Origin and History
In July 1698, a new establishment of the marine forces was ordered. There were four regiments in this new establishment: one was formed from the original two regiments raised in 1690, and three regiments were formed by the reassignment of three regiments of foot. In May 1699, these four regiments were all disbanded.
In February 1702, during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-13), the British Parliament enabled |Queen Anne to increase the efficiency of her navy, by forming a Corps of Marines, which could act at sea as well as on land. On 1 June, six regiments, including the present regiment, were accordingly added to the regular Army as a Marine Corps. The present regiment was raised in Sussex and the adjacent counties. It was known as the "Edward Fox's Regiment" and consisted of 12 companies, with 2 sergeants, 3 corporals, 2 drummers, and 59 privates each. The grenadier company counted an additional sergeant.
Until 1751, the regiment was known by the names of its successive colonels.
During the War of the Spanish Succession, in May 1702, the regiment was initially sent to the Isle of Wight via Portsmouth. In July, the regiment (658 men) was part of the Anglo-Dutch expedition sent against Cadiz. The expeditionary force rapidly made itself master of Rota (July 27) and Fort Santa Catalina (August 2). However, it was soon forced to re-embark (August 25-28), the regiment acting as a rearguard during the operation. On its way back to England, the fleet surprised a French fleet at Vigo on October 22 and an amphibious operation allowed the British to capture the entire French squadron. In November, the regiment was landed at Portsmouth and marched to Arundel, Horsham and Crickfield. In January 1703, the regiment was sent to Portsmouth. During this campaign, 7 companies of the regiment served on board the fleet in the Mediterranean, under Admiral Sir Cloudesley Shovell. In 1704, a detachment of the regiment embarked aboard the Anglo-Dutch fleet which operated against the Mediterranean coast of Spain, occupying Barcelona in May and seizing Gibraltar in August. In 1705 and 1706, detachments of the regiment continued to serve in Spain, at Gibraltar, Lerida and Barcelona. On April 25, 1707, part of the regiment fought in the battle of Almansa. In November 1708, 200 men of the regiment took part in the defence of Denia who surrendered, the defenders being taken as prisoners of war. The remaining detachments operating in Spain were then drafted in other British regiments. In 1710, a detachment of the regiment took part in the capture of Port Royal in Acadia. In 1711, a detachment of the regiment took part in the unsuccessful expedition against Québec.
The regiment was disbanded in England in September 1713. However, on March 15, 1715, it was reinstated on the Irish Establishment, without loss of precedence as the "Jacob Borr’s Regiment of Foot". It was immediately sent to Ireland where it remained for several years.
In 1734, the regiment left Ireland, landed at Bristol and marched to Hertford, Hatfield, Ware, and Hoddesden. In 1735, the regiment moved to Canterbury, with detachments at Ashford, Faversham, Maidstone, Rochester, and Sittingbourne. In January, 1736, the regiment was ordered to Ireland, and placed on the Irish establishment, marching from Canterbury to Bristol, the port of embarkation.
At the outbreak of the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment was garrisoning Fort Augustus in Scotland. In the Summer of 1742, the regiment formed part of the British contingent sent to the continent to cooperate with the Austrian and Dutch armies. On June 27 1743, the regiment took part in the battle of Dettingen where it was kept in reserve. In November, it took its winter quarters in Flanders. In May 1744, the British contingent concentrated at Aschel but saw little action during this campaign. In October, it took its winter quarters at Ghent, Bruges, and Ostend. On May 11 1745, the regiment took part in the battle of Fontenoy where it suffered heavy losses. In September, the regiment was among those recalled to Great Britain to quench the Jacobite Rising. It embarked at Wilhelmstadt in October and arrived off Gravesend ten days later. It immediately marched northward. On December 4, it had reached Stafford. The regiment subsequently did good service in Lancashire but does not appear to have taken part in the battles of Falkirk or Culloden. In 1746, the regiment took part in the dispersal of Scottish clans, remaining in Scotland for a short period. In the autumn, the regiment was sent back to Flanders. On October 11, it took part in the battle of Rocoux. On October 26, the British contingent marched to Venloo and then proceeded to their winter quarters in the duchies of Limburg and Luxembourg. On July 2 1747, the regiment took part in the battle of Lauffeld.
After the war, in 1748, the regiment returned to Great Britain where it was stationed in Chelmsford, being reduced to only two companies. In 1749, it was sent to Gibraltar.
On July 1 1751, when a Royal warrant reorganised the British infantry, the regiment was designated as the “32nd Regiment of Foot”.
The regiment remained at Gibraltar till 1753 when it was transferred to Scotland.
As per a resolution dated September 20 1756, a second battalion was exceptionally added to the regiment. It was raised in Scotland. In 1758, this second battalion became the 71st Regiment of Foot.
During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was under the command of:
- from December 1, 1747 to June 11, 1773: Colonel Francis Leighton
The regiment later became the Duke of Cornwall’s Light Infantry.
Service during the War
The regiment was stationed in Scotland from 1753 to 1763.
As of May 30, 1759, it counted 1 battalion for a total of 900 men.
In 1762, the regiment was at Glasgow and consisted of 42 officers, 56 NCOs and 856 privates for a total of 954 men.
|Coat||brick red lined greyish white and laced white (white braid with 2 black zigzags) with 3 pewter buttons and 3 white buttonholes (same lace as above) under the lapel; a red swallow nest laced white (same lace as above) on each shoulder
|Waistcoat||brick red edged white (same lace as above)|
|Gaiters||white with black buttons|
brown, grey or black during campaigns (black after 1759)
Troopers were armed with a “Brown Bess” muskets, a bayonet and a sword.
Officers of the regiment wore the same coat as the private soldiers but with the following differences:
- silver gorget around the neck
- a silver aiguilette on the right shoulder
- silver lace instead of the normal lace
- a crimson sash
Officers wore the same headgear as the private soldiers under their command; however, officers of the grenadier company wore a more decorated mitre cap.
Officers generally carried a spontoon; however, in battle some carried a musket instead.
The drummers of the regiment were clothed in greyish white, lined, faced, and lapelled on the breast with red, and laced in such manner as the colonel shall think fit for distinction sake, the lace, however, was of the colours of that on the soldiers' coats.
The front or fore part of the drums was painted greyish white, with the king's cypher and crown, and the number “XXXII” under it. The rims were red.
King's Colour: Union with its centre decorated with a rose and thistle wreath around the regiment number "XXXII" in gold Roman numerals.
Regimental Colour: red cross of St. George in a white field with its centre decorated with a rose and thistle wreath around the regiment number "XXXII" in gold Roman numerals. The Union in the upper left corner.
N.B.: since this regiment exceptionally counted 2 battalions, the colours of the 2nd Battalion were distinguished by a flaming ray superposed to the upper left branch of the saltire.
The history of the regiment is an abridged version of a text extracted from the following book which is in the public domain:
- Swiney, George Clayton; Historical Records of the 32nd (Cornwall) Light Infantry...; Simpkin, Marshall , Hamilton, Kent, 1893
Fortescue J. W., A History of the British Army Vol. II, MacMillan, London, 1899
Funcken, Liliane and Fred, Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle
George II, The Royal Clothing Warrant, 1751
Lawson, Cecil C. P., A History of the Uniforms of the British Army - from the Beginnings to 1760, vol. II
Mills, T. F., Land Forces of Britain the Empire and Commonwealth through the Way Back Machine
Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756 - 1763. Edited and published by KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg e.V., Magstadt, 1989
Wienand Drenth for additional information on the lineage and history of the regiment