 450 m of the defensive works of Kassel.
In the night of March 25 to 26, French light troops came out of Kassel and their hussars patrolled the vicinity of Fritzlar, some peasants informed them that Duke Ferdinand has sent back his baggage.
On March 27 at 11:00 a.m., a message of the Maréchal de Broglie arrived in Kassel, informing the Comte de Broglie that the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick had been defeated on March 21 in the engagement of Grünberg. The French army had now re-established its communications with Kassel through Melsungen.
On the same day (March 27), the Count of Schaumburg-Lippe, fully informed of the recent events, received instructions from Duke Ferdinand to lift the siege of Kassel and took the proper dispositions. Bock Infantry was sent to Trendelburg to occupy the castle and the bridge over the Diemel River. A detachment of 30 Carabiniers, accompanied this battalion and was used to patrol the vicinity. The rest of Mansberg's detachment marched from Breitenbach to Niedenstein to occupy the Weißenstein hill, and sent a detachment of 100 foot and 30 horse to Ehlen to observe the road leading Wolfhagen. Another order specified that part of the heavy artillery should return to Münden and Hameln by water and that another part should march to Trendelburg. Major Roth (probably with the Roth Hussars) was instructed to occupy Burghasungen and to reconnoitre up to Wolfhagen. The regiments forming the right wing of the siege corps would recross the Ahne stream, leaving behind a detachment under Jüngermann. The troops in the trenches would not be relieved, but 3 bns reinforced the first parallel. Finally, the Reserve stationed near Wolfsanger would take position near the redoubt on the left bank of the Fulda.
On the night of March 27 to 28, the Count of Schaumburg-Lippe sent off his mortars and his heavy 24-pdr guns by way of Hohenkirchen. The Allies continued to occupy part of their trenches until 4:00 a.m. The Comte de Broglie sent M. de la Borde from Kassel with 1 bn and some grenadiers to take position on the right bank of the Fulda River with orders to get as close to Sandershausen as possible and to endeavour to cannonade the retreating Allied forces. The Comte de Broglie also sent some grenadiers and chasseurs to take possession of the third parallel, abandoned by the Allies.
On March 28 at 6:00 a.m., the Allies evacuated the second parallel and French chasseurs immediately occupied it. Allied troops were still posted inn the place of arms and in the first parallel. During this time, the Comte de Broglie was informed that wagons could be heard moving on the left bank of the Fulda River. He immediately detached 1 bn with 2 artillery pieces along the right bank of the river towards Wolfsanger, where it found a battery of 15 artillery pieces established to cover the retreat of the Allies. By noon, the siege corps had evacuated all the siege works. Part of it marched towards Niedervellmar and the other part towards Wolfsanger.
The retreat of the Allies was made more difficult by the fire from all the defensive works. The Comte de Broglie set off with 4 bns, all his grenadiers, chasseurs, the volunteers and all the cavalry, together with 3 eight-pdrs and 6 regimental guns, to follow the rearguard of the Allies. The Count of Schaumburg-Lippe established a battery of six-pdrs on the Hohe Eiche to fire on the right wing of the French. The Comte de Broglie, facing a superior force, decided to stop his advance and part of his troops and all his artillery returned to Kassel. Broglie spent the night in the siege works with the rest of his force. The Allies encamped between the Warteberg and Ihringshausen and west of Niedervellmar. Schaumburg-Lippe also sent 2 bns (Wurmb Militia and Alt Zastrow Infantry to escort the heavy artillery (6 x 24-pdrs) transported by water towards Hameln. Lieutenant Stockhausen was also instructed to cover this convoy from the right bank of the river, up to Münden where he would make a junction with some Hessian Jägers under Colonel Heister. Together these two detachments would then march to Adelebsen to reinforce the detachment of Colonel Rothenburg.
On the same day (March 28), the Maréchal de Broglie moved part of his army closer to Ziegenhain. He hesitated to throw additional troops in Kassel because the city was poorly supplied.
On March 29, the Allied siege corps took position between Frommershausen and Ihringshausen. Marsberg's detachment, who had joined the right wing of this corps, took position between Frommershausen and Obervellmar. The Brunswicker Roth Hussars and Jäger Corps took position in Heckershausen. Finally a chain of outposts was established between the Fulda River and the main camp. The light troops held their ground until the entire siege train had crossed the Weser River. Around 9:00 p.m., the Maréchal de Broglie arrived at Kassel.
On March 30, the garrison of Kassel advanced against the Allied siege corps, which retired between Hohenkirchen and Rothwesten. During this retreat, the French captured 100 men.
During the siege, the Allies had lost approx. 700 men; while the French had lost 45 officers and 668 men.
Kessel, E.: Das Ende des Siebenjährigen Krieges 1760-1763, Hrgb. von T. Linder, t. 1, Padeborn – München – Wien – Zürich 2007, pp. 142-149
Pajol, Charles P. V., Les Guerres sous Louis XV, vol. V, Paris, 1891, pp. 144-168
Renouard, Carl: "Geschichte des Krieges in Hannover, Hessen und Westfalen von 1757 bis 1763" – Vol. 3. Die Feldzuege von 1761 und 1762, Cassel 1864, pp. 133-156
Oliver Schmidt for the identification of sources