1763 - Treaty of Hubertusburg

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The treaty was signed on February 15, 1763

Introduction

In the second half of 1762, Austria had exhausted most of its economic and military resources. Furthermore, on May 5 of the same year the Treaty of Saint Petersburg had put an end to the conflict between Prussia and Russia, the latter becoming Frederick II's ally. In turn, this treaty rapidly led to the Treaty of Hamburg between Prussia and Sweden, leaving Austria deprived of two allies in her fight against Frederick II.

Negotiations

On November 24 1762, Prussia and Austria signed an armistice. The Saxon Prince Friedrich Christian visited Frederick II at his headquarters in Meissen to act as a mediator in the forthcoming peace negotiations.

On December 30, negotiations began at the Hubertusburg hunting lodge near Wermsdorf in Saxony. A few days earlier, the Reichstag assembled in Regensburg had declared its neutrality. The negotiations were conducted by the Austrian councilor Henry Gabriel von Collenbach, the Prussian diplomat Ewald Friedrich von Hertzberg and the Saxon councilor Thomas Fritsch.

At the beginning of 1763, negotiations were under way between Great Britain, France and Spain. Finally, the Treaty of Paris was signed on February 10. Austria and Saxony were now facing Prussia alone.

On February 15 1763, the treaty of Hubertusburg was signed between Prussia, Austria and Saxony. The only point of contention was the cession of the Bohemian county of Glatz (actual Kłodzko) which Austria wanted to retain at all cost, offering to abandon any claim on Silesia and to take charge of the Silesian debts. However, Prussia wanted to obtain the county, its fortress and all its military equipment.

On February 21, Frederick II ratified the treaty at the nearby castle of Dahlen. Austria did the same on February 24.

Content of the treaty

Peace treaty between Prussia and Austria

The peace treaty consisted of 21 articles and two secret additional articles.

Maria Theresa and her heirs and successors renounced all claims on territories already ceded to Prussia by the treaty of Breslau of 1742 and the treaty of Berlin of 1742. Prussia in turn pledged to renounce to any compensation for losses incurred during the war.

The treaty stipulated an immediate cessation of hostilities and the withdrawal of all troops. The county and fortress of Glatz, which were occupied by the Austrian army, were evacuated and returned to Prussia. Prussia granted to the population of the county the right to emigrate and withdrew its troops from Saxony. All prisoners of wars and hostages were immediately released. All foreign subjects forcibly recruited for military service in both armies were also released. The Prussian archives confiscated by Austria were returned to the Prussian state. Prussia granted religious freedom to the people of Silesia and recognized their privileges and possessions.

Both countries pledged to promote trade between their countries.

Secretly, Austria and Prussia agreed that Frederick II, as elector of Brandenburg, would vote for the election of Joseph, son of Maria Theresa as king of Rome (March 27 1764) and the recognition of the Habsburg claim to duchy of Modena.

Peace treaty between Prussia and Saxony

The peace treaty consisted of 11 articles and 3 separate artilces.

All hostilities were ended and an immediate ceasefire declared. Prussia agreed to withdraw its troops from the Electorate of Saxony within three weeks. A general amnesty was granted. The pre-war state was restored, on the basis of the treaty of Dresden of 1745. Saxony reaffirmed its renouncement to the towns of Schidlow and Fürstenberg on the Oder. Prussia granted Saxon troops a right of passage through Silesia towards Poland.

References

This article is essentially a translation of part of the following article:

German Wikipedia – Frieden von Hubertusburg