1762 - French campaign in West Germany – French attempts to relieve Kassel

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Campaigns >> 1762 - French campaign in West Germany >> 1762 - French campaign in West Germany – French attempts to relieve Kassel

Introduction

The general situation at the beginning of the year and the minor operations who took place before the opening of the campaign are described in our article Preliminary operations (March 10 to June 4, 1762).

The Allied approach on Kassel, the battle of Wilhelmsthal and the progressive retreat of the French Army of the Upper Rhine out of Hesse are described in our article Allied reconquest of Hesse (June 6 to July 15, 1762).

The manoeuvres of the Army of the Upper Rhine and those of the Reserve arriving from the Lower Rhine till their junction after the combat of Nauheim are described in our article French manoeuvres to make a junction of their two armies (July 16 to August 31, 1762).

Description

At the beginning of September, Prince Frederick of Brunswick was already blockading Kassel since several days. The French generals had now a marked superiority on Ferdinand's army. Nevertheless, they were still reluctant to risk a battle with him to relieve Kassel. Therefore, they preferred an indirect approach along the Lahn through the Principality of Waldeck.

For the next few days the two armies remained inactive, Ferdinand between the Nidder and Nidda with his headquarters at Staden, facing south-west, and the French opposite to him between Friedberg and Butzbach. Such a position, while forces were so unequal, could not continue for long.

By September 2, the Hereditary Prince's Corps was deployed between the Muntzenberg and Wölfersheim. It was soon reinforced by Hardenberg's Corps. The latter then assuming command to let the Hereditary Prince recover from his wound. Meanwhile, Luckner was in the region of Butzbach. The same day, Ferdinand marched from Bingenheim to Staden on the Horloff with the Main Allied Army, encamping on the left bank of the Nidda.

On September 3, Ferdinand's left marched between the Nidda and Nidder. Granby advanced to Steinheim near Hanau thus threatening the Saxon Contingent of Prince Xavier, encamped between Vilbel and Bergen. Luckner had to retire from Butzbach to Gambach. French light troops fought all day long on the heights near Bönstadt and Erbstadt. At night Allied jägers and Highlanders finally occupied these villages and the French light troops maintained their positions on the heights between these villages and Dorn-Assenheim and Ilbenstadt. The same day, the French Army of the Upper Rhine was deployed between Dorn-Assenheim and Friedberg while the Prince de Condé had taken position between Butzbach and Ostheim.

On September 5, Soubise moved Castries' Corps to Karben to support Prince Xavier at Vilbel. Meanwhile the Prince de Condé advanced to Butzbach and encamped at Hoch-Weisel, his right at Ostheim and his left behind Butzbach. Lévis' vanguard drove back all Allied troops posted on the right bank of the Wetter. Stainville's Corps replaced Condé's Army on the Johannisberg. The garrison of Hanau was also reinforced with Aquitaine Infanterie. Meanwhile Prince Xavier with the Saxon Contingent, a regiment of German cavalry, 1 sqn from Fitz-James Cavalerie and the Volontaires d'Austrasie took position at Bergen to protect Frankfurt and the French magazines on the Rhine. All these movements had been made to prepare a general advance towards Giessen.

On September 6, the French Army of the Upper Rhine marched to Hoch-Weisel, its left at Butzbach. Meanwhile, Condé's Army took position behind the Landwehr near Grüningen. Stainville made himself master of the bridge of Griedel after a brief resistance. Castries moved closed to Friedberg leaving some ligth troops along the Nidda. Ferdinand's army was still at Bingenheim.

In the night of September 6 to 7, Ferdinand left Bingenheim with his main army and marched to Hungen. In the following days, he gradually manoeuvred by his left towards the source of the Ohm, Wetter and Horloff, closely followed by Castries' and Lillebonne's light troops.

On September 7, the French Army of the Upper Rhine marched to Grüningen where it took position on the heights. Meanwhile, Stainville occupied Schiffenberg Abbey and Condé advanced to Annerod. Ferdinand, divining that their design was to cut him off from Kassel, which it was his own intention to capture, at once hurried northward to stop them. It was a race between the two armies. Hardenberg's Army marched from Muntzenberg to Arnsburg Abbey with Luckner now forming his right.

On September 8, Ferdinand marched from Hungen towards Grünberg with the Main Allied Army while Granby took position at Staden till noon when he finally retired to Ulfa.

On September 9, the French Army of the Upper Rhine marched to Burkhardsfelden. Its artillery could not keep pace and arrived only the following day. Soubise and d'Estrées planned to seize Homberg/Ohm and thus open communications with Kassel. Meanwhile, the Prince de Condé advanced to Gross-Buseck; and Prince Xavier remained at Bergen with the Saxon contingent. Furthermore, the Volontaires Royaux de Nassau, the Volontaires de Soubise and the Volontaires de Verteuil attacked the Allied detachment escorting the pontoon train. They pursued it up to Laubach and captured the pontoons as well as a large number of ammunition wagons and several prisoners. After breaking up the pontoons, the French light troops retired. The same day, Ferdinand with the Allied Main Army marched to Homberg/Ohm while Granby marched to Ober-Seibertenrod. By preventing the French at Homberg/Ohm, Ferdinand ruined their plan to relieve Kassel.

In the night of September 9 to 10, the Allies sent 2 bns to Laubach to repair the pontoons.

On September 10, Ferdinand took advantage of the delay of the French artillery and, marching night and day, he reached the heights of Grünberg. For their part, Luckner reached Kirchhain and Granby, Maulbach. Immediately, Stainville was detached with 10 bns, 3 dragoon rgts, the Légion Royale, the Chamborant Hussards and the Volontaires de Flandre to march up the Lahn up to Wetter. The French were travelling due north by Giessen and Marburg. The French marshals hoped that this manoeuvre would force the Allies to abandon their positions at Kirchhain and Homberg/Ohm. Meanwhile Castries marched to Oppenrod and Prince Xavier reached Friedberg. The same day, the French light troops, assisted this time by the Volontaires de Saint-Victor, renewed their attack on the pontoon train at Laubach, driving back the 2 Allied bns and making themselves masters of Laubach and of the pontoon train. In this action the French lost about 100 men mostly from the Volontaires de Soubise and Volontaires de Verteuil. After this action the light troops retired on Castries' Corps on the Lich.

In the night of September 10 to 11, Ferdinand decamped from Grünberg and marched to pass the Ohm at its sources. Castries followed the Allied army closely but could not catch with it before the Ohm, getting in contact only with Ferdinand's rearguard and capturing Dohna one of Ferdinand's aide-de-camp. Two of Castries' advanced piquets suffered some losses and were forced to retire. Ferdinand established his camp on the north bank of this river with his right towards Schweinsberg and his left beyond Homberg/Ohm, thus blocking the advance of the French armies.

On September 12, the French Army of the Upper Rhine passed the Lahn near Giessen and turned Marburg, repassing the Lahn near the mouth of the Ohm, and marched to Krofdorf where it encamped. Meanwhile, Condé's Army reached Fronhausen; Stainville advanced to Goßfelden; and Castries remained on the left bank of the Lahn at Staufenberg, observing the Allies. Light troops were detached by Ulrichstein behind the Allied lines to locate their magazines.

On September 13, the French Army of the Upper Rhine marched to Niederweimar. Stainville should occupied Wetter where he should be joined by Condé's Army. However, both were delayed and only their vanguards passed on the left bank of the Lahn, encamping on the heights between Marburg and Goßfelden. Meanwhile, Prince Xavier arrived at Langgöns and Castries advanced to the Ohm, establishing communications with the main army by Marburg and the bridge of Neumühle. The same day, Ferdinand marched to Kirchhain with the main Allied army and Granby replaced him at Schweinsberg with his right to Amöneburg where he established contact with Ferdinand's left wing under the command of Hardenberg and Bock. Ferdinand then sent reinforcements to his threatened right wing.

In the night of September 13 to 14, Ferdinand abandoned his positions and marched towards Frankenberg, leaving a strong garrison in Homberg/Ohm.

On September 14, the Allied Main Army encamped at Schwarzenborn; Granby at Schönstadt; and Luckner and Conway at Wollmar, between Wetter and Frankenberg. The latest manoeuvres of the French Army suggested that Soubise and d'Estrées were trying to turn the Allied right flank through the Country of Waldeck. Ferdinand resolved to dislodge Lévis' Corps from Wetter where it had been recently reinforced by Conflans' forces. Lévis was also supported by the Prince de Condé on the same side of the Lahn while the French Main Army was stationed on the opposite bank of the river. Ferdinand took the following dispositions:

  • the main body of the Allied Army would occupy the heights of Oberrosphe. Unterrosphe and Mellnau in front of Lévis
  • Granby's Corps would remain at Schönstadt, ready to support the main body or to prevent the crossing of the Ohm between Kirchhain and Burggemünden by a any French force
  • Conway would march by the right during the night of September 14 to 15 with a German detachment and Monpesson's Brigade and cross the Wetschaft Stream about 12 km above Wetter; he would then attack Lévis' left wing when he would see the Allied main body appear in front of the French positions
  • Luckner (jägers of the army, 6 grenadier bns, 2 cavalry rgts, Elliot's Dragoons, Luckner's Hussars) would march from Wollmar in a wide turning movement to get in the rear of the French left wing

The same day, unsure of the final destination of Ferdinand's march, the French Army of the Upper Rhine remained in its positions.

On September 15, all Allied Corps reached their assigned positions on time. Luckner, who had already reached Warzenbach, opened a cannonade on the hill overlooking Wetter, forcing French troops occupying this position to retire. He then opened on the town. Conway then appeared on the French left wing, driving back the Dragons Chasseurs de Conflans and other light troops posted on the nearby heights. Ferdinand's columns debouched from the woods near Mellnau. Lévis' forces retired with great precipitation to repass the Lahn. His rearguard was severely cannonaded during this retreat. Conway seize the heights to the right of the Wetter. Ferdinand then joined Conway at Wetter with the main army and all Allied Corps then encamped where they had formed. Allied positions now extended from Warzenbach on the Lahn to Homberg/Ohm.

In the night of September 15 to 16, Condé and Lévis made preparations to contain an Allied attack.

On September 16, the French Army of the Upper Rhine marched to Marburg where the French generals learned that Ferdinand had once more guessed their plan and prevented them on the Wetter. With the advance towards Kassel by their left immobilized, Soubise and d'Estrées recalled Prince Xavier and Castries to operate on their right. They then resolved to take very strong positions with their right at Marburg; their left at Michelbach; Stainville's corps covering their front at Goßfelden. Accrodingly, the Duc de Duras was sent with 3 infantry brigades to Lahnberge at the mouth of the Ohm; de Muy advanced with 3 infantry brigades to support Lévis who had retired from Amönau and now formed Condé's left wing near Michelbach and Wehrda; Prince Xavier arrived at Wieseck; and Castries encamped on the road to Kirchhain between Marburg and Großseelheim. Around 11:00 AM, the Allies abandoned their advanced positions and retired to positions between Homberg/Ohm and Kirchhain. Now the Lahn and the Ohm separated the two opponents. The same day, the vanguard under M. de Saint-Victor (Volontaires de Soubise, Volontaires Royaux de Nassau, with some cavalry and dragoons) passed the Ohm at the extremity of the Allied left wing and advanced on Alsfeld where it caught up with the Allied baggages and bakery retiring towards Neustadt. This vanguard made itself master of the Allied convoy, inflicting much damage, capturing several horses and hamstringing the rest. However, Freytag Jägers supported by some cavalry had immediately been sent in search for the French light troops, arriving just in time to save the train of bread wagons and forcing the French light troops to retire to the Ohm and to repass the river. Saint-Victor then recrossed the Ohm at Nieder-Ofleiden, between Schweinsberg and Homberg, pushing forward as far as Niederklein where he surprised the British mobile hospital which had not yet completed its evacuation. Saint-Victor captured several prisoners and horses. Granby's Corps soon forced this French detachment toretire. Granby then posted Hardenberg (6 bns, 8 sqns) on the heights of Rodeker (unidentified location) while he marched to Stausebach with the rest of his corps. Saint-Victor retired on Ziegenhain.

Ferdinand had taken post in full sight of the French Army on the opposite bank of the river, with his left at Homberg/Ohm and his right extended beyond Kirchhain. He had no intention of allowing the French to break through it to Kassel.

On September 17, the cavalry of the French Army of the Upper Rhine along with 8 infantry brigades took position in the Plain of Seelheim. Meanwhile, Castries attacked one of Hardenberg's redoubt and a mill near Schweinsberg with the Volontaires du Hainaut, taking all defenders prisoners. However, he was soon obliged to abandon this post because the Allies were still master of Amöneburg. He then took position at Roßdorf. The same day, M. d'Arembures at the head of the Volontaires d'Austrasie successfully attacked Freytag's cavalry, taking several prisoners.

On September 18, General Wangenheim (3 bns, 4 sqns) was sent to Dannenrod to replace Freytag who was still scouring the country in search of French light troops. The same day a French party reconnoitred the approaches to the Castle of Amöneburg.

On September 19, Soubise and d'Estrées reinforced their right wing, sending their Reserve to Deckenbach in front of Homberg (Ohm) and concentrating their main body between Bauerbach and Holzhausen (probably Rauischholzhausen). The French Armies were now deployed in positions extending from Goßfelden on their left to Haarshausen on their right. Meanwhile, the French continued to gather intelligence about the Castle of Amöneburg while the infantry assigned to the planned attack prepared gabions and fascines. The same day, Wangenheim's Corps was reinforced. Beckwith's Brigade (British Guards) and Maltzberg's Brigade occupied the heights of Langenstein. A battalion of the Légion Britannique garrisoned Amöneburg; Kirchhain was garrisoned by 400 men and the bridge over the Ohm at Brücker Mühle was guarded by 200 men belonging to Hardenberg's Corps.

Soubise and d'Estrées hoped that, by pushing Prince Xavier and Castries on the right bank of the Ohm to act in concert with the light troops already operating there, they could force the Allies to lift the blockade of Kassel. The Allies guarded the passage of the Ohm at the following locations:

  • Wangenheim at Homberg with 7 bns and 7 sqns
  • Zastrow at Langenstein with 6 Hanoverian rgts
  • Granby at Kirchhain
  • the bridge of the mill of Amöneburg was barricaded and guarded by a redoubt
  • the castle of Amöneburg was guarded by a a battalion of the Légion Britannique (about 600 men)

On September 20, Soubise and d'Estrées established their headquarters at Bauerbach near Marburg. Roth and Guerchy marched from Niederweimar to the Plain of Seelheim. Condé was still at Goßfelden. Prince Xavier's finally arrived on the Ohm where it joined Castries' Corps. These corps encamped in front of Homberg with their left near Amöneburg.

Combat of Amöneburg

The valley of the Ohm south-eastward from Kirchhain is about 1 km broad, rising gradually on the east bank of the river to a height called the Galgenberg, and on the western bank to a steep basaltic hill known as the Amöneburg. The Ohm itself between these hills is from 6 to 9 meters wide and from 1,5 to 2 meters deep, flowing between steep banks. Just to the south of the Amöneburg was a stone bridge by which stood a water-mill, consisting of a massive court with a group of houses. The steep sides of the Amöneburg frown close to it on the northern hand. To westward the ground rises in a gentle slope, through which a hollow road, covered by an old redoubt, ran down to the mill. The town and castle of the Amöneburg itself was surrounded with a wall and towers strong enough, on the south and south-western sides, to defy all but heavy artillery. The bridge with the mill and the castle beyond it were for some reason neglected by the Allies. There had been some attempt to secure the bridge itself, and a redoubt had been begun on Ferdinand's side of the river for its defence but the breastwork was not above one meter high and one meter thick, so that it could be commanded by an enemy's fire, and the more easily since the western or French bank of the river was the higher. The court of the mill was occupied by only 13 men" The old redoubt was probably not occupied at all. The garrison of the castle of Amöneburg consisted of a single battalion of irregulars. Yet the Amöneburg was an advanced post over against the French left wing and on the French side of the river and the possession of the bridge was of vital importance to the Allies. This bridge not only ensured communication with that advanced post but barred the advance of the French across the Ohm and secured to Ferdinand the means of taking the offensive. The carelessness which allowed these points to remain so slenderly guarded is therefore almost inexplicable. Seeing this, Prince Xavier and Castries decided to make themselves master of the town and the bridge.

In the night of September 20 to 21, the French planted batteries around the Castle of Amöneburg while Castries captured the bridge of the Brücker Mühle; de Muy advanced on the road to Kirchhain and Prince Xavier on the road to Homberg.

On September 21, the French launched simultaneous attacks against the caste and bridge. During the combat of Amöneburg, the French failed to gain a bridgehead on the right bank of the Ohm. The failure of the French attack decided the fate of Kassel and Hesse.

At 1:00 AM on September 22, the Allied defenders of the Castle Amöneburg finally surrendered due to the lack of ammunition. They had lost 25 killed and 17 wounded and were allowed, in the morning, to leave the castle with the honours of war and to rejoin the Allied army. The same day, Ferdinand transferred his headquarters to Kirchhain.

Consequence of the combat of Amöneburg

On the night of September 21 to 22, the French repaired their redoubts, retired all their guns to the exception of 3, erected a battery. Meanwhile, the Allies also reinforced their redoubt near the Brücker Mühle and made an entrenchment 100 paces in the rear of this redoubt. They also traced a large redoubt upon a hill within reach of grapeshot of the bridge.

Heavy rain rendered roads almost impracticable for a couple of weeks, seriously slowing down operations. Nevertheless, Ferdinand, who on his advance southward had left behind a force to blockade Kassel, was able within 3 weeks to spare troops enough for a regular siege.

On September 22, Ferdinand returned to his quarters which had been moved to Kirchhain. The Allies erected a battery on the causeway traversing a morass and leading to Kirchhain, and planted heavy guns in the churchyard of Kirchhain which represented the highest part of the town. The same day, after the capture of the Castle Amöneburg, a considerable body of French troops was posted between Amöneburg and Kleinseelheim. Meanwhile General Conway was ordered to abandon his positions at Wetter and to retire to the heights of Mellnau while Luckner took position at Niederasphe. The Allied Main Army changed positions and encamped with its right at Schönstadt and its left at Stausebach while Granby took position in front of Niederklein to be within reach to prevent any crossing at the Brücker Mühle. General Wangenheim remained on the heights near Dannenrod.

On September 23, the Dragons Chasseurs de Conflans advanced to Hatzfeld on the Eder and established outposts at Battenberg. From these positions, they could raid the country between the Ohm and the Fulda, threatening the communications of the Allies with the corps blockading Kassel. The same day, the former garrison of Amöneburg under Captain Crueze returned to the Allied lines.

On the morning of September 24, Poyanne's Corps (Navarre Brigade, Carabiniers Brigade, Bercheny Hussards, Volontaires du Hainaut and Volontaires de Verteuil) marched to pass the Ohm at Burggemünden and then advance on the Schwalm. Furthermore, a French party surprised one of Luckner's outpost, taking 1 officer and 30 privates prisoners. The same day, Freytag's Corps was at Treysa to prevent French incursions from Ziegenhain on the communications between Fritzlar and the Allied army. Still the same day, the French Army made a feu de joye to celebrate the capture of Almeida in Portugal.

On September 25, the French built a covered way between the hill of Amöneburg and the Brücker Mühle. The Allies built additional redoubts in the sector. By this time, the Ohm was fordable in many places and the Allies placed harrows in the most practicable fords to delay any attempt at crossing the river. The same day, Poyanne passed the Schwalm and made preparations to attack Freytag's Corps at Neukirchen but the latter retired.

On September 26 in the evening, Ferdinand, informed that the French had detached a corps under M. de Poyannes towards Alsfeld, sent Granby with 17 sqns, 1 infantry brigade and some heavy guns to attack it. Wangenheim made a junction with Granby's detachment while Beckwith's Brigade replaced him on the heights of Dannenrod. By midnight, Granby had reached Romrod.

In the night of September 26 to 27, Soubise sent M. de Caulincourt at the head of some cavalry and 3 bns of grenadiers and chasseurs to reinforce Poyannes. Furthermore, the Dragons Chasseurs de Conflans passed the Eder near Battenberg and advanced on Korbach.

On September 27, Ferdinand was informed that the Prince de Condé was marching on Siegen (present-day Siegen-Wittgenstein) in an attempt to turn the Allied right flank. Ferdinand immediately instructed General Conway to reoccupy the heights of Wetter, sent General Gilsa to replace him at Mellnau and Luckner to Warzenbach to prevent Condé from advancing throught the gorge of Kombach. Ferdinand also sent 3 bns to reinforce Granby. The same day, Granby learned that Poyanne's Corps had pushed forward up to Ziegenhain but had now retired to Eifa. Granby then marched on Alsfeld and Poyanne retired.

In the night of September 27 to 28, French deserters informed the Allies that the French intended to launch an attack on the left of the Allied position in the morning. Ferdinand then transferred 3 bns from his right to his left.

On September 28 at daybreak, Ferdinand personally went to Nieder-Ofleiden to observe the movements of the French Army. Everything being quiet, Ferdinand returned to Kirchhain. On his way, he met the 3 bns who were marching to reinforce the left wing and countermanded his order, sending them back to their former position.

On September 29, Poyannes returned to Alsfeld. The same day, Granby and the other Allied detachments sent to the pursuit of the French Corps who had advanced towards Alsfeld, all returned to their former positions. ???The same day???, Major-general Freytag intercepted a French cavalry detachment escorting wagons towards Ziegenhain, attacked and defeated it. In this affair the French lost 400 men killed, wounded or taken prisoners. This wagon tran was heading towards Ziegenhain to load meal to supply the garrison of Kassel.

On September 30, part of Poyannes' Corps still being in the neighbourhood of Ulrichstein, Wangenheim sent Major-general Alfelt at the head of a detachment (2 bns, 8 sqns) to attack it. At noon, Ferdinand went to the heights of Homberg/Ohm. Meanwhile, another French force occupied Burg-Gemünden and Freytag, who was posted at Maulbach, was instructed to attack it in the evening. The two French forces were driven back but they simply retired on Nieder-Ohmen. The same day, the French light troops previously occupying Ziegenhain reached Merzhausen

On October 1, M. de Caulincourt supported Poyannes at Gemünden while Conflans retired through Westphalia and Hesse to Berleburg (present-day Bad Berleburg).

By October 9, the French and Allied armies still occupied approximately the same positions. On this day at 11:00 AM, Conflans learned that General Luckner had marched from Belburg with a small detachment (2 sqns of the 15th or Eliot's Light Horse and some infantry) towards Schmallenberg and Laasphe (present-day Bad Laasphe). He immediately retired to Oberhundem awaiting intelligence on the size of the Allied force occupying Schmallenberg. He then advanced on Schmallenberg and attacked the place on both flanks: his hussars to the right of the town and his dragoons on the left while his grenadiers and chasseurs attacked frontally. The rest of his infantry covered the débouché towards Berleburg. The Allied detachment retired but was caught while doing so, losing 93 foot, 132 horse and 14 officers taken prisoners. Conflans then retired to Saalhausen.

On October 10, Conflans retired to Bilstein (unidentified location). The same day, two thirds of the Allied cavalry went into cantonments, the rest remaining in camp. Meanwhile the Allied infantry began to "hutt".

On October 12, the Allied Army fired a feu de joye to celebrate the reduction of Havana in the West Indies.

On October 15, the Allied Army fired another feu de joye, this time to celebrate the surrender of Schweidnitz. With forage becoming very scarce, half of the baggage of the Allied Army were ordered to be sent to the neighbourhood of Hameln.

In mid October, Ferdinand reinforced the corps blockading Kassel with 8 bns.

On October 16, after a blockade which lasted till August 18, trenches were finally opened before Kassel and the siege began under the direction of General Huth. The French made an unsuccessful sally. On this first day of siege, the Allies lost 20 men killed and several wounded.

On October 17 at noon, a French party made a successful sally from Kassel, filling part of the trenches and taking 104 prisoners.

On October 22, General Diesbach, the commandant of Kassel, made a sally with the whole garrison and drove back the Allied ordinary guard. Prince Frederick of Brunswick reacted rapidly and came to their support with 4 bns, forcing the French to retire into Kassel with great losses. They had no time to destroy the siege works.

On October 23, Kassel was besieged and bombarded.

By October 27, the deterioration of roads due to continuous rain, the long distance separating the French army from its magazines, and the considerable losses of horses, forced Soubise and d'Estrées to cantoned their cavalry 4 km behind their camp at Kleinseelheim, keeping only a few horses in each brigade.

On October 30 on the Lower Rhine, Cambefort took the city of Osnabrück which had no garrison to defend it.

On October 31, Cambefort plundered Osnabrück.

On November 1, lacking supplies, the city of Kassel surrendered to Prince Frederick of Brunswick. The garrison was allowed to leave the city with the honours of war and to join the French Army of the Upper Rhine. It was also allowed to bring a 12-pdr gun and a 4-pdr gun.

On November 2, the garrison of Kassel marched out of the city with the honours of war and rejoined the main French army.

In the first days of November, a Prussian Corps arrived on the Lippe and occupied the towns of Dortmund, Essen and Recklingshausen.

Continuation

The last phase of the campaign is described in the following article:

References

This article is essentially a compilation of texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Fortescue, J. W.; A History of the British Army Vol. II, MacMillan, London, 1899, pp. 547-557
  • Hotham (probably), The operations of the Allied Amy under the command of his Serene Highness Prince Ferdinand Duke of Brunswic and Luneberg beginning in the year 1757 and ending in the year 1762, London: T. Jefferies, 1764, pp. 270-281
  • Jomini, Henri; Traité des grandes opérations militaires, 2ème édition, 4ème partie, Magimel, Paris: 1811, pp. 160-187
  • Pajol, Charles P. V., Les Guerres sous Louis XV, vol. V, Paris, 1891, pp. 306-466