Banalisten Grenz-Hussars

From Project Seven Years War
Jump to: navigation, search

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Austrian Army >> Banalisten Grenz-Hussars

Origin and History

This Grenzhusarenregiment (Frontier Hussars Regiment) was raised in January 1750 by Carl Joseph Fürst von Batthyány, Banus of Croatia as the “Carl Joseph Fürst von Batthyány, Banater Grenz-Husaren-Regiment”1. It initially counted six companies, each of 100 men2 3. The first rank carried lances decorated with black and yellow quartered pennants5.

In 1751, the regiment consisted of 5 companies of hussars, each counting 100 men4.

The regiment recruited in the Generalate of the Banat7 and its regimental staff was established in Petrinja in Croatia8.

As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 7 squadrons (14 coys) for a total of 1,200 men. Grenzer units were mainly destined to wars against the Turks. For wars on other theatres of operations, they had to supply only a third of their total forces. However, this ratio was exceeded on several occasions during the Seven Years' War when the third who had served in the previous campaign was gradually replaced by another third provided for the incoming operations.

At the outbreak of the Seven Years' War, in 1756, the regiment contributed four squadron (800 men) to the Austrian Army.

Tactically a Grenz-Husar squadron was assigned to a foot battalion of the same Generalate.6

During the Seven Years' War, the Chef of the regiment was:

During the Seven Years' War, its commanders were:

  • since 1750: Gabriel Skerlecz von Lomnicza
  • from 1761 to 1772: Siegmund Count Voikovich von Voikffy

The regiment was disbanded in 1780.

Service during the War9

By mid June 1757, 3 sqns (190 men) of the regiment were part of Beck's Brigade. On June 18, these 3 sqns took part in the Battle of Kolin where they were deployed in the first line of the extreme right wing in Hadik's Division, more precisely in Szechényi's Brigade.

In September 1759, part of the unit was with Wehla's Austrian Light Division (3,460 men). By September 25, after the capture of Dresden, this division had taken position at Hoyerswerda where it was attacked by a Prussian corps under the command of Prince Henri. The Austrians lost 600 men killed and 1,785 men were taken prisoners including Wehla.

In early June 1760, 2 sqns of the unit formed part of Major-general Ried's Ligth Corps stationed near Freiberg in Saxony. They were attached to the Reichsarmee.

In 1761 and 1762, the regiment served once more in Saxony.

Notable names

Batthyányi, Carl Joseph Fürst von10 Field-Marshal11

Lomnicza, Gabriel Skerlecz von12 Lieutenant-Colonel13 Colonel 14

Nádasdy auf Fogaras, Franz Leopold Count von15 Generalfeldwachtmeister, General der Kavallerie

Voikkfy, Siegmund Count Voikovich von16 Colonel17

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1762
Source: David at Not By Appointment
Uniform Details
as per the Albertina Handschrift
Headgear light brown kolback with yellow cords and tassels and a red bag
Neck stock black
Pelisse dark blue lined with black sheepskin
Fur trim black
Lace 11 rows of yellow braids
Buttons brass
Dolman red edged yellow with 13 rows of yellow braids and brass buttons
Collar red edged yellow
Cuffs red pointed cuffs edged yellow with an intricate yellow lace on each sleeve
Trousers dark blue decorated with an intricate yellow lace on each thigh
Leather Equipment
Cross-belts white with brass fittings
Waist-sash red and yellow barrel sash
Cartridge box black leather
Scabbard black leather with brass fittings
Gloves white
Boots black Hungarian boots edged yellow with a yellow tassel
Horse Furniture
Saddle-cloth red edged yellow21 with a black double-eagle with a gold crown in each rear corner
Sabretache red edged yellow carrying a black double-eagle with a gold crown


Troopers were armed with a short curved sabre (brass fittings, 1,2 kg, 79 cm)18, a carbine (3,2 kg, 90 cm)19 and two pistols20.

Hussars wore a large moustache and long hair in natural colour over his ears, tied together at the neck.

Other interpretations

Raspe's publication ( Accurate Vorstellung der sämtlichen...) shows an entirely different uniform (probably a confusion with the regular hussar regiment owned by Count von Nádasdy auf Fogaras see Nádasdy Hussars):

  • light brown kolback with yellow cords and tassels and a green bag
  • a green pelisse trimmed with black fur with yellow braids and buttons
  • a green dolman edged yellow with yellow braids and buttons
  • dark blue trousers without any lace
  • black Hungarian boots edged yellow with a yellow tassel

The Bautzener Bilderhandschrift illustrates the following differences:

  • black kolback with white cords and tassels and a blue bag
  • blue pelisse whit white lace trimmed with grey fur
  • dolman not illustrated
  • blue trousers laced white
  • yellow Hungarian boots
  • blue saddle-cloth heavily laced and edged in white
  • blue sabretache edged white carrying a white double-eagle

Knötel seems to have followed Raspe and thus mistakenly illustrates the uniform of Nádasdy Hussars.

Donath depicts a uniform similar to those of the troopers with the following differences:

  • white fur on the pelisse
  • a yellow stripe on the outer side of each leg of the trousers

Donath also illustrates a second uniform in 1762 with a grren bag at the kolback, a green pelisse and a green dolman with yellow pointed cuffs all with yellow braids and buttons.

Schirmer depicts a uniform similar to the one illustrated in our plate but mentions a blue sabretache and a blue saddle-cloth.

Officers

Officers wore uniforms similar to those of the troopers but made with better material and of a better cut. Occasionally, officer also carried a mace or an ax.29 Officers wore a gold and black sash around the waist, under the pelisse but above the dolman.30 The sashes of staff and high ranking officers differed from each other. The neck stock of officers were white.

Officers were armed with a sword with a golden sword knot. The sword measured 80 cm and had gilt fittings.

Officers did not wear any cross-belt or cartridge box.

Officers wore a large moustache as the troopers.

The most important mark of command was the spanische Rohr (commander baton): “He who can carry the spanische Rohr may command”.31 This baton was decorated differently depending on grade.

Donath depicts an officer with:

  • a brown kolback with silver cords and tassels and a light blue bag
  • a light blue pelisse trimmed with white fur and with silver braids and buttons
  • a red dolman edged silver with silver braids and buttons
  • light blue trousers with a silver stripe on the outer side of each leg
  • a light blue sabretache edged and decorated in silver
  • a light blue saddle-cloth edged and heavily embroidered in silver

The Bautzener Bilderhandschrift depicts the following uniform:

  • black tricorne laced silver
  • blue pelisse edged with light brown fur
  • blue trousers
  • yellow Hungarian boots laced silver
  • blue sabretache edged silver carrying a silver double-eagle
  • red saddle-cloth edged silver

NCOs

NCOs did not carry carbines and, accordingly, no bandoleer for the carbine. However, they wore a bandoleer for their cartridge box. They also carried a stick which could be fastened to the left side of the pelisse by a sling. They also had black and yellow sword knots.

Musicians

Musicians wore a long coat and a black tricorne.22

The regiment had kettle-drums and trumpets.23

The hemispherical drums of each pair were differently tuned and for this reason were of different sizes (diameters of 40 and 80 cm). They were usually made of copper but some honorary kettle-drums could be made of silver. The drumhead was held in place by cords and by an iron ring.24

The largest drum was carried on the left side of the horse and the smallest on the right side. To play, the kettle-drummer used two mallets whose heads were covered with leather. The extremities of the mallets were fastened together with a strap worn around the neck of the kettle-drummer.25

The kettle-drums were decorated with aprons. Aprons were usually of red canvas, trimmed with braids and lace and decorated with the initials of the regiment owner. For parade, silken aprons richly decorated with gold or silver embroidery were used. They were usually paid for by donations of high ranking officers.26

In the quartiers of the regiment, the kettle-drums and guidons were constantly guarded. Their loss was considered shameful.27

The trumpets of the regiment had banners at the livery of the owner of the regiment carrying his cipher.28

Guidons

The swallow-tailed squadron guidons were red32.

Footnotes

1. Ref. Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 1. Die Stammlisten, Osnabrück 1986, p. 54, Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Teil 2. Namen und Inhaber der Regimenter aller europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime. Eine Materialsammlung zu den einzelnen Regimentern in alphabetischer Folge, untergliedert nach Territorien, Osnabrück 1993, Kaiser und Reich Nr.2, Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Teil 3. Namensregister der deutschen Regimentsinhaber und Namensregister der Regimenter mit Orts– und Ländernamen aus ganz Europa, Osnabrück 1995, p.18, Wrede, Alphons Freiherr von: Geschichte der k.u.k. Wehrmacht, Wien 1898–1905, V. Band, p. 337 und Kornauth, Friedrich: Das Heer Maria Theresias. Faksimile-Ausgabe der Albertina-Handschrift „Dessins des Uniformes des Troupes I. I. et R. R. de lannée 1762”, Wien 1973, p. 152.

2. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 219, 337

3. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 337

4. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 214

5. Ref. Wrede, Vol. III, p. 61 and Kornauth, p. 92

6. Ref. Kornauth, p. 92

7. Ref. Kornauth, p. 152

8. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 337 and Kornauth, p. 152

9. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 337 and Kornauth, p. 152

10. Ref. Tessin, Part 2, Kaiser und Reich Nr.2 and Tessin, Part 3, p.18

11. Ref. Tessin, Part 3, p.18

12. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 337 and Kornauth, p. 152

13. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 337 and Kornauth, p. 152

14. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 337 and Kornauth, p. 152

15. Ref. Tessin, Part 2, Kaiser und Reich Nr.17 and Tessin, Part 3, p.18

16. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 337 and Kornauth, p. 152

17. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 337 and Kornauth, p. 152

18. Ref. Kornauth, p. 141

19. Ref. Kornauth, p. 141

20. Ref. Kornauth, p. 141

21. Ref. Kornauth, p. 141

22. Ref. Kornauth, p. 141

23. Ref. Kornauth, p. 141

24. Ref. Ottenfeld, p. 695

25. Ref. Ottenfeld, p. 695

26. Ref. Kornauth, p. 105 and Ottenfeld, p. 696

27. Ref. Ottenfeld, p. 696

28. Ref. Kornauth, p. 105

29. Ref. Kornauth, p. 140f

30. Ref. Koch, Arwed Ulrich: Der modische Wandel der Uniform im 18. Jahrhundert. Reich und Württemberg. (Offiziersportraits 1730 bis 1790) (Teil II.), in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, LI. Jahrgang 1987, pp. 66–72, 69

31. Quote from Kornauth, p. 25

32. Ref. Kornauth, p. 141

References

Accurate Vorstellung der sämtlichen KAYSERLICH KOENIGLICHEN ARMEEN zur eigentlichen Kentnis der UNIFORM von jedem Regimente. Nebst beygefügter Geschichte, worinne von der Stiftung, denen Chefs, der Staercke, und den wichtigsten Thaten jedes Regiments Nachricht gegeben wird., Nürnberg auf Kosten der Raspischen Buchhandlung. Ao. 1762 (Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt Halle, Universitätsbibliothek Kiel, Landesbibliothek Darmstadt)

Bleckwenn, Hans; Die Regimenter der Kaiserin, Gedanken zur "Albertina Handschrift" 1762 des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums Wien, Köln: 1967

Donath, Rudolf: Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979

Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759

Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760

Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 1 Pirna und Lobositz, Berlin, 1901, p. 132

Knötel, Herbert d.J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Uniformbogen No. 71

Koch, Arwed Ulrich: Der modische Wandel der Uniform im 18. Jahrhundert. Reich und Württemberg. (Offiziersportraits 1730 bis 1790) (Teil II.), in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, LI. Jahrgang 1987, pp. 66–72

Kornauth, Friedrich: Das Heer Maria Theresias. Faksimile–Ausgabe der Albertina–Handschrift “Dessins des Uniformes des Troupes I. I. et R. R. de l´année 1762”, Vienna 1973.

Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 74

Skala H., Österreichische Militärgeschichte

Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 1. Die Stammlisten, Osnabrück 1986.

Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 2. Namen und Inhaber der Regimenter aller europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime. Eine Materialsammlung zu den einzelnen Regimentern in alphabetischer Folge, untergliedert nach Territorien, Osnabrück 1986.

Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 1. Namensregister der deutschen Regimentsinhaber und Namensregister der Regimenter mit Orts– und Ländernamen aus ganz Europa, Osnabrück 1995.

Thümmler, Lars-Holger: Die Österreichische Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993

Wrede, Alphons Freiherr von; Geshichte der K und K Wehrmacht, Vienna 1898-1905

N.B.: the section Service during the War is partly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgments

Mathias Kussmann for the initial version of this article