Baden-Baden Infantry

From Project Seven Years War
Jump to: navigation, search

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Austrian Army >> Baden-Baden Infantry

Origin and History

The regiment was raised in 1673. From 1676, its commander was Lieutenant-General Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm von Baaden-Baaden. The same year, it took part in the siege of Philippsburg. In 1679, it participated in the attack of Tolna in Hungary.

In 1683, during the Great Turkish War, the regiment took part in the relief of Vienna and in the capture of Barcan; in 1684, in the siege of Ofen; in 1685, in the Battle of Gran. In 1686, the regiment was at the second siege of Ofen and took part in the expedition in Lower-Hungary. In November, 3 companies garrisoned Caposwar. In 1687, the regiment fought in the Battle of Mohacs. In 1688, it was at the capture of Stephansburg in Transylvania. In 1689, it took part in an engagement near Patacin on the Morawa River where one of its battalion, along with 1 battalion of Guido Starhemberg Infantry and 300 horse, occupied an outpost. In 1691, the regiment fought in the Battle of Slankamen and took part in the siege of Grosswardein. In 1693, it was at the siege of Belgrade. In 1697, it fought in the Battle of Zenta.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, in 1701, Captain Longueval of the regiment convinced Rákoczi to write a letter to Louis XIV which he would personally transmit. But this “friend” handed this letter over to Court Counsellor Wolfgang von Öttingen in Vienna, thus revealing the intentions of the dissatisfied Hungarian aristocrats. As reward, Longueval received a domain in Hungary and became baron and colonel. In 1702, the regiment served on the Rhine, taking part in the siege of Landau and in the Battle of Friedlingen. In 1703, part of the regiment defended Alt-Breisach. In 1704, the regiment took part in the second siege of Landau. In 1708, it was at the siege of Lille. In 1709, it took part in the Battle of Malplaquet; and in 1712, in the Battle of Denain.

During the War of the Polish Succession, in 1734, the regiment fought against the French.

During the War of the Austrian Succession, on April 10 1741, the regiment fought in the battle of Mollwitz. In 1745, it fought at Hohenfriedberg (June 4) and Soor (September 30).

As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).

During the Seven Years' War, the chef of the regiment was:

  • since January 4 1707 till his death on October 22 1761: Ludwig George Simpert Margrave von Baaden-Baaden
  • from October 1761: Margrave August Georg Simpert von Baaden-Baaden

During the Seven Years' War, its colonel-commander was:

  • in 1760: Colonel Alonsius von Harrach

Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 23".

Service during the War

On June 18 1757, two battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Kolin where they were deployed on the left of the second line in Plonquet's Brigade. On November 22, one battalion of the regiment took part in the Battle of Breslau where it was deployed in Gemmingen's Brigade, in the second line of the infantry centre under Baron Kheul. On December 5 at the Battle of Leuthen, one battalion of the regiment was deployed in Wied's Brigade in the second line of the infantry left wing under Colloredo.

By August 2 1758, the regiment was part of the reserve of the main Austrian army under the command of Daun near Jarmeritz. Daun was following up the Prussian army retiring through Bohemia after the failure of the Prussian invasion of Moravia.

On August 12 1759, the regiment fought in the sanguinary Battle of Kunersdorf where it was deployed in the reserve of the centre as part of Loudon's infantry corps.

On August 15 1760, the regiment took part in the Battle of Liegnitz.

To do: more details on the campaigns from 1760 to 1762

Uniform

For the moment we have very few information on the uniform in 1756, at the outbreak of the war. Most of our references describe the uniform in 1762. However, Muhsfeldt and Schirmer mention that, in 1756-57, the coat was white lined dark blue (therefore dark blue turnbacks), the distinctive colour was dark blue and the waistcoat and breeches were dark blue.

Privates

Uniform in 1762 - Source: Kronoskaf
Uniform in 1762
as per the Bautzener Handschrift

completed with other sources where necessary
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white with a small yellow button on the left side; dark blue within white cockade and white within dark blue pompoms in the lateral cornes
Grenadier bearskin with a dark blue bag probably laced white and a white tassel
Neckstock one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks)
Coat white lined white with 3 yellow buttons under the right lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back on each side
Collar none
Shoulder Straps white bordered dark blue and fastened by a yellow button (left shoulder only)
Lapels dark blue with 7 yellow buttons (1-3-3)
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Cuffs dark blue with 3 yellow buttons
Turnbacks white attached with a dark blue fastener
Waistcoat white with 2 rows of small yellow buttons (3-3-3) and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Breeches white
Gaiters one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white with a brass buckle
Cartridge Box black with a small brass plate carrying the initials “MT”
Bayonet Scabbard black with brass fittings
Scabbard black (grenadiers only)
Footgear black shoes


Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre while fusiliers carried only a bayonet.

Other interpretations

Donath illustrates a uniform with light blue distinctive and white buttons.

NCOs

no information found yet

Sergeants carried a halberd and a wooden stick.

Corporals carried a halberd.

Officers

The officers wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:

  • tricorne laced gold with a white and green cockade
  • black neckstock
  • no turnbacks
  • yellow and black silk sash

Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:

  • lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
  • captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
  • major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
  • lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
  • colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob

Musicians

As per a regulation of 1755, musicians were now distinguished from troopers only by dark blue swallow nests on the shoulders.

The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.

Colours

All German infantry regiments carried identical colours: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The hand painted colours were made of silk and measured Size 178 cm x 127 cm. The 260 cm long flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.

The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.

Colonel flag (Leibfahne):

  • field: white
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
  • reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
Leibfahne – Source: PMPdeL

Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):

  • field: yellow
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
  • reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
Regimentsfahne – Source: PMPdeL

In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.

References

This article contains texts from the following sources, which are now in the public domain:

  • Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 6

Other sources

Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio

Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979

Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759

Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760

Funcken, Liliane and Fred, Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

Hausmann, Friedrich, Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967

Knötel, Herbert d.J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63

Muhsfeldt, Th.; Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904

Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio

Thümmler, L.-H., Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgments

User:Zahn for gathering most of the information about this regiment