1762 - Prussian campaign in Saxony

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The campaign lasted from May to November 1762

Description

Initial situation

During the winter of 1761-62, the Prussian Army of Saxony (48 bns, 93 sqns for a total of about 32,000 men) under the command of Prince Henri, deprived of the finest parts of the Electorate of Saxony and of Voigtland, had wintered in a totally ruined country, concentrated around Dresden. The Austrian corps of Maquire occupied an entrenched camp near Freiberg, covered by a chain of entrenched outposts on one side of the Mulde, extending from Nossen, through Roßwein, Doebeln, Leising and Lobstädt on the Pleisse. The Reichsarmee (38 bns, 47 sqns), who was supposed to make a junction with the Austrians, cantoned in the area of Altenburg and Naumburg with a cordon of troops from the Pleisse, to Frohburg, through Rochlitz to Zwickau. Hadik's cavalry occupied the Altenburg Country. For his part, Serbelloni had taken his winter-quarters in Thuringia, his right at Plauen on the Elster and his left at Arnstadt towards Erfurt. He had outposts at Zeitz on the Elster, Naumburg on the Saale, Freyburg on the Unstrut and Weißensee.

On January 5, the Saxon Prinz Albrecht Chevauxlegers and Graf Brühl Chevauxlegers, under the command of Major-General Count Renard, were sent to Altenburg along with 2 Austrian cavalry rgts under Gy general Voghera and 2 Austrian infantry rgts under Major-General Sulkowski.

The Saxon Karabiniergarde, Prinz Karl Chevauxlegers and Schiebel Uhlans participated in a raid conducted by the Duke of Lobkowitz against Prussian outposts near Audigast and Groitsch.

During spring, Prince Henri was at Hof in Voigtland, on the extreme right of his long line of quarters behind the Mulde. He was busy watching the Austrians and the Reichsarmee. Another corps was cantoned from Zwickau to Penig and Eschefeld.

Mid March, Prince Henri complained to Frederick II that only 180 out of the expected 1,284 commissariat horses were come in. Furthermore he demanded to have picked men to complete his Rothenburg Grenadier Battalion and Grant Fusiliers. He also informed Frederick that there were 8 Austrian regiments leaving for Silesia. In fact, there were 17 Austrian regiments marching to Silesia rather than 8. In Saxony, the Reichsarmee under Stollberg was assisted by 35,000 Austrians under Serbelloni, Hadik and Maquire. Austrian and Imperial generals planned to remain on the defensive for the incoming campaign.

On April 15, Prince von Stollberg moved the headquarters of the Reichsarmee from Saalfeld to Neustadt.

In the first half of May, Prince Henri made diverse manoeuvres to induce the Austrians to believe that he intended to concentrate his army at Katzenhauser (unidentified location) near Meissen.

The Saxon cavalry corps was attached to Maquire's Corps.

On May 12 early in the morning, Prince Henri simultaneously burst across the Mulde in 4 columns, on a 24 km front, upon the chain of posts of Serbelloni's Austro-Imperial army between Roßwein and Leisnig. These outposts were distant from each other. In the Combat of Doebeln, Prince Henri easily pierced their chain, capturing several detachments and taking 1,800 prisoners. Seydlitz and Quintus Icilius also took part in this action.

After these manoeuvres, Prince Henri drew himself out 55 km long and stood there. He then manoeuvred to penetrate into Voigtland and to take a strong central position between Maquire's Austrian army and the Reichsarmee.

On May 13, Prince Henri marched to Hänchen (more probably Hainichen) while General Hülsen, who had remained behind at Katzenhauser with the rest of the army, made demonstrations against Nossen, forcing General Brunian to abandon this post and to retire on Maquire's main army at Freiberg.

On May 14, Prince Henri marched to turn the left flank of Maquire's camp which was unassailable frontally. However, Maquire had already retired to Dresden during the night. Prince Henri then resolved to occupy the former Austrian entrenched camp at Freiberg.

Seydlitz then chased the Austrians from the ravines of the Weistritz and from the forest of Tharandt up to Frauenstein,

On May 16, Prince Henri encamped on the heights of Pretzschendorf while Hülsen took position at Oros-Sohra (unidentified location) near Wilsdruff. Meanwhile, Maquire's Corps occupied an entrenched camp at Dippoldiswalde with a division on the heights of Rabenau and the rest of his army in the Vale of Plauen near Dresden.

The Reichsarmee had initially advanced up to Chemnitz. When the Prince von Stollberg learned that Prince Henri had isolated the Reichsarmee from Maquire's Austrian army, he retired to Zwickau, fearing a Prussian attack. However, General Serbelloni gave orders to the Prince von Stollberg to return to Chemnitz with the Reichsarmee. Not very concerned with a possible intervention of Stollberg, Prince Henri sent only 4 bns and 5 sqns to observe the Reichsarmee. This detachment took post at Oederan with the Lohfluss River to its rear.

On May 21, General Luzinsky attacked the Major-General Bandemer's Prussian detachment at Oederan. The Prussians lost 709 men in this action.

On May 22, Prince Henri was forced to send a reinforcement (5,000 men) of 1 bn and 5 sqns under Lieutenant-General Kanitz. He rapidly made a junction with Major-general Bandemer's detachment.

On June 1, General Kleist's post at Reichstadt was attacked by the Reichsarmee under the Prince von Stollberg who forced him to retire after suffering heavy losses.

In the first half of June, the Austrian army received a reinforcement of a few regiments from Silesia. Similarly, Prince Henri received a reinforcement of 1 bn and 15 sqns under the command of General Belling arriving from Pomerania. With a strengthened army, Prince Henri decided to put the Reichsarmee out of action for a moment.

On June 5, Prince Henri left General Platen at Pretzschendorf, turned towards Freiberg and reinforced General Seydlitz's force at Oederan to contain the Austrians.

On June 20, Prince Henri was reinforced by 20,000 men coming from Stettin under the command of the Duke of Braunschweig-Bevern. Prince Henri immediately detached Seydlitz with 3,500 foot and 4,000 horse (including Kleist's detachment who remained at Oederan) to threaten the left flank of the Reichsarmee.

Seydlitz had barely reached Penig on the road to Altenburg that the Reichsarmee abandoned its position and retired successively to Zwickau and Reichenbach. Closely followed by Seydlitz's detachment, the Reichsarmee continued its retreat up to the mountains.

On June 27, Prince Henri drove back Serbelloni's outposts covering the Austrian left wing near Dresden. The same day, the Reichsarmee encamped on the heights of Münchberg near Bayreuth. Informed of this strange and inexplicable retreat, General Serbelloni once more gave orders to the Reichsarmee to return to its positions. He made demonstrations to support its movements.

On ????, 4 Austrian columns presented themselves respectively in front of Constappel, Weistropp, Hühndorf and Braunsdorf. The first two columns made a timid attempt against the redoubts of Pinkwitz (unidentified location) but retired as soon as the artillery defending these redoubts opened against them. Finally, the 4 columns retired.

At the end of June, the Saxon cavalry corps was sent to the border between Saxony and Bohemia.

In the first days of July, the Reichsarmee marched in two columns from its camp of Münchberg: Stollberg reaching Hof and Luzinsky, Egra (present-day Cheb).

Kleist’s brief incursion into Bohemia

In the night of July 1 to 2, a Prussian detachment under Kleist launched an attack against Bohemia. It advanced from Oederan by Marienberg on Böhmisch Einsiedel (present-day Horách Mníšek), driving back Austrian outposts and making 150 prisoners (including 100 Saxon Chevauxlegers and Carabiniers; Lieutenant-General Gösnitz later explained that they were unable to escape because their horses had insufficient fodder since 14 days). Kleist then left his grenadier reserve in these entrenched posts and advanced on Brüx (present-day Most) and Ossegg (present-day Osek).

On July 7, Kleist retired from Brüx and Ossegg and marched towards Oederan where he received reinforcements sent by Prince Henri along with new orders instructing him to attack Blonquet's Corps who had advanced from Töplitz (present-day Teplice) to Dux (present-day Duchcov) to cover Bohemia.

Counter-attack of the Reichsarmee

On July 14, Stollberg's column marched to Oelsnitz and Luzinsky's column to Auerbach, driving back Belling's outposts who retired towards Zwickau.

On July 17, the two columns of the Reichsarmee made a junction and marched to Schneeberg, remaining in this position until July 20.

On July 17 and 18, Kleist advanced on Böhmisch Einsiedel, attacked some dragoons and Grenzer units posted in the wood of Johannsdorf (unidentified location), chased them out of the wood and pursued them up to Herrlich (unidentified location), taking 340 prisoners. He then once more returned to Oederan, passing by Brüx, Komotau (present-day Chomutov) and Passberg (unidentified location).

On July 20, Stollberg learned that Seydlitz had calmly remained in his positions and that Kleist had reached Marienberg in Bohemia on his right flank. Alarmed, Stollberg resolved to precipitously retreat once more.

On July 22, Belling pursued Stollberg's rearguard, taking 300 prisoners. The Reichsarmee accelerated its retreat to Oelsnitz.

On July 23, after a difficult march, the Reichsarmee was back to Münchberg. The same day, Seydlitz occupied Oelsnitz while Belling continued the pursuit, capturing additional prisoners.

On July 24, the Reichsarmee retired to Bayreuth where it entrenched.

Prince Henri wanted to take advantage of the retreat of the Reichsarmee to turn his attention to the Austrian corps posted at Töplitz to cover Bohemia.

Seydlitz’s incursion into Bohemia

On July 29, Seydlitz quitted Zwickau and advanced towards Bohemia by Geyer, Annaberg and Sebastiansberg (present-day Hora Svatého Šebestiána). His force consisted of :

On July 30, a second part of Seydlitz's forces under Lieutenant-General Kanitz followed. It probably consisted of:

The third part of Seydlitz's forces, under the command of Brigadier von Billerbeck consisted of:

Brigadier von Billerbeck was instructed to observe the Austrian corps of Torrock with his detachment. Another Prussian detachment under Major-General Kleist departed from Berthelsdorf and marched by Chemnitz to make a junction with Seydlitz. Kleist's detachment consisted of:

Seydlitz and Kleist planned to unite their forces and cut off the Austrian post at Böhmisch Einsiedel (present-day Horách Mníšek). The Austrians retired in time from Einsiedel and the Prussian plan failed.

On August 1, Kanitz arrived at Sebastiansberg while Seydlitz reached Komotau (present-day Chomutov). Torrock retired, constantly keeping contact with the advancing Prussian forces. The same day, Kleist's detachment made a junction with Seydlitz at Johnsdorf (probably present-day Janov). The united Prussian corps then advanced up to Dux (present-day Duchcov). The jägers along with Kleist Green Croats took positions in the Abbey of Ossegg (present-day Osek) while Kanitz reached Brux (unidentified location). Seydlitz and Kleist reconnoitred the positions of the Austrian force of Löwenstein. During a skirmish, the Prussians captured 164 Austrians and 4 officers. Kleist and Seydlitz could not come to an agreement on the general plan of attack. Finally, Seydlitz had the last word, preferring to wait for his infantry and losing a precious occasion to disperse this corps.

On August 2, Seydlitz attacked the corps of the Prince of Löwenstein which by then was well positioned and ready to receive the assault. Seydlitz vainly assaulted the Austrian positions during the Combat of Teplitz (present-day Teplice). He was repulsed, losing 700 men and forced to retire to Oberleutensdorf (present-day Litvínov) during the afternoon.

The Austro-Imperial army reoccupies its previous positions

On August 11, the Reichsarmee advanced to Hof. The Prince von Stollberg was then instructed to march through Bohemia to make a junction with the Austrian corps operating in Saxony.

On August 18, the Prince von Stollberg started his long march towards Dresden. The same day, Kleefeld's Austrian Corps lost an engagement near Plauen.

On August 19, Prince von Stollberg returned to Münchberg before taking the road to Nuremberg.

On August 21, General Belling was detached to Franconia, reaching Münchberg.

On August 24, General Belling marched to Bayreuth. He then put the Bishoprics of Bamberg and Würzburg to contribution.

On August 26, Belling blockaded Egra.

On September 2, Seydlitz's Corps was instructed to retire from Purschenstein to Burkersdorf to get closer to the army of Prince Henri.

On September 3, Prince von Stollberg encamped at Altenberg.

On September 5, Prince von Stollberg encamped at Dippoldiswalde.

On September 6, the Prince von Stollberg arrived at Dresden after passing by Egra. Taking profit of Stollberg's departure, Belling launched a surprise attack against Egra with dismounted hussars and nearly succeeded in his attempt.

On September 7, General Hadik arrived at Dresden from Silesia to replace Serbelloni as commander-in-chief of the Austrian forces in Saxony. The Austro-Imperial army (86 bns, 167 sqns) was then deployed as follows:

  • outpost (1 bn, 6 sqns) on the right bank of the Elbe near Dresden
  • Ried's Corps (9 bns, 16 sqns) between Broesnitz (unidentified location) and Bennerich (unidentified location)
  • corps (11 bns, 7 sqns) on the Windberg and in the Vale of Plauen
  • detachment (5 bns) on the heights of Rabenau
  • corps (18 bns, 34 sqns) at Dippoldiswalde
  • corps (8 bns, 14 sqns) at Altenberg and Schellerau
  • corps (10 bns, 38 sqns) at Töplitz in Bohemia
  • Reichsarmee (23 bns, 42 sqns) at Dresden
  • Torrock's light troops (1 bn, 10 sqns)

Prince Henri was still encamped at Pretzschendorf while Hülsen was at Wilsdruff. For his part, Hadik soon formed the project to chase the Prussians out of Voigtland by turning their right flank and thus threatening their bakery at Freiberg. Meanwhile, part of his army would fix Prince Henri and Hülsen frontally. Hadik was ready to launch this offensive when he heard about the arrival of a new Prussian corps in Lusatia. He sent a large corps against them and postponed his operations against Prince Henri until this corps returned.

By September 27, the Austrian corps sent to Lusatia was back. Hadik gave orders to the corps posted at Töplitz and Altenberg to advance towards Freiberg. The first corps, under the Prince of Löwenstein, marched from Töplitz, by Bohmisch Einsiedel, and launched an attack on Kleist's corps which was pushed back to Voigtsdorf, losing 300 men. Löwenstein then encamped at Purschenstein. The second corps, under Campitelli, marched from Altenberg to Clausnitz. Meanwhile, Hadik made demonstrations against the camp of Prince Henri, and Ried drove back the outposts of General Hülsen towards Weistropp and made himself master of the entrenched heights of Kunzendorf.

On September 28, Campitelli forced Kleist to retire up to the village of Mulda. Otherwise, all other corps remained in their positions.

On September 29, the entire Austro-Imperial army was under arms. It made serious demonstrations to draw the attention of Prince Henri and Hülsen while the Prince of Löwenstein conducted the decisive manoeuvre, pushing back Kleist's Corps before him and turning the flank and rear of the Prussians by Mulda and Nassau, on the left bank of the Mulde. During this time, Ried debouched from Tharandt, marched along the forest, moved in 2 columns across the ravine of the Weistritz, and made himself master of all the redoubts linking Prince Henri's left wing with Hülsen's positions at Grumbach. In the evening, the Prussians recaptured these redoubts and Ried retired to Tharandt. Nevertheless, the Prince of Löwenstein and Campitelli were seriously threatening Freiberg where the magazines and bakery of the Prussian army were located.

In the night of September 30 to October 1, Prince Henri quit his positions in 4 columns and passed the Mulde.

In the morning of October 1, Prince Henri encamped with his right towards Brand (present-day Brand-Erbisdorf) and his left beyond Freiberg towards Tuttendorf, his front covered by the Mulde. Meanwhile, Hülsen received orders to reoccupy his previous positions at Katzenhauser, behind the ravine of the Tribsche. The same day, Hadik took positions on the heights of Sadisdorf and Frauenstein, his advanced posts at Pretzschendorf.

On October 2, the Austro-Imperial army vainly attacked the posts of Kleist's corps. After repulsing this army, Kleist occupied the heights of Müdisdorf. Meanwhile, Belling marched to Großwaltersdorf.

Hadik resolved to drive Prince Henri out of his positions around Freiberg.

Hadik ousts Prince Henri of his positions around Freiberg

On October 4, the corps under the command of the Prince of Löwenstein made a junction with Hadik's main army. Campitelli was detached to Dorfchemnitz on the left bank of the Mulde; the Prince von Stollberg marched to Frauenstein with the Reichsarmee; and General Luzinsky took position at Burkersdorf.

On October 13, Ried's corps encamped behind the forest of Strutwalde towards Lampersdorf. Meanwhile, General Maquire encamped on the Landberg and the Prince von Stollberg made a junction with Campitelli's Corps at Dorfchemnitz to operate by the left bank of the Mulde on Müdisdorf, against the right flank of the Prussian army.

On October 14, all Austro-Imperial corps were on the move. Ried's Corps advanced on Malitsch (unidentified location) to fix the Prussian corps under the command of Hülsen. The Prince of Löwenstein took position between Limbach and Birkenhain. Meanwhile, the Prince of Löwenstein encamped at Niederschöna between the forest of Tharandt and the Mulde, preceded by a brigade who drove the Prussian outposts beyond Conradsdorf. General Luzinsky for his part made demonstrations against the Prussian right near Weissenborn. The Prince von Stollberg detached General Kleefeld to attack Belling at Großhartmannsdorf while Veczay's and Torrock's light troops would try to turn his right flank. However, Kleefeld arrived too late at his assigned positions and Belling was able to retire to the heights of Erbisdorf where he made a junction with Syburg's brigade. Belling repulsed the attack directed against the Kuhberg but lost 100 men. The Austrians retired to Müdisdorf and Belling reoccupied his initial positions.

On October 15, the Austrians continued to make demonstrations on the left wing of the Prussian army, in the area of Tuttendorf, and against Hülsen's Corps. Meanwhile, the Prince von Stollberg renewed his attacks against Belling's Corps. Campitelli directed these attacks. While the army was forming at Weigmannsdorf, Campitelli detached Kleefeld to drive the Prussians out of Monchfrey (unidentified location) and made himself master of the heights of Langenau. Belling started to retire too late and was forced to pass by Kleinhartsmanndorf towards Langenau. However, when he arrived in sight of Langenau, Belling was surprised to see that Campitelli's Corps was already occupying the position. Belling was then forced to march between Gahlentz and Oberreichenbach, continuing towards Linda to make a junction with Syburg's Corps. The Austro-Imperials took advantage of this delay to fall on Syburg's Brigade at Erbisdorf and on the Kuhberg while the Austrian cavalry at Berthelsdorf prevented Seydlitz's cavalry to intervene. Campitelli was unable to advance directly against Syburg's positions covered by artillery and resolved to turn Syburg's right and to seize the heights of Erbisdorf that Belling should have covered. Syburg detached Salmuth Fusiliers to get hold of these heights before Campitelli but this regiment was surrounded and captured as soon as it debouched from the village. Syburg then made an attempt to recapture the heights of Erbisdorf with his two remaining battalions. First Grenadier Battalion 13/26 Kalckstein advanced against these heights but were repulsed and pursued by hussars who captured most of the battalion. In these vain and ill-advised attempts, Syburg lost 1,650 men and 10 guns. He finally retired with his last battalion to the heights of Brand. In the evening, Belling finally reached Linda and encamped near Kleinschirma.

In the night of October 15 to 16, Prince Henri who, in spite of all his efforts, had been unable to contain the advance of these overpowering forces, sent his parks ahead and retired northwestward in 2 columns by Lössnitz on Reichenbach and Kleinvoigtsberg, towards Hülsen and his reserves. However, Stollberg did not follow up and the Reichsarmee occupied the camp of Freiberg where it entrenched.

Prince Henri at once rallied. He was soon informed that Frederick was sending him a reinforcement of 20 bns and 55 sqns from Silesia. Knowing this, he resolved to maintain his communication with Voigtland and remained in his camp till October 22. Meanwhile, Stollberg was reinforced by an Austrian corps (7,000 men) under General Buttlar. He was now at the head of some 35,000 men.

On October 22, Prince Henri moved to another camp on the heights of Marbach and Augustusberg to get closer to Hülsen's positions. However, Prince Henri received intelligence that the Austrians were expecting reinforcements too, so he resolved to attack the isolated Reichsarmee before the arrival of these additional troops. Prince Henri gathered all possible information on the positions of the Reichsarmee and then issued his orders.

Battle of Freiberg

On October 28, Prince Henri advanced up to Grossschirma near the Mulde with 21 bns and 52 sqns to harrass the Austro-Imperial army. The same day, the Prince of Stollberg, informed of the movements of the Prussians, could not believe that they would really attack him. Nevertheless, he put his troops under arms at midnight.

On October 29, without any reinforcement, Prince Henri defeated Stollberg at the Battle of Freiberg. Maquire and Stollberg were forced to retire by Brand and Berthelsdorf between Freiberg and Frankenstein while Prince Henri reoccupied his former camp at Freiberg. On the very same day, Prince Albert of Saxony, sent with reinforcement by Daun, had crossed the Elbe at Pirna. However, Wied was also on his way to reinforce Prince Henri with 10,000 men as were some battalions of General Hülsen. The Austrian reinforcements made a junction with Hadik's Army the same evening. Hadik then immediately sent 6 rgts to reinforce the defeated Austro-Imperial army, remaining with the rest of his army in his positions, cantoned between Dresden and Dippoldiswalde.

On October 30, Wied's corps passed the Elbe.

On October 31, Wied arrived at Katzenhausern and Schletta where it replaced Hülsen's corps who returned to Prince Henri's camp.

On November 2, Prince Henri detached General Kleist at the head of 6 bns and 25 sqns to destroy the magazines of the Reichsarmee in Bohemia and thus force the Prince von Stollberg to abandon his positions at Frauenstein. To support this attack, Prince Henri also detached General Platen with 6 bns and 17 sqns to take position at Dorfchemnitz. Prince Henri also made demonstrations against Pretzschendorf and Wilsdruff to draw Hadik's attention.

In the night of November 3 to 4, the Prince von Stollberg abandoned his positions at Frauenstein and retired to Altenberg. Shortly afterwards, he retired to Pirna.

On November 4, Prince Henri sent General Platen forward to Purschenstein, replacing him with the main army at Dorfchemnitz. Meanwhile Kleist marched to Saaz (present-day Žatec) by Brüx where he destroyed a large magazine. Kleist found the grand magazine of Leitmeritz (present-day Litoměřice) too well guarded for him.

On November 6, Frederick II arrived at Meissen to visit his Army of Saxony.

On November 9, Frederick came across to Freiberg where he met Prince Henri and Seydlitz.

By November 11, Kleist was back at Oederan and Prince Henri had returned to his camp of Freiberg.

Prussian incursion into the Reich

The weather being terrible, Frederick abandoned his scheme on Dresden. He rather decided to take advantage of the victory of his brother, Prince Henri, at Freiberg to try to open negotiations with the small principalities of the Holy Roman Empire so that they could declare neutrality. To intimidate these princes, he sent Kleist into Franconia with 6,000 men to put the country to contribution.

On November 13, General Kleist left Oederan.

On November 24, Frederick II and Daun signed a convention fixing the cantonments of the Prussian and Austrian armies and establishing a truce till March 1 1763, without any mention of the Reichsarmee and without provisions for the provinces recently invaded by Kleist's Corps. The Reich was now defenceless at the feet of Kleist and his 6,000 men.

On November 28, Kleist marched towards Nuremberg.

On November 29, Kleist reached Nuremberg which opened its gate. The city had to pay a contribution of 1,000,000 écus. Kleist also seized 12 cannon, 24 ammunition wagons and a large quantity of weapons in Nuremberg. Prussian detachments pushed up to Würzburg and Ratisbonne (Regensburg) where the Diet of the empire was assembled. The electors of Bavaria and Palatinate, fearing for their estates of Amberg and Sulzbach, both sued for peace. However, the Elector of Württemberg deployed troops on the border of his state while vainly asking Soubise for support. Seeing this, the Prince von Stollberg asked to Hadik for the authorisation to march to the relief of Franconia but Hadik refused.

On December 3, learning that the Reichsarmee had been reinforced by 8 bns and 4 cavalry rgts at Amberg, Kleist evacuated Numremberg and retired on Bamberg. After much exactions in his estates, the Bishop of Bamberg and Würzburg resigned to the neutrality of his estates and promised to retire his troops serving with the Austrian Army and with the Reichsarmee.

On December 8, Kleist evacuated Bamberg and marched northwards to Coburg and Hof (maybe Rohhof).

On December 9, the vanguard of the Reichsarmee reached Bayreuth.

In December, Kleist returned to Saxony by Erfurt.

On December 17, all armies took their cantonments according to the convention signed in November. The Prussian troops took their winter-quarters in the Meissen-Freiberg region in Saxony and Frederick established his headquarters in Leipzig.

References

This article is mostly an abridged and adapted excerpt from:

  • Carlyle, Thomas, History of Friedrich II of Prussia, vol. 20
  • Jomini, Henri; Traité des grandes opérations militaires, 2ème édition, 4ème partie, Magimel, Paris: 1811, pp. 226-254
  • Pajol, Charles P. V., Les Guerres sous Louis XV, vol. V, Paris, 1891, pp. 296-306, 312, 464-465
  • Schuster, O. and F. Francke: Geschichte der Sächsischen Armee, 2. part, Leipzig 1885

Other sources

Geschichte des siebenjährigen Krieges in einer Reihe von Vorlesungen, Prussia Armee Grosser generalstab, vol. 6, part one

Gieraths G., Die Kampfhandlungen der Brandenburgische-preussischen Armee, Berlin 1964

Jany K., Geschichte der Königlisch Preussischen Armee bis zum Jahre 1807, vol. 2, Berlin 1929

Kessel E., Das Ende des Siebenjährigen Krieges 1760-1763, Hrgb. von T. Linder, vol. 2, Padeborn – München – Wien – Zürich 2007

Salisch, M. von: Treue Deserteure – Das kursächsische Militär und der Siebenjährige Krieg, Munich, 2009

Tempelhoff G. F., Geschichte des siebenjahrige Krieges in Deutschland, vol. 6

Acknowledgments

Tomasz Karpiński Tomasz Karpiński from Gniezno/Poznań for the details on Seydlitz's incursion into Bohemia

Harald Skala for information on the Saxon cavalry during this campaign