Arenberg Infantry

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Origin and History

This regiment was raised in 1733 for count Colmenero. In 1734, it became the property of count von Sculenburg. Then , on February 16 1754, the Inhaber became Carl Raimund duke von Arenberg (or Ahremberg). Its recruiting area was the entire "Reich" (Holy Roman Empire of German Nation).

From 1738, the regiment took part to the wars against the Turks and to campaigns in Italy and Bavaria.

As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).

During the Seven Years' War, the chef of the regiment was:

  • since February 16 1754 until 1778: Carl Raimund duke von Arenberg (or Ahremberg)

During the Seven Years' War, its colonel-commanders were:

  • in 1756: Silvius Lindainer von Rosen
  • from 1763: Ernst baron von Normann

In 1763, after the war, the regiment garrisoned Königgrätz (actual Hradec Králové) in Bohemia.

Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 21". It existed till 1918 as "I.R. Graf von Abensberg und Traun Nr. 21".

Service during the War

At the beginning of 1756, the regiment was garrisoning Marburg an der Drau (actual Maribor) in Slovenia. In September 1756, 2 battalions of the regiment were in Bohemia with Piccolomini's covering force in the Königshof-Kolin region.

On June 18 1757, the regiment took part to the battle of Kolin where it was deployed on the left of the first line in Gremmingen’s Brigade. On November 22, the regiment took part to the battle of Breslau where 2 of its battalions were deployed in Los Rios' brigade, in the first line of the infantry centre under baron Kheul, while a third battalion was deployed in the first line of the infantry centre of Nádasdy's Corps. On December 5 at the battle of Leuthen, 1 battalion of the regiment was deployed in Macquire's brigade in the first line of the infantry right wing under Kheul. Its Inhaber got the "Grosskreuz" of the Maria-Theresia-order for his successful leadership.

By August 2 1758, the regiment was part of the reserve of the main Austrian army under the command of Daun near Jarmeritz (actual Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou). Daun was following up the Prussian army retiring through Bohemia after the failure of the Prussian invasion of Moravia. On October 10, 2 battalions of the regiment took part to the battle of Hochkirch where they were deployed in the right column (under count d'Arberg) of Arenberg's corps on the Austrian right wing to the east of Rodewitz.

In 1759, the regiment was part of Loudon's corps. On August 12, the regiment fought in the battle of Kunersdorf where it was deployed in the reserve of the centre as part of Loudon's corps. It distinguished itself in this bloody battle, the grenadier captain Christian Binder baron von Kriegelstein being awarded the Maria-Theresia-order for his conduct.

In 1760, the grenadiers of the regiment proved their value at the defence of Arnsdorf (Silesia). On November 3, the regiment took part in the battle of Torgau.

In 1761, 1 battalion of the regiment took part in the second storming of Schweidnitz.

In 1762, the regiment was part of the "Reichsarmee" and, on October 29, fought at the battle of Freiberg.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1757 - Source: Kronoskaf
Uniform Details
as per the Delacre Bilderhandschrift of 1757
and the Albertina Handschrift of 1762

completed with other sources where necessary
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white with a white fastener and small yellow button (in addition in 1762: a white within azure blue pompom)
Grenadier bearskin with a small brass frontplate and an azure blue bag laced white
Neckstock one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks)
Coat white lined white with 3 yellow buttons under the right lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back on each side
Collar none
Shoulder Straps white fastened by a yellow button (left shoulder only)
Lapels azure blue with 7 yellow buttons (2 groups of 3 and an isolated one at the top)
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Cuffs azure blue with 3 yellow buttons
Turnbacks white (attached with an azure blue fastener in 1762)
Waistcoat white with 2 rows of 9 yellow buttons (3-3-3) and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Breeches white
Gaiters one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black with a small brass plate carrying the initials “MT”
Bayonet Scabbard black
Scabbard black (grenadiers only)
Footgear black shoes


Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre while fusiliers carried only a bayonet.

Other interpretations

For the 1762 uniform, the Albertina Handschrift illustrates white within green pompoms on the tricorne which is laced with a white scalloped braid. Furthermore, the shoulder strap and the fasteners of the turnbacks are decorated with blue, white and red waved stripes.

Raspe illustrates the same tricorne as the Albertina Handschrift.

Officers

The officers wore the same uniform with the following exceptions:

  • tricorne laced gold with a white and green cockade
  • black neckstock
  • no shoulder strap
  • no turnbacks
  • yellow and black silk sash

Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:

  • lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
  • captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
  • major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
  • lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
  • colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob

Sergeants carried a halberd and a wooden stick.

Corporals carried a halberd.

Musicians

As per a regulation of 1755, musicians were now distinguished from troopers only by swallow nests on the shoulders. Donath shows azure blue swallow nests scalloped yellow and azure blue cuffs scalloped with a wide yellow braid.

The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.

Colours

All German infantry regiments carried identical colours: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The hand painted colours were made of silk and measured Size 178 cm x 127 cm. The 260 cm long flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.

The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.

Colonel flag (Leibfahne):

  • field: white
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
  • reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
Leibfahne – Source: PMPdeL

Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):

  • field: yellow
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
  • reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
Regimentsfahne – Source: PMPdeL

In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.

References

Accurate Vorstellung der sämtlichen KAYSERLICH KOENIGLICHEN ARMEEN zur eigentlichen Kentnis der UNIFORM von jedem Regimente. Nebst beygefügter Geschichte, worinne von der Stiftung, denen Chefs, der Staercke, und den wichtigsten Thaten jedes Regiments Nachricht gegeben wird., Nürnberg auf Kosten der Raspischen Buchhandlung. Ao. 1762

Bilderhandschrift Delacre: Militair Etat der Ganzen Kayl., Königl. Armee Wienn 1757

Bleckwenn, Hans; Die Regimenter der Kaiserin, Gedanken zur "Albertina Handschrift" 1762 des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums Wien, Köln: 1967

Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio

Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979

Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759

Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760

Friese, Ulf-Joachim, Quellen zur Uniformierung der österreichisch-ungarischen Armee 1740-1763

Funcken, Liliane and Fred; Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

Hausmann, Friedrich, Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967

Knötel, Herbert d.J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63

Kornauth, Friedrich, Das Heer Maria Theresias: Faksimile-Ausgabe der Albertina-Handschrift, "Dessins des Uniformes des Troupes I.I. et R.R. de l'année 1762", Wien: 1973

Muhsfeldt, Th.; Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904

Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio

Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 34

Thümmler, L.-H., Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993

Wrede, Alphons Freiherr von; Geschichte der K. und K. Wehrmacht. Die Regimenter, Corps, Branchen und Anstalten von 1618 bis Ende des XIX. Jahrhunderts, Vol. 1, 124, Vienna, 1898-1905

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgments

User:Zahn for gathering most of the information about this regiment