Difference between revisions of "37/40 Manteuffel Grenadiers"

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(Standardization of all articles on the Prussian Army)
 
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==Origin and History==
 
==Origin and History==
At the beginning of the Seven Years' War, [[Frederick II]] converged the grenadier companies of his infantry into elite battalions. Thus the grenadiers from [[Kurssell Fusiliers|von Kurssell Fusiliers]] (2 coys) and [[Kreytzen Fusiliers|von Kreytzen Fusiliers]] (2 coys) were converged into the Grenadier Battalion 37/40 counting four companies.
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At the beginning of the Seven Years' War, [[Frederick II]] converged the grenadier companies of his infantry into elite battalions. Thus the grenadiers from [[Kurssell Fusiliers]] (2 coys) and [[Kreytzen Fusiliers]] (2 coys) were converged into the Grenadier Battalion 37/40 counting four companies.
  
 
During the Seven Years' War, the battalion was commanded by:  
 
During the Seven Years' War, the battalion was commanded by:  
 
*since June 25 1756: Major P. A. von Manteuffel (replaced from November 22 1757, during his recovery from a wound received at Breslau, by Captain von Leipziger)
 
*since June 25 1756: Major P. A. von Manteuffel (replaced from November 22 1757, during his recovery from a wound received at Breslau, by Captain von Leipziger)
*from April 23 1759: Lieutenant-colonel Primislau Ulrich von Kleist
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*from April 23 1759: Lieutenant-Colonel Primislau Ulrich von Kleist
 
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In 1756, this converged grenadier battalion first assembled in August in Frankenstein in Silesia. It then formed part of the Army of Silesia under [[Schwerin, Kurt Christoph, count von|Field-Marshal von Schwerin]] who, from September to November conducted [[1756 - Prussian operations in Eastern Bohemia|operations in Eastern Bohemia]]
 
In 1756, this converged grenadier battalion first assembled in August in Frankenstein in Silesia. It then formed part of the Army of Silesia under [[Schwerin, Kurt Christoph, count von|Field-Marshal von Schwerin]] who, from September to November conducted [[1756 - Prussian operations in Eastern Bohemia|operations in Eastern Bohemia]]
  
On May 14 1757, during the [[1757 - Prussian invasion of Bohemia|invasion of Bohemia]], the battalion was involved in a victorious engagement west of Kolin. On June 17, the battalion was left behind at Kaurzim (present-day Kouřim) to guard the baggage of the army while [[Frederick II]] prepared to attack the Austrians at Kolin the next day. On September 7,  when an Austrian force under the command of [[Nádasdy auf Fogaras, Franz Leopold von|General Nádasdy]] attacked [[Winterfeldt, Hans Karl von|Winterfeldt]]'s isolated corps in the [[1757-09-07 - Combat of Moys|Combat of Moys]], the battalion was deployed in the village of Moys, in front of the Prussian right wing, at the beginning of the combat. On November 22, the battalion took part in the [[1757-11-22 - Battle of Breslau|Battle of Breslau]] where it was deployed in Kleist's Brigade, in the first line of the infantry right wing under Lieutenant-general von Brandes. On December 5 at the [[1757-12-05 - Battle of Leuthen|Battle of Leuthen]], the battalion was deployed in the vanguard which successfully attacked the Austrian left flank. At the end of the battle, the battalion followed [[Frederick II]] to capture the bridge at Lissa intact.  
+
On May 14 1757, during the [[1757 - Prussian invasion of Bohemia|invasion of Bohemia]], the battalion was involved in a victorious engagement west of Kolin. On June 17, the battalion was left behind at Kaurzim (present-day Kouřim) to guard the baggage of the army while [[Frederick II]] prepared to attack the Austrians at Kolin the next day. On September 7,  when an Austrian force under the command of [[Nádasdy auf Fogaras, Franz Leopold von|General Nádasdy]] attacked [[Winterfeldt, Hans Karl von|Winterfeldt]]'s isolated corps in the [[1757-09-07 - Combat of Moys|Combat of Moys]], the battalion was deployed in the village of Moys, in front of the Prussian right wing, at the beginning of the combat. On November 22, the battalion took part in the [[1757-11-22 - Battle of Breslau|Battle of Breslau]] where it was deployed in Kleist's Brigade, in the first line of the infantry right wing under Lieutenant-General von Brandes. On December 5 at the [[1757-12-05 - Battle of Leuthen|Battle of Leuthen]], the battalion was deployed in the vanguard which successfully attacked the Austrian left flank. At the end of the battle, the battalion followed [[Frederick II]] to capture the bridge at Lissa intact.  
  
On October 14 1758, the battalion took part in the [[1758-10-14 - Battle of Hochkirch|Battle of Hochkirch]] where it was initially deployed in an advanced position of the left flank in the village of Niethen.
+
In the spring of 1758, the battalion took part in the [[1758 - Prussian invasion of Moravia|invasion of Moravia]]. By May 20, it was part of a corps (7 bns, 3 sqns) under [[Brandenburg-Schwedt, Karl Friedrich Albrecht, Markgrave zu|Margrave Karl]], in a camp near Mährisch Neustadt (present-day Uničov) covering the [[1758 - Siege of Olmütz|Siege of Olmütz]]. In the night of June 28 to 29, [[45/G-XIII/G-IX Ingersleben Grenadiers|II. Standing Grenadier Battalion (Unruh)]] and Grenadier Battalion 37/40 Manteuffel, formerly posted at Bistrowan, were sent to reinforce the Prussian supply convoy arriving from Troppau. The battalion then took part in the [[1758-06-30 - Combat of Domstadl|Combat of Domstadl]], barely escaping capture and returning to Bistrowan. On October 14, the battalion took part in the [[1758-10-14 - Battle of Hochkirch|Battle of Hochkirch]] where it was initially deployed in an advanced position of the left flank in the village of Niethen.
  
From February 24 to March 4 1759, the battalion was part of the small Prussian Corps under the command of Major-general von Wobersnow who made an [[1759 - Prussian incursions behind enemy lines|incursion in Poland]] against the Russian magazines. During this incursion, Wobersnow's forces destroyed food supply which would have fed 50,000 men for 3 months. On November 20, the battalion took part in the [[1759-11-20 - Battle of Maxen|Battle of Maxen]] where it was attached to Mosel's Brigade. When Daun launched his attack at 3:00 p.m., the battalion was soon surrounded but was saved by a charge of the [[4/16 Polentz Grenadiers|Converged Grenadier Battalion 4/16 Willemey]]. However, completely surrounded, the entire Prussian force finally surrendered as prisoners of war.
+
From February 24 to March 4 1759, the battalion was part of the small Prussian Corps under the command of Major-General von Wobersnow who made an [[1759 - Prussian incursions behind enemy lines|incursion in Poland]] against the Russian magazines. During this incursion, Wobersnow's forces destroyed food supply which would have fed 50,000 men for 3 months. On November 20, the battalion took part in the [[1759-11-20 - Battle of Maxen|Battle of Maxen]] where it was attached to Mosel's Brigade. When Daun launched his attack at 3:00 p.m., the battalion was soon surrounded but was saved by a charge of the [[4/16 Polentz Grenadiers|Converged Grenadier Battalion 4/16 Willemey]]. However, completely surrounded, the entire Prussian force finally surrendered as prisoners of war.
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 +
In December 1761, the battalion was part of a Prussian force who vainly tried to come to the [[1761 - Siege of Colberg|relief of Colberg]] and, on December 12, was defeated in the [[1761-12-12 - Combat of Spie|Combat of Spie]] and forced to retire towards Brandenburg. The battalion finally took its winter-quarters in Lusatia in General Thadden's Corps.
  
 
During the winter of 1761-62, the battalion was temporarily converged with [[21/27 Lengefeld Grenadiers|Grenadier Battalion 21/27]] while it was being reconstituted.
 
During the winter of 1761-62, the battalion was temporarily converged with [[21/27 Lengefeld Grenadiers|Grenadier Battalion 21/27]] while it was being reconstituted.
  
To do: more details on the campaigns from 1760 to 1762
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From August to October 1762, the battalion was at the [[1762 - Siege of Schweidnitz|siege and recapture of Schweidnitz]] and, on August 16, took part in the [[1762-08-16 - Battle of Reichenbach|Battle of Reichenbach]] where an Austrian relief attempt was driven back.
 +
 
 
==Uniform==
 
==Uniform==
The grenadiers wore the uniform of their respective regiments. For details about these uniforms, please refer to the articles related to regiments [[Kurssell Fusiliers|von Kurssell Fusiliers]] and [[Kreytzen Fusiliers|von Kreytzen Fusiliers]].
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The grenadiers wore the uniform of their respective regiments. For details about these uniforms, please refer to the articles related to regiments [[Kurssell Fusiliers]] and [[Kreytzen Fusiliers]].
 +
 
 +
N.B.: For NCOs of the grenadier companies, the long pike (4,10 m long) was introduced in 1756 just before the war. This long pike was not very popular and was often shortened. At the beginning of the Seven Years' War and throughout the conflict, NCOs carried a mixture of M1713 (2,37 m long), M1755 (3 m long) and M1756 (4,10 m long) pikes.
 
===Mitre Caps===
 
===Mitre Caps===
 
{| border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="10"
 
{| border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="10"
 
|- valign="top"
 
|- valign="top"
| width="50%"|[[Kurssell Fusiliers|von Kurssell Fusiliers]]: mitre with yellow metal front plate; red headband with an white/red braid and yellow metal ornaments; red backing with a similar braid; white within red pompom  
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| width="50%"|[[Kurssell Fusiliers]]: mitre with polished brass front plate; red (Scharlachrot) headband with a white/red braid and brass ornaments; red backing with a similar braid; white within red pompom  
||[[Kreytzen Fusiliers|von Kreytzen Fusiliers]]: mitre with silvered ''Tombak'' "red" brass front plate; rose headband with a white braid and white metal ornaments; rose backing with a white/rose braid (''see illustration for details''); rose within white within rose pompom  
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||[[Kreytzen Fusiliers]]: mitre with silver-plated front plate; rose headband with a white braid and silver-plated ornaments; rose backing with a white/rose braid; rose within white within rose pompom  
  
 
In regiments with white metal, the front plates were to be coloured with a water-based silver paste which needed to be re-applied regularly lest the cap plates revert to their original brass colour. Therefore, during campaign, particularly in bad weather, it is possible that the silvering could have worn off and needed to be silvered again.
 
In regiments with white metal, the front plates were to be coloured with a water-based silver paste which needed to be re-applied regularly lest the cap plates revert to their original brass colour. Therefore, during campaign, particularly in bad weather, it is possible that the silvering could have worn off and needed to be silvered again.

Latest revision as of 15:38, 22 February 2015

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Prussian Army >> 37/40 Manteuffel Grenadiers

Origin and History

At the beginning of the Seven Years' War, Frederick II converged the grenadier companies of his infantry into elite battalions. Thus the grenadiers from Kurssell Fusiliers (2 coys) and Kreytzen Fusiliers (2 coys) were converged into the Grenadier Battalion 37/40 counting four companies.

During the Seven Years' War, the battalion was commanded by:

  • since June 25 1756: Major P. A. von Manteuffel (replaced from November 22 1757, during his recovery from a wound received at Breslau, by Captain von Leipziger)
  • from April 23 1759: Lieutenant-Colonel Primislau Ulrich von Kleist


Service during the War

In 1756, this converged grenadier battalion first assembled in August in Frankenstein in Silesia. It then formed part of the Army of Silesia under Field-Marshal von Schwerin who, from September to November conducted operations in Eastern Bohemia

On May 14 1757, during the invasion of Bohemia, the battalion was involved in a victorious engagement west of Kolin. On June 17, the battalion was left behind at Kaurzim (present-day Kouřim) to guard the baggage of the army while Frederick II prepared to attack the Austrians at Kolin the next day. On September 7, when an Austrian force under the command of General Nádasdy attacked Winterfeldt's isolated corps in the Combat of Moys, the battalion was deployed in the village of Moys, in front of the Prussian right wing, at the beginning of the combat. On November 22, the battalion took part in the Battle of Breslau where it was deployed in Kleist's Brigade, in the first line of the infantry right wing under Lieutenant-General von Brandes. On December 5 at the Battle of Leuthen, the battalion was deployed in the vanguard which successfully attacked the Austrian left flank. At the end of the battle, the battalion followed Frederick II to capture the bridge at Lissa intact.

In the spring of 1758, the battalion took part in the invasion of Moravia. By May 20, it was part of a corps (7 bns, 3 sqns) under Margrave Karl, in a camp near Mährisch Neustadt (present-day Uničov) covering the Siege of Olmütz. In the night of June 28 to 29, II. Standing Grenadier Battalion (Unruh) and Grenadier Battalion 37/40 Manteuffel, formerly posted at Bistrowan, were sent to reinforce the Prussian supply convoy arriving from Troppau. The battalion then took part in the Combat of Domstadl, barely escaping capture and returning to Bistrowan. On October 14, the battalion took part in the Battle of Hochkirch where it was initially deployed in an advanced position of the left flank in the village of Niethen.

From February 24 to March 4 1759, the battalion was part of the small Prussian Corps under the command of Major-General von Wobersnow who made an incursion in Poland against the Russian magazines. During this incursion, Wobersnow's forces destroyed food supply which would have fed 50,000 men for 3 months. On November 20, the battalion took part in the Battle of Maxen where it was attached to Mosel's Brigade. When Daun launched his attack at 3:00 p.m., the battalion was soon surrounded but was saved by a charge of the Converged Grenadier Battalion 4/16 Willemey. However, completely surrounded, the entire Prussian force finally surrendered as prisoners of war.

In December 1761, the battalion was part of a Prussian force who vainly tried to come to the relief of Colberg and, on December 12, was defeated in the Combat of Spie and forced to retire towards Brandenburg. The battalion finally took its winter-quarters in Lusatia in General Thadden's Corps.

During the winter of 1761-62, the battalion was temporarily converged with Grenadier Battalion 21/27 while it was being reconstituted.

From August to October 1762, the battalion was at the siege and recapture of Schweidnitz and, on August 16, took part in the Battle of Reichenbach where an Austrian relief attempt was driven back.

Uniform

The grenadiers wore the uniform of their respective regiments. For details about these uniforms, please refer to the articles related to regiments Kurssell Fusiliers and Kreytzen Fusiliers.

N.B.: For NCOs of the grenadier companies, the long pike (4,10 m long) was introduced in 1756 just before the war. This long pike was not very popular and was often shortened. At the beginning of the Seven Years' War and throughout the conflict, NCOs carried a mixture of M1713 (2,37 m long), M1755 (3 m long) and M1756 (4,10 m long) pikes.

Mitre Caps

Kurssell Fusiliers: mitre with polished brass front plate; red (Scharlachrot) headband with a white/red braid and brass ornaments; red backing with a similar braid; white within red pompom Kreytzen Fusiliers: mitre with silver-plated front plate; rose headband with a white braid and silver-plated ornaments; rose backing with a white/rose braid; rose within white within rose pompom

In regiments with white metal, the front plates were to be coloured with a water-based silver paste which needed to be re-applied regularly lest the cap plates revert to their original brass colour. Therefore, during campaign, particularly in bad weather, it is possible that the silvering could have worn off and needed to be silvered again.

IR37 Mitre Cap - Source: Digby Smith and rf-figuren
IR40 Mitre Cap - Source: Joseph Malit and Kriegsarmaturen
N.B.: click on the picture to view a larger version

Colours

The converged grenadier battalions did not carry any colour.

References

Fiedler, Siegfried: Grenadiermuetzen der Armee Friedrichs des Grossen, Schild Verlag GmbH, Munich, 1981

Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 1 Pirna und Lobositz, Berlin, 1901, Appendix 2

Riehn, R.: Linear Tactics Part III - Grenadier Battalions 1756-1763, The Courier Volume 2 No. 6, May-June 1981

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756 - 1763. Edited and published by KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg e.V., Magstadt: 1989, pp. 30-32

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.