1st Field Artillery Regiment

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Russian Army >> 1st Field Artillery Regiment

Origin and History

The regiment was created during the Shuvalov's reform, in January 1757, from old artillery units. It garrisoned Saint Petersburg and Vyborg, with little detachments in Riga, Moscow, Kiev and Belgorod. The regiment counted 46 officers and 1631 men and was organised as follows:

  • 2 battalions of:
    • 1 bombardiers coy of:
      • 4 officers
      • 11 NCOs
      • 4 musicians
      • 45 bombardiers
      • 135 helpers/servicemen
      • 5 non-combatants
    • 4 gunners coys of:
      • 4 officers
      • 8 NCOs
      • 2 drummers
      • 40 gunners
      • 80 fusiliers
      • 5 non-combatants

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was commanded by:

  • from: 1757: unknown
  • 1760 to 1763: major-general Glebov

Service during the War

To do: campaigns from 1757 to 1760

Uniform

All Russian regular artillery wore the same uniforms. Looking more attentively to Zveguintzov's work and some period paintings, it seems more and more evident that the uniforms of the regular artillery were orange rather than red. However, we have not yet updated the accompanying uniform plate accordingly.

Privates

Bombardier mitre in 1757 - Source: rf-figuren
Uniform in 1757 - Source: rf-figuren from a Not By Appointment template
Summer uniform in 1757 - Source: rf-figuren from a Not By Appointment template
Uniform Details
Headgear
Cannonier
and Fusilier
black felt tricorne laced white
Bombardier until 1759: mitre with a brass frontplate (shorter than the plate of the grenadier mitre cap) embossed with trophies of weapons and standards surmounted by the Imperial Eagle flanked by Mars and Minerva, a black leather skull-cap and neck guard with brass reinforcements and decorations, a white wool pompom. It seems that in the field the bombardiers wore black tricrones even before 1759

from 1759: black felt tricorne laced white

Neckstock black
Coat red (more probably orange) lined black with 9 copper buttons on the right side on the chest and 2 copper buttons (one on each side) in the small of the back

in February 1759 a shorter coat was issued
N.B.: During summer campaigns, the coat was not worn, being left with the baggage. Soldiers carried a red cape rolled over the shoulder.

Collar black
Shoulder Straps none
Lapels none (black from February 1759)
Pockets none
Cuffs black with 3 copper buttons
Turnbacks black, each fastened with a copper button
Waistcoat long sleeved red (more probably orange; white at the end of the war) waistcoat lined black with 9 copper buttons, and with 2 en patte d'oie pockets each with 3 copper buttons
Breeches red (more probably orange)
Gaiters black leather with 10 large copper buttons (white Manschetten)
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt red leather
Waistbelt red leather
Cartridge Box black covered with a brass plate
Bayonet Scabbard ???
Scabbard black leather with copper fittings
Footgear black shoes


During winter, artillery wore knee-length red cape.

Troopers were armed with a musket, a bayonet, a sabre and a linstock. They also carried priming flasks and slowmatch holders on their belts. Fusiliers of the regiment were charged to protect guns and crew on the battlefield.

NCOs

NCOs wore the same uniform as the troopers but were distinguished by their gold laces on their tricorne, collar, and cuffs.

Officers

Most officers wore gold laced tricorne but some officers wore a mitre.

Officer’s coat was similar to other rank’s but with the following differences:

  • a gold laced tricorne with gold/black pompoms or, for bombardier officers a gold plated mitre
  • gilded buttons
  • gold edged collar and lateral pockets
  • yellow gloves.
  • from 1759
    • gold edged lapels
    • gold edged white waistcoat
    • no turnbacks

Officers also carried a sword suspended to a red leather belt.

Staff officers wore a black and gold sash.

Musicians

Drummers wore the same uniform as the troopers with swallow nests on shoulders and braids on cuffs, pockets and collar.

Drums were made in copper, the coat of arms of Russia engraved in the front, bordered in red and black, red and white cords.

N.B.: During summer campaigns, the red (more probably orange) coat was not worn, being left with the baggage.

Colours

Regimental Colour: white damask field heavily ornamented; a brown double-headed eagle surmounted by a golden scroll carrying the motto “Tuetur et Terret”; beneath the eagle, a bronze cannon with red carriage, a powder barrel and 2 sponges on a green ground

Company colour (incomplete description): 66cm square colour; raspberry red corner flames; centre device surrounded by green palm leaves

Colonel Colour - Source: rf-figuren

References

Funcken, L. and F., Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

Großer Generalstab, Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II (Publisher). Die Kriege Friedrichs des Großen. Dritter Teil: Der Siebenjährige Krieg 1756–1763. vol. IV Gross-Jägerndorf und Breslau, Berlin 1902, Anlagen 1, Das Kaiserlich Russische Heer, p. 9-13

Konstam, Angus; William Younghusband; The Russian Army of the Seven Years War

Russian websites

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756 - 1763. Edited and published by KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg e.V., Magstadt, 1989.

Viskovatov, A. V., Historical Description of the Clothing and Arms of the Russian Army, vol. 3, Petersburg: 1900

Zveguintzov, Vladimir, L'armée russe, Paris, 1967

Acknowledgments

Tomasz Karpiński from Gniezno/Poznań for the initial version of this article