Baden-Durlach Infantry

From Project Seven Years War
Jump to: navigation, search

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Austrian Army >> Baden-Durlach Infantry

Origin and History

Grenadier of Baden-Durlach Infantry in 1762, wearing a tricorne - Copyright: Franco Saudelli

On 3 February 1682, Emperor Leopold I gave orders to FZM Sigmund Count Nigrelli to raise an infantry regiment of 10 companies. The regiment was partially enlisted in the Holy Roman Empire and in the Erblande (Habsburg Hereditary Lands). The commander of the regiment was Colonel-Lieutenant Archinto and its major, N. Syro. The regiment initially garrisoned Rheinsfeld.

From 1683, the regiment took part in the Great Turkish War (1683–1699 ). After the victory against the Turks at Vienna, it was sent to Hungary, arriving at Zips (present-day Spiš in Slovakia) in the Autumn of 1684. It was immediately assigned to the corps under the command of General Schulz. In 1685, the regiment remained in Upper Hungary. In 1686, it participated in the siege of Ofen and took its winter-quarters at Neuhäusel (present-day Nové Zámky/SK). On 12 August 1687, the regiment fought in the battle of Mohács. In 1688, it was at the siege of Belgrade and took its winter-quarters in Serbia. In 1689, the regiment returned to Upper Hungary once more.

The regiment then remained in Upper Hungary until 1697. On 11 September 1697, it took part in the battle of Zenta. After the signature of peace signature was the regiment until 1701 on cordon along Save river.

At the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment was sent to Italy where it took part in the invasion of Lombardy and fought in the Battle of Chiari. In 1702, it took part in the relief of Brescello and in the Battle of Luzzara. In 1703, it unsuccessfully defended Arco and the Pass of Raccazano in Tyrol. In 1705, it fought in the Battle of Cassano. In 1706, it participated in the relief and battle of Turin. In 1707, the regiment took part in the unsuccessful expedition against Toulon. It seems that the regiment was afterwards sent to Naples where it remained until 1716.

In 1732, Prince Maximilian von Hessen-Kassel became owner of the regiment which he kept until his death on May 8 1753.

During the War of the Polish Succession, the regiment served on the Rhine in 1734 and 1735.

During the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment served in Bohemia and Silesia in 1741 and 1742. On June 4 1745, it took part in the battle of Hohenfriedberg where it kept its post till the end and covered the retreat of the Austrian army. On September 30 of the same year, it fought at the battle of Soor.

As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).

During the Seven Years' War, the chef of the regiment was:

  • since May 1753 until 1791: Christoph Prince von Baden-Durlach

During the Seven Years' War, its colonel-commanders were:

  • since 1752: Colonel Franz Schuklesky (killed in action at the Battle of Prague on May 6 1757)
  • from 1757: Colonel Karl Baron von Bülow
  • from 1760 until 1768: Colonel Rudolph Baron von Stein

Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 27".

Service during the War

At the beginning of September 1756, the regiment, who was previously garrisoning Graz, was sent to the camp of FM Browne's Army near Budin where it was attached to Count Kolowrat's Corps, in the division of Count Starhemberg, in Perroni's Brigade. On October 1, the regiment took part in the Battle of Lobositz where it was deployed in the first line of the centre under General C. Kolowrat. It took its winter-quarters around Budin. During winter, the regiment was brought to a strength of 2,410 men (2 grenadier and 16 fusilier companies).

In April 1757, when the Prussians launched the invasion of Bohemia, the regiment was part of FZM Königsegg's Corps, in the division of Baden-Durlach, in the brigade of Major-General Prince Stolberg. On April 21, the regiment participated in the Combat of Reichenberg. After this defeat, Königsegg retreated to Prague. On May 6, two battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Prague where they were deployed in Prince Stolberg's Brigade, in the first line of the right wing of infantry under Count Königsegg on the hills above Štěrboholy. The converged grenadier battalions (22 coys), led by Colonel Guasco, attacked several times, capturing 12 guns and some colours but was finally forced to retreat. The Division Baden-Durlach covered the retreat of the army near Malešice and then went marched to Beneschau (present-day Benešov/CZ). In this battle, the regiment lost Colonel Schukelsky and Colonel Karl Baron von Bülow was appointed commander of the regiment. On November 22, one battalion of the regiment took part in the Battle of Breslau where it was deployed in Sistovictz's brigade, in the second line of the infantry centre under Baron Kheul. It attacked the redoubts at Schmiedefeld. On December 5, at the Battle of Leuthen (present-day Lutynia/PL), the two field battalions (1,300 men) were deployed in Starhemberg's Division in the second line of the infantry right wing under Kheul. In this disastrous battle, the regiment suffered heavy losses: Colonel Baron Bülow, 29 officers and 300 men were taken prisoners; and 600 men were killed or wounded. The third battalion, led by Colonel-Lieutenant Stein distinguished itself during the defence of Breslau against the Prussians. On December 10, the battalion defended the redoubt in front of Breslau, losing Colonel-Lieutenant Stein wounded. After the surrender of Breslau, 8 officers and 100 men were taken prisoners. At the end of December, Baron Stein was promoted to colonel.

In 1758, the regiment remained with FM Daun's main army and participated in the campaign of Moravia. By August 2, one battalion of the regiment was part of the reserve of the main Austrian army under the command of Count Leopold Daun near Jarmeritz. Daun was following up the Prussian army retiring through Bohemia after the failure of the Prussian invasion of Moravia. On 14 October, the regiment took part in the Battle of Hochkirch where it was attached to Baden-Durlach's Corps, in Baron Gemmingen's Brigade.

In 1759, the regiment was attached to the corps of G.d.C. Count O'Donell, in Los Rios' Division while its grenadiers were part of the converged grenadier battalion of Major Count Thurn which formed the avant-garde under Major-General Siskovics. By mid August, the regiment was part of Daun's Army posted in Silesia. On September 2, it took part in the Combat of Sorau. On November 20, 2 battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Maxen where they were deployed in the second line of the second column of Sincère's Corps under the command of under Lieutenant-General Dombasle. The regiment took its winter-quarters in Saxony.

In 1760, the third battalion of the regiment garrisoned Dresden. In July, it took part in the defence of Dresden. On November 3, the regiment fought in the Battle of Torgau where, along with Wied Infantry, it attacked the Prussian grenadiers after an intensive artillery fire and drove them back. The Prussians then received support from two fresh brigades and the regiment was forced to retreat on the main army posted on the “Stiptizer Höhen”. In this sanguinary battle, the regiment lost 1 officer killed; Colonel Baron Stein, 10 officers and 200 men wounded. Colonel Baron Stein and 8 wounded officers were captured by the Prussians. The regiment took its winter-quarters around Dresden.

On August 17 1761, a Russian corps effected a junction with Loudon's Corps near Striegau (present-day Strzegom/PL). At the beginning of October, the Russians decided to return to Poland and, on October 1, Loudon successfully stormed Schweidnitz. During the assault, the third battalion of the regiment was in the column of Colonel Count Wallis which attacked the Galgenfort. After the capture of Schweidnitz, this battalion formed part of the garrison of the fortress. The regiment took its winter-quarters in Silesia.

On July 21 1762, the first battalion of the regiment took part in the Battle of Burkersdorf where it defended the entrenchments at Burkersdorf. After the defeat, it followed Daun's Army who retreated behind the mountains to Bohemia. The third battalion took part in the defence of Schweidnitz where it distinguished itself. On the night of August 4, Major Logau made a sortie. On the night of August 18 to 19, he led a second sortie. Finally, on October 9, Schweidnitz surrendered.

In 1763, after the signature of Treaty of Hubertusburg on February 15, the regiment was sent to the Austrian Netherlands where it would remain until 1766.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1762 - Source: Kronoskaf
Uniform Details
as per the Delacre Bilderhandschrift of 1757
and the Albertina Handschrift, Bautzener Bilderhandschrift and Raspe of 1762

completed with other sources where necessary
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white with a white fastener on the left side with a small yellow button (fastener on the right side and no button in 1757); azure blue pompoms (none in 1757)
Grenadier bearskin with a small yellow metal front-plate and an azure blue bag laced white
Neck stock one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neck stocks)
Coat white lined azure blue with 3 yellow buttons under the right lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back on each side
Collar none
Shoulder Straps azure blue fastened by a yellow button (left shoulder only)
Lapels azure blue with 7 yellow buttons (1-3-3) (shorter lapels in 1757)
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Cuffs azure blue with 3 yellow buttons
Turnbacks azure blue
Waistcoat white with 2 rows of 9 yellow buttons (3-3-3) and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Breeches white
Gaiters one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black with a small brass plate carrying the initials “MT”
Bayonet Scabbard black
Scabbard black (grenadiers only)
Footgear black shoes


Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre while fusiliers carried only a bayonet.

Other interpretations

The Albertina Handschrift illustrates the following differences:

  • white within red pompoms
  • white metal buttons
  • only one row of buttons on the waistcoat.

NCOs

NCOs wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:

  • lapels and cuffs edged silver

Officers

The officers wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:

  • tricorne laced gold with a white and green cockade
  • black neck stock
  • golden shoulder strap
  • no turnbacks
  • yellow and black silk sash

Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:

  • lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
  • captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
  • major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
  • lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
  • colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob

Sergeants carried a halberd and a wooden stick.

Corporals carried a halberd.

Musicians

As per a regulation of 1755, musicians were now distinguished from troopers only by azure blue swallow nests edged white on the shoulders. In addition, Donath illustrates the following differences:

  • azure blue shoulder strap edged white
  • azure blue cuffs edged with a wide silver braid

The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.

Colours

All German infantry regiments carried identical colours: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The hand painted colours were made of silk and measured Size 178 cm x 127 cm. The 260 cm long flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.

The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.

Colonel flag (Leibfahne):

  • field: white
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
  • reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
Leibfahne – Source: Frédéric Aubert

Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):

  • field: yellow
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
  • reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
Regimentsfahne – Source: Frédéric Aubert

In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.

References

This article contains texts from the following sources, which are now in the public domain:

  • Prybila, C.: Geschichte K. K. 27. Linien-Infanterie-Regiments Leopold I., König der Belgier, Vienna 1858
  • Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 11

Other sources

Accurate Vorstellung der sämtlichen KAYSERLICH KOENIGLICHEN ARMEEN zur eigentlichen Kentnis der UNIFORM von jedem Regimente. Nebst beygefügter Geschichte, worinne von der Stiftung, denen Chefs, der Staercke, und den wichtigsten Thaten jedes Regiments Nachricht gegeben wird., Nürnberg auf Kosten der Raspischen Buchhandlung. Ao. 1762

Bilderhandschrift Delacre: Militair Etat der Ganzen Kayl., Königl. Armee Wienn 1757

Bleckwenn, Hans; Die Regimenter der Kaiserin, Gedanken zur "Albertina Handschrift" 1762 des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums Wien, Köln: 1967

Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio

Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979

Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759

Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760

Friese, Ulf-Joachim, Quellen zur Uniformierung der österreichisch-ungarischen Armee 1740-1763

Gräffer, August: Geschichte der kaiserl. Königl. Regimenter, Corps, Bataillons und anderer Militär-Branchen seit ihrer Errichtung biz zu Ende des Feldzuges 1799, Vol. 1, Vienna, 1804, pp. 115-119

Hausmann, Friedrich, Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967

Knötel, Herbert d.J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63

Kornauth, Friedrich, Das Heer Maria Theresias: Faksimile-Ausgabe der Albertina-Handschrift, "Dessins des Uniformes des Troupes I.I. et R.R. de l'année 1762", Wien: 1973

Muhsfeldt, Th.; Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904

Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio

Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 11

Thümmler, L.-H., Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgements

Harald Skala for the translation and integration of Prybila's book and Michael Zahn for the information on the uniform of this regiment