Anhalt-Dessau, Moritz, prince von
Anhalt-Dessau, Moritz, Prince von
Prussian general, field-marshal (1758-60)
born October 31, 1712, Dessau, Anhalt (Germany)
died April 11, 1760, Dessau, Anhalt (Germany)
Prince Moritz was the fifth son of Fürst Leopold von Anhalt-Dessau (1676-1747), also known as the "Old Dessauer", and of Anna Louise Föhse, the daughter of a pharmacist that Leopold had married against the wishes of the aristocracy of Anhalt. After the death of Eugène de Savoie in 1736, the "Old Dessauer" had been considered as the best general in Europe.
Prince Moritz considered a military career and, in 1725, volunteered in the Prussian service.
From 1733 to 1738, Prince Moritz took part in the War of the Polish Succession.
On May 31 1741, during the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748), Prince Moritz became chef of his own regiment in the Prussian Army: the Prinz Moritz Infantry. On June 4 1745, he distinguished himself at the Battle of Hohenfriedberg. Then on December 14 of the same year, at the Battle of Kesselsdorf, he led the Prussian left wing and contributed significantly to the victory.
After the peace of 1748, Frederick II entrusted Prince Moritz with the colonization of the remote region along the Oder in Pomerania.
In 1752, Prince Moritz was appointed governor of Küstrin.
In 1756, at the outbreak of the Seven Years War, Prince Moritz took part in the Prussian invasion of Saxony where he led a corps which formed part of the centre column personally commanded by Frederick II. At the beginning of September, Moritz was detached from the centre column to seize Wittenberg and destroy its defensive works. His corps then took part in the blockade of the Saxon Army at Pirna. Prince Moritz and Frederick II had a close professional relationship occasionally punctuated by violent disputes. However, on June 18 1757, at the Battle of Kolin, Prince Moritz commanded the infantry of the centre, which, through a misunderstanding with King Frederick II, was prematurely drawn into action and failed hopelessly. In the disastrous days which followed, Moritz was under the cloud of Frederick's displeasure. In October 1757, Prince Moritz was left with very inadequate forces to defend Berlin against the daring Austrian raid on Berlin by General Andreas Count Hadik auf Futak. But, on December 5 of the same year, the glorious victory of Leuthen put an end to Moritz's run of bad luck. At the close of that day, Frederick rode down the lines and called out to General Prince Moritz, "I congratulate you, Herr Feldmarschall!" thus promoting him to the rank of field marshal for his conduct. On August 25 1758, Moritz took part in the Battle of Zorndorf where he brilliantly seconded Frederick and distinguished himself once more. At the beginning of October 1758, Moritz along with Marshal Keith advised Frederick against encamping at Hochkirch which he considered a very disadvantageous position. On October 14, during the night Battle of Hochkirch, Moritz fell wounded into the hands of the Austrians. By this wound Moritz suffered a blood poisoning. Prince Moritz was then released from captivity and returned to his home town of Dessau.
On April 11 1760, Prince Moritz succumbed from this blood poisoning at Dessau.
This article is mostly a translation of an article from the German Wikipedia:
Digby Smith for his contribution to this article