28th Foot

From Project Seven Years War
Jump to: navigation, search

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> British Army >> 28th Foot

Origin and History

The regiment was raised on March 5 1694 at Portsmouth by colonel John Gibson and named the “Sir John Gibson's Regiment of Foot”. In 1697, the regiment was sent to Newfoundland to protect the island against French enterprises. During the winter of 1697-98, it suffered heavy losses due to the extreme weather conditions.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment was sent to the Netherlands in 1704. In 1705, it took part to the battle on the fortified lines of the Geet (July 18). On May 23 1706, it was at the battle of Ramillies and then took part to the siege of Ostend before returning to England. In 1707, the regiment was sent to Spain where it fought at the battle of Almanza (April 25), suffering heavy losses.

In September 1719, the regiment was part of the English force who attacked Vigo in Spain.

During the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment became the “28th Foot” in 1742. In 1743, it was sent to the Netherlands. On May 11 1745, it fought in the battle of Fontenoy where it lost 137 men.

From 1749 to 1757, the regiment was stationed in Ireland.

On July 1 1751, when a Royal warrant reorganised the British infantry, the regiment was designated as the “28th Regiment of Foot”.

By the time of the Seven Years' War, the regiment was composed of Irish Catholics.

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was commanded by:

  • since October 10 1734: Philip Bragg
  • from October 24 1759 to July 15 1773: George Townshend, 1st Marquess Townshend

Service during the War

In 1758, the regiment took part in the amphibious expedition against the fortress of Louisbourg in Canada. It embarked on April 17 and arrived at Halifax on May 9. The expedition was under the command of general Amherst. On June 8, when Amherst's army landed near Louisbourg, the regiment was part of the left brigade under Lawrence. Between June and July, the regiment, held in reserve, took part in the siege of Louisbourg which surrendered on July 27. After the capture of the fortress, the regiment remained there as part of the garrison.

In 1759, the regiment took part to the amphibious expedition against Québec, it belonged to brigadier-general Townsend's brigade. On June 27, the army landed on Isle-d'Orléans and were drawn up on the beach near the village of Saint-Laurent. On July 9, a skirmish occurred near the Montmorency fall. Dank's Rangers were attacked and defeated by a party of Canadians and Ottawa Indians who was in turn repulsed by the grenadiers of the 28th Foot. On July 31, the grenadiers of the regiment took part to the failed attack on the shores of Beauport, suffering heavy losses in the fight. Late in the evening of September 12, 300 men of the regiment formed part of the first 1,700 men who were ordered from the British vessels above Québec into bateaux in preparation for a landing at Anse-au-Foulon. On September 13, the regiment led the way when the army climbed the heights of Québec. It then took part in the battle of the Plains of Abraham near Québec where it was placed on the right flank. General Wolfe charged at its head. On September 18, Québec finally surrendered. At the end of October, when vice-admiral Saunders left with his fleet for Great Britain, the regiment, whose ranks had been replenished to about 650 men by drafts from the 62nd Foot and 69th Foot, remained as garrison in Québec along with 9 other battalions.

On April 28 1760, at the defeat of Sainte-Foy, the regiment was in Fraser's brigade on the left wing. It then took part in the three pronged attack against Montréal.

In 1761, the regiment assumed garrison duty in Montréal for most of the year before being sent to the West Indies where it arrived in Carlisle Bay in Barbados on December 24.

In January and February 1762, the regiment took part in the expedition against Martinique island and in the siege of Fort Royal. Then from March to August, it participated in the expedition against Cuba and in the siege and capture of Havana, suffering heavy losses from sickness during the following months. After a year in Cuba the regiment went to New York with a strength of only 208 men.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1758 - Source: Frédéric Aubert
Uniform Details
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white with a black cockade (left side)
Grenadier British mitre with: a bright yellow front embroidered with the King's cypher and a crown over it; a small red front flap with the white horse of Hanover surmounted by the motto "Nec aspera terrent"; red back; a bright yellow headband wearing the number 28 in the middle part behind
Neckstock white
Coat brick red lined bright yellow and laced white (white braid decorated 2 bright yellow outer stripes and, in the center, small dark blue rhombuses bordered by a dark blue zigzag on each side) with 3 white buttonholes under the lapels (same lace as above)
Collar none
Shoulder Straps red fastened with a white button (left shoulder)
Lapels bright yellow laced white (same lace as above) with 7 pewter buttons and 6 white buttonholes (same lace as above)
Pockets horizontal pockets with white laces (same lace as above), each with pewter buttons
Cuffs bright yellow (slashed in the British pattern) laced white (same lace as above)
Turnbacks bright yellow
Waistcoat brick red laced white (same lace as above)
Breeches brick red
Gaiters white with black buttons
brown, grey or black during campaigns (black after 1759)
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather
Waistbelt natural leather
Cartridge Box black
Bayonet Scabbard black
Scabbard black
Footgear black shoes


Troopers were armed with with a "Brown Bess" muskets, a bayonet and a sword. They also carried a dark brown haversack with a metal canteen on the left hip.

Officers

Officers of the regiment wore the same uniforms as the private soldiers but with the following differences

  • silver gorget around the neck
  • an aiguilette on the right shoulder
  • silver lace instead of normal lace
  • a crimson sash

Officers wore the same headgear as the private soldiers under their command; however, officers of the grenadier company wore a more decorated mitre cap.

Officers generally carried a spontoon, however, in battle some carried muskets instead.

Musicians

According to the Royal Clothing Warrant of 1751:

The drummers of the regiment were clothed in bright yellow, lined, faced, and lapelled on the breast with red, and laced in such manner as the colonel shall think fit for distinction sake, the lace, however, was of the colours of that on the soldiers' coats.
The front or forepart of the drums were painted bright yellow, with the king's cypher and crown, and the number “XXVIII” under it. The rims were red.

Colours

King's Colour: Union with its centre decorated with a rose and thistle wreath around the regiment number "XXVIII" in gold Roman numerals.

Regimental Colour: bright yellow field with its centre decorated with a rose and thistle wreath around the regiment number "XXVIII" in gold Roman numerals. The Union in the upper left corner.

King's Colour - Source: PMPdeL
Regimental Colour - Source: PMPdeL

References

Aylor, Ron, British Regimental Drums and Colours

Fortescue, J. W., A History of the British Army Vol. II, MacMillan, London, 1899

Funcken, Liliane and Fred, Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

George II, The Royal Clothing Warrant, 1751

The Gloucestershire Regiment (28th/61st)

Lawson, Cecil C. P., A History of the Uniforms of the British Army - from the Beginnings to 1760, vol. II, p. 90-103

Mills, T. F., Land Forces of Britain the Empire and Commonwealth (an excellent website which unfortunately seems to have disappeared from the web)

The 28th Regiment (North Gloucestershire)

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.