Baden-Durlach Infantry

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Austrian Army >> Baden-Durlach Infantry

Origin and History

Grenadier of Baden-Durlach Infantry in 1762, wearing a tricorne - Copyright: Franco Saudelli

This regiment was raised in 1683 for General Count von Ligretli. In 1703, it became the property of Johann Hieronimus Baron zum Jungen who died in Bruxelles on August 25 1732. The same year, Prince Maximilian von Hessen-Kassel became owner of the regiment which he kept until his death on May 8 1753.

From 1683, the regiment took part in the campaign against the Turks and against the upheaval in Hungary.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment initially served in Italy in 1702 and fought at the battles of Luzzara (August 15 1702) and Turin (September 7 1706).

During the War of the Polish Succession, the regiment served on the Rhine in 1734 and 1735.

During the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment served in Bohemia and Silesia in 1741 and 1742. On June 4 1745, it took part in the battle of Hohenfriedberg where it kept its post till the end and covered the retreat of the Austrian army. On September 30 of the same year, it fought at the battle of Soor.

As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).

During the Seven Years' War, the chef of the regiment was:

  • since May 1753: Christoph Prince von Baden-Durlach

During the Seven Years' War, its colonel-commanders were:

  • in 1759 and 1760: Baron von Bülow
  • Rudolph Baron von Stein

Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 27".

Service during the War

On October 1 1756, the regiment took part to the battle of Lobositz where it was deployed in the first line of the centre under General C. Kolowrat in the brigade of General Perony.

On May 6 1757, two battalions of the regiment took part in the battle of Prague where they were deployed in Prince Stolberg's brigade, in the first line of the right wing of infantry under Count Königsegg. On November 22, one battalion of the regiment took part to the battle of Breslau where it was deployed in Sistovictz's brigade, in the second line of the infantry centre under Baron Kheul. On December 5, at the battle of Leuthen, one battalion of the regiment was deployed in Starhemberg's division in the second line of the infantry right wing under Kheul.

By August 2 1758, one battalion of the regiment was part of the reserve of the main Austrian army under the command of Count Leopold Daun near Jarmeritz. Daun was following up the Prussian army retiring through Bohemia after the failure of the Prussian invasion of Moravia.

By mid August 1759, the regiment was part of Daun's corps posted in Silesia. On September 2, it took part in the combat of Sorau. On November 20, 2 battalions of the regiment took part in the battle of Maxen where they were deployed in the second line of the second column of Sincère's corps under the command of under Lieutenant-general Dombasle.

On November 3 1760, the regiment fought in the battle of Torgau.

To do: more details on the campaigns from 1760 to 1762

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1762 - Source: Kronoskaf
Uniform Details
as per the Delacre Bilderhandschrift of 1757
and the Albertina Handschrift, Bautzener Bilderhandschrift and Raspe of 1762

completed with other sources where necessary
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white with a white fastener on the left side with a small yellow button (fastener on the right side and no button in 1757); azure blue pompoms (none in 1757)
Grenadier bearskin with a small yellow metal frontplate and an azure blue bag laced white
Neckstock one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks)
Coat white lined azure blue with 3 yellow buttons under the right lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back on each side
Collar none
Shoulder Straps azure blue fastened by a yellow button (left shoulder only)
Lapels azure blue with 7 yellow buttons (1-3-3) (shorter lapels in 1757)
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Cuffs azure blue with 3 yellow buttons
Turnbacks azure blue
Waistcoat white with 2 rows of 9 yellow buttons (3-3-3) and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Breeches white
Gaiters one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black with a small brass plate carrying the initials “MT”
Bayonet Scabbard black
Scabbard black (grenadiers only)
Footgear black shoes


Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre while fusiliers carried only a bayonet.

Other interpretations

The Albertina Handschrift illustrates the following differences:

  • white witin red pompoms
  • white metal buttons
  • only one row of buttons on the waistcoat.

NCOs

NCOs wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:

  • lapels and cuffs edged silver

Officers

The officers wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:

  • tricorne laced gold with a white and green cockade
  • black neckstock
  • golden shoulder strap
  • no turnbacks
  • yellow and black silk sash

Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:

  • lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
  • captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
  • major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
  • lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
  • colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob

Sergeants carried a halberd and a wooden stick.

Corporals carried a halberd.

Musicians

As per a regulation of 1755, musicians were now distinguished from troopers only by azure blue swallow nests edged white on the shoulders. In addition, Donath illustrates the following differences:

  • azure blue shoulder strap edged white
  • azure blue cuffs edged with a wide silver braid

The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.

Colours

All German infantry regiments carried identical colours: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The hand painted colours were made of silk and measured Size 178 cm x 127 cm. The 260 cm long flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.

The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.

Colonel flag (Leibfahne):

  • field: white
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
  • reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
Leibfahne – Source: Frédéric Aubert

Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):

  • field: yellow
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
  • reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
Regimentsfahne – Source: Frédéric Aubert

In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.

References

This article contains texts from the following sources, which are now in the public domain:

  • Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 11

Other sources

Accurate Vorstellung der sämtlichen KAYSERLICH KOENIGLICHEN ARMEEN zur eigentlichen Kentnis der UNIFORM von jedem Regimente. Nebst beygefügter Geschichte, worinne von der Stiftung, denen Chefs, der Staercke, und den wichtigsten Thaten jedes Regiments Nachricht gegeben wird., Nürnberg auf Kosten der Raspischen Buchhandlung. Ao. 1762

Bilderhandschrift Delacre: Militair Etat der Ganzen Kayl., Königl. Armee Wienn 1757

Bleckwenn, Hans; Die Regimenter der Kaiserin, Gedanken zur "Albertina Handschrift" 1762 des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums Wien, Köln: 1967

Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio

Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979

Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759

Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760

Friese, Ulf-Joachim, Quellen zur Uniformierung der österreichisch-ungarischen Armee 1740-1763

Hausmann, Friedrich, Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967

Knötel, Herbert d.J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63

Kornauth, Friedrich, Das Heer Maria Theresias: Faksimile-Ausgabe der Albertina-Handschrift, "Dessins des Uniformes des Troupes I.I. et R.R. de l'année 1762", Wien: 1973

Muhsfeldt, Th.; Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904

Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio

Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 11

Thümmler, L.-H., Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgments

User:Zahn for gathering most of the information about this regiment