Baranyay Hussars

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Austrian Army >> Baranyay Hussars

Origin and History

Already in 1689, the famous partisan Paul (Pál) Deák de Miháldy had raised a band of hussars to fight against the Turks. On February 20 1696, Deák received a letter patent from the emperor authorising him to raise a hussar regiment of 1,200 men, making it the second oldest Austrian hussar regiment. The same year, the regiment served in Hungary, taking part in the engagements of Temesvár and Olasch. In 1697, it campaigned around Zenta under Prince Eugène de Savoie but saw no action. In 1698, it took part in the engagements of Temesvár and Gross-Becskerek. The same year, the regiment incorporated irregular Kis-Balás regiment (militia hussars). It later became a regular hussar regiment counting 800 men. The troopers in surplus were transferred to the Pálffy and Kollonits (disbanded in 1721) Hussars regiments. In 1699, the regiment was garrisoning Klausenburg.

At the end of 1700, the regiment was disbanded. However, at the beginning of 1701, Colonel Déak was instructed by Prince Eugène de Savoie to raise 4 new companies (totalling 400 men). The new regiment was rapidly brought to full strength (800 men) by incorporating troopers from other disbanded hussar regiments.

At the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession, in 1701, the regiment was sent to Italy as part of Vaubonne's Streifcorps, taking part in the engagement of Orzinovi and in the raid on Soncino. In 1702, it took part in the raids on Cremona and Milan and in the engagement of Grazia. In 1703, it campaigned around Verona and in Piémont. In 1704, it initially campaigned in Piémont, its colonel (Déak) being captured by the French at Casale on March 30 (while he was in French prison, the Vienna authorities confiscated Déak's dominion at Hungary; Deák felt discriminated and took service in the French Army with some of his hussars; Déak then deserted in September 1706 and rejoined the Austrian Army). The regiment then marched to the Po valley. In 1705, the regiment campaigned in South Tyrol, taking part in the engagements of Madonna della Balzolla and Bergamo and, on August 16, to the battle of Cassano. In February 1706, it became the property of General Viszlay and then, in the same year, of Stephan Baron von Splényi. The same year, it participated in the attempt to relieve Turin. In 1707, part of the regiment campaigned in Provence (Toulon) and part in Naples. In 1708, the regiment was transferred to the the Army of the Moselle in the Netherlands and, from August to December, was present at the siege of Lille. On September 11 1709, the regiment took part in the battle Malplaquet. In 1710, it was at the sieges of Douai and Béthune. In 1711, it served on the Rhine where it saw no actions. In 1712, the regiment campaigned in the Netherlands at Quesnoy and took part in the engagement of Fampoux. Part of the regiment went with General Grovenstein's raid into France. In 1713, the regiment served once more on the Rhine.

After the war, the regiment garrisoned Hildesheim from 1714 to 1716.

At the beginning of the Austro-Turkish War, on August 5 1716, the regiment was at the battle of Peterwardein. It then took part in the siege and capture of Temesvar (present-day Timosoara) which surrendered in October. The same year, 1 company was at the combat of Carlowitz, east of Belgrade in Serbia. On August 16 1717, the regiment took part in the battle of Belgrade, causing serious loss to the corps of Regeb Pasha in the ensuing pursuit.

In 1718, the regiment was sent to Serbia to assume garrison duties.

In 1723, the regiment assumed garrison duties in the Komitats of Gomör and Szabolcz.

In 1730, the regiment became the property of General von Czungenberg. In 1731, it was sent to Lombardy to assume garrison duties till 1733. In 1732, it became the property of General Emerich von Dessewffy.

In 1731 and 1732, two squadrons of the regiment were stationed in Corsica where they saw no actions.

During the War of the Polish Succession, in 1734, the regiment served in Italy, taking part to the combats of Parma, Quistello and Guastalla. In 1735, part of the regiment was at the combats of Quingentole and Marengo, pursuing the enemy to Bologna.

From 1736 to 1740, the regiment garrisoned Mantua in Lombardy.

At the outbreak of the War of the Austrian Succession, in 1741, the regiment was attached to Khevenhuller's corps. In 1742, it participated in the winter campaign in Upper-Austria and Bavaria; thence it went to Bohemia. In 1743, the regiment was back in Bavaria where it took part in the blockade of Straubing before advancing to the Rhine and taking part in the combat of Esslingen. In 1744, the regiment was attached to Batthyáni's corps in Bavaria. It then marched to Bohemia and took part in the combat of Beraun. In 1745, it campaigned once more in Bavaria and on the River Main, distinguishing itself in the combats of Geisenhausen and Nordheim. In 1746, the regiment returned to Italy and distinguished itself in the combat of Piacenza, under Colonel Peter Count Szápáry, before advancing into Provence.

After the war, in 1748, the regiment garrisoned Veröcze in Slavonia.

In 1751, the regiment garrisoned Fünfkirchen (present-day Székesfehervár).

In 1753, the regiment garrisoned Sillein (present-day Žilina/SK).

From 1754 to 1756, the regiment assumed garrison duties in Zips in Slovakia.

The regiment was successively owned by:

  • since 1696: Paul Deák de Miháldy, colonel
  • from 1706: Sigmund von Viszlay, colonel
  • from 1706: Stephan Baron Splény, FML
  • from 1730: Franz Baron Czungenberg, FML (died on February 17 1735 in the Oglio River)
  • from 1735: Emerich Baron Dessewffy, FML
  • from 1739: Johann (János) Baron Baranyay de Bodorfalva, G.d.C
  • from 1766: Carl Baron Nauendorf, FML

The regiment was successively under the effective command of:

  • since 1696: Paul (Pál) Deák de Miháldy
  • from 1706: Sigmund von Viszlay
  • from 1706: Stephan Baron Splény
  • from 1730: Franz Baron Czungenberg
  • from 1736: Franz Count Nádasdy
  • from 1744: Peter Count Szápáry
  • from 1754: Colonel Ferdinand Franz von Ujházy
  • from 1758: Colonel Franz Stephan von Pálasthy (captured in 1761)
  • from 1761: Colonel Martin von Gräven (2. colonel, 1768 transferred to Nádasdy hussars)
  • from 1771: Joseph Farkas

At the end of the Seven Years' War, in 1763, the regiment assumed garrison duties in Gabel (present-day Jablonné v Podještědí) where it remained for 15 years.

In 1769, the regiment was ranked 30th in the cavalry of the Austrian Army. In 1798, it was ranked eighth among the hussar regiments. It remained in service until 1918.

Service during the War

In June 1756, at the beginning of the Seven Years' War, the regiment was stationed in Moravia and counted 5 squadrons for a total of 583 men and 337 horses. Soon afterwards, it was called to the main army and arrived at the camp at Kolin in August. During the march towards Budin the regiment was sub divided into detachments. On October 1, the regiment took part in the battle of Lobositz where 4 of its squadrons were deployed in the vanguard in front of the village of Lobositz. During the winter of 1756-57, the regiment received a sixth squadron, bringing its total strength to 1,060 men. It spent the winter guarding the border between Saxony and Bohemia.

By April 1757, the regiment was attached to Hadik's Corps (along with Paul Anton Esterházy Hussars and 2 Grenzer bns) stationed near Prague. On May 6, the regiment took part in the battle of Prague where it was deployed in the Reserve in Count Szechenyi's Brigade. After the defeat, most of the regiment managed to escape towards Sazava while 200 men retired into Prague. On June 18, 2 squadrons of the regiment took part in the battle of Kolin. They were deployed in the first line of the extreme right wing in Hadik Division. After the victory, the regiment accompanied Nádasdy in his incursion into Saxony. Soone afterwards, the regiment returned to Bautzen and was attached to Count Andreas Hadik's Corps. Between October 10 and 23, it took part in the famous raid on Berlin, 300 hussars of this unit forming Hadik's vanguard. They distinguished themselves under Colonel Ujházy. During the following winter, the regiment guarder the frontier once more.

On January 31, Colonel Ujházy was promoted to major-general, Franz Pálasthy replacing him as colonel.

At the end of May 1758, the regiment joined the Reichsarmee which was commanded by the Prince of Pfalz-Zweibrücken. On May 29, the regiment arrived at the camp at Saaz (present-day Žatec). At the beginning of October, the regiment, along with Hadik Hussars was posted near Penig in Saxony under Major-General Ujházy. On October 17, while reconnoitring towards Chemnitz, the regiment, along with Hadik Hussars and Jazygier-Kumanier Hussars, fought a Prussian force (hussars, cuirassiers and foot) under Kleist, from 8:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m., dispersing them and pursuing them up to Freiberg. On November 12, the regiment, as part of Hadik's Corps, fought in an engagement near Torgau. The Prussian garrison and some hussars advanced against Hadik but were driven back into city, many prisoners were taken among Ruesch Hussars, Möhring Hussars and Finckenstein Dragoons. At this moment, Wedel's entire corps came to the rescue of the Prussian force and Hadik had to retreat to Eulenburg. On November 15, after another combat with the Prussians at Eulenburg, Hadik has to retreat to Grimma.

By April 1759, the regiment was at Brüx (present-day Most). On April 17, during a reconnaissance near Laun (present-day Louny) F. Pálasthy's detachment (100 men from Paul Anton Esterházy Hussars, 100 dragoons and 500 Grenzers) fell into a Prussian ambush. The Prussian commander asked Pálasthy to surrender but the latter refused. He then ordered his brother, Michael Pálasthy, to attack a hill with 80 hussars. This hill was occupied by 3 Prussian cavalry regiments and 2 infantry regiment. Meanwhile Pálasthy retreated into a forest to his rear. The Prussians launched another attack against Pálasthy's troops hidden in the forest but the engagement ended in a firefight. At night, Pálasthy retreated and safely rejoined Brentano's main army. In May, the regiment was attached to FML Maquire's brigade posted near Asch (present-day Aš). On May 3, the Prussians attacked these positions and Maquire retired towards Nuremberg through Amberg. On May 16, the main army arrived in Nuremberg. In the next months, the regiment operated in several detachments in Saxony in Luszinsky's Brigade. It was present at the sieges of Torgau and Wittenberg which surrenderer on August 21. Two squadrons were at Sangershausen. On December 18, the regiment took its winter-quarters around Bamberg as part of the Reichsarmee under Prince Stolberg.

In 1760, the regiment still served with the Reichsarmee. On February 2, a detachment of 140 hussars of the regiment successfully attacked a Prussian detachment (300 men under Captain Möllendorf who had received the “Pour-le-Merite” for his conduct at Prague ) near Mülzen. Möllendorf and 35 of his men were taken prisoners. On February 14, Lieutenant Baron Wenz attacked another Prussian detachment (carabiniers) at Naumburg, capturing the commander and 18 men. By March, at the beginning of the new campaign, the regiment counted 1,164 men and 1,139 horses. On March 17, FML Luszinsky sent Lieutenant-Colonel von Graeven at the head of a detachment (1 sqn of the regiment, 1 sqn of the Palatine Kurfürstin Leib-Dragoner, the Jäger Freikompanie Otto, 1 Saxon coy and some Grenzers) against Zeitz occupied by 2 Prussian squadrons. The Prussians received support from 5 additional squadrons who were stopped by the fire of the jägers. In this action, the Prussian garrison was taken prisoners (Colonel von Arnstädt and von Treskow, 13 SCOs and 170 men) and 50 Prussians were killed. The Austrian husars captured two silver drums and two standards. In April, Major-General von Kleefeld received intelligence that the well known Prussian partisan Froideville was operating with a detachment of elite soldiers around Zwickau. On April 8, formed a special detachment of hussars, dragoons and some infantry and marched towards Zwickau. He found the Prussians at Niedermülsen. The Prussians have had enough time to prepare themselves and received Kleefeld's detachment with their canons. Kleefeld dragoons managed to attack the enemies in the rear and killed many of them; the rest tried to escape. Froideville, 4 officers and 108 men were captured as well as 172 carriages. The regiment then remained with FML Luszinsky's Corps in Saxony, two squadrons being attached to the Reichsarmee. On August 20, the regiment fought with this army at the combat of Strehla. During this combat, the regiment, along with Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld Dragoons, were attacked by Szekely Hussars and Schorlemmer Dragoons. The Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld Dragoons were scattered but the Baranyay Hussars managed to escape with heavy losses. The Prussians then retreated to Torgau, the Reichsarmee to its camp at Strehla. On October 2, the Prince von Stolberg attacked the Prussians once more near Wittenberg. Stolberg won this encounter and the Prussians had to retreat to Coswig. The Baranyay Hussars distinguished themselves in this action and were mentioned in the relation of FML Luszinsky. On October 13, Wittenberg surrendered. On October 15, while marching towards Dresden, the regiment was attacked by the Prussian vanguard near Belzig. Colonel Pálasthy and 50 hussars were taken prisoners. On November 21, the same fate awaited Captain Emerich Baron Dessewffy and 32 hussars near Hohenstein. The regiment had his winter camp near Schleitz.

For the campaign of 1761, the regiment was part of Major-General von Kleefeld's Corps operating in Thuringia and Saxony. The regiment took part in the Kleinkrieg but was not involved in any major encounter. At the end of November, the army took its winter-quarters. The regiment stationed near Altenburg then counted 1,109 men and 919 horses.

As early as February 1762, the regiment undertook on several raids in Thuringia and Saxony. By the end of March, part of the regiment was posted in the area of Pegau, Naumburg and Weissenfels under FML Luszinsky. The Prince von Stolberg concentrated the Reichsarmee and, on May 21, marched to Chemnitz. The vangaurd under FML Luszinsky (Baranyay Hussars, Hadik Hussars, jägers and 1 bn of Grenzer) arrived at Chemnitz around 1:00 p.m. and the Prussians received them with the fire of their guns and muskets. Luszinsky's troops went forward and the Prussians retreated to the road leading to Freiberg. But the road was already occupied by Baranyay Hussars, and 300 Prussians and 2 guns were captured. At this moment, some Prussian cavalry and infantry appeared to rescue the garrison but the hussars and Grenzers immediately attacked and drove them back. Chemnitz was occupied by Stolberg's troops. On May 30, part of the regiment was involved, under General Kleefeld, in a combat near Gepulzig against Prussian troops under Lieutenant-General von Kanitz and Bandemer. Kleefelds troops won the engagement and the Prussians retreated to Waldheim. Kleefeld returned to Chemnitz. On June 23, two squadrons of Ruesch Hussars attacked a dragoon company near Glaucha. Two squadrons of Baranyay Hussars, encamped nearby, immediately came to the support of the dragoons, scattered the Prussian hussars and returned to their camp with 60 prisoners. The last combat in which the regiment was involved during the campaign was near Brand on October 14 when the regiment fought in Campitelli's Corps. The Prussians were defeated. On October 29, the regiment was present at the Battle of Freiberg but was not involved. On November 24, when the Prince Stolberg signed an armistice at Wilsdruf, the troops took their winter quarters. The regiment went to Selb in Bavaria, near the Bohemian border.

Uniform

Privates

The 1757 reform, stated that all hussar regiments should be dressed in dark blue uniform with yellow distinctives. However, this regulation seems to have been followed only by Kaiser Franz I Hussars. The present regiment retained its former uniform.

Uniform in 1757
Source: David at Not By Appointment
Uniform Details as per the Albertina Handschift completed where necessary with other sources
Headgear dark brown kolback with yellow cords and tassels and a red bag
Neck stock black
Pelisse apple green lined with black sheepskin
Fur trim black
Lace 12 rows of red braids
Buttons yellow
Dolman apple green edged red with 13 rows of yellow braids (some hidden by the sash) and yellow buttons
Collar apple green edged red
Cuffs apple green pointed cuffs edged red
Trousers light blue decorated with an intricate red lace on each thigh
Leather Equipment
Cross-belt natural leather
Waist-sash yellow and red barrel sash
Scabbard black with copper fittings
Boots black Hungarian boots edged red with a red tassel
Horse Furniture see Magyar Huszar Esterházy-Huszárezred
Saddle-cloth apple green edged with yellow wolf teeth and decorated with a crowned black double-eagle
Sabretache apple green edged yellow decorated with a black double-eagle surmounted by a golden crown and surrounded by yellow embroideries


Troopers were armed with a short, curved sabre, a musket and two pistols.

Other interpretations

Raspe's publication illustrates an identical uniform.

The Bautzener Bilderhandschrift illustrates the following differences:

  • apple green pelisse with grey fur trim
  • apple green saddle cloth edged gold and heavily decorated with golden laces
  • white cross belts
  • apple green sabretache edged gold and heavily decorated with golden laces
  • yellow Hungarian boots edged red

Knötel shows the following differences:

  • apple green sabretache edeged gold and decorated by a black double-eagle surmounted by a golden crown
  • black Hungarian boots edged white.

Donath illustrates two variants: a first one with a red saddle cloth laced yellow and a second almost identical to the Albertina's.

Officers

As per the Bautzener Bilderhandschrift, officers wore a uniform very similar to the uniform of the troopers with the following differences:

  • black tricorne edged gold
  • brown fur trim on the pelisse
  • red saddle cloth laced gold

NCOs

no information available yet

Musicians

no information available yet

Colours

The website Magyar Huszar depicts a green swallow-tailed Leibstandarte heavily embroidered and fringed in gold with an unidentifiable central device.

These guidons are depicted in Magyar Huszar Baranyay-Huszárezred.

References

Accurate Vorstellung der sämtlichen KAYSERLICH KOENIGLICHEN ARMEEN zur eigentlichen Kentnis der UNIFORM von jedem Regimente. Nebst beygefügter Geschichte, worinne von der Stiftung, denen Chefs, der Staercke, und den wichtigsten Thaten jedes Regiments Nachricht gegeben wird., Nürnberg auf Kosten der Raspischen Buchhandlung. Ao. 1762 (Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt Halle, Universitätsbibliothek Kiel, Landesbibliothek Darmstadt)

Albertina-Handschrift Dessins des Uniformes des Troupes I.I. et R.R. de l'année 1762 (Bibliothek des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums Wien)

Bleckwenn, Hans: Die Regimenter der Kaiserin, Gedanken zur "Albertina Handschrift" 1762 des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums Wien, Köln: 1967

Donath, Rudolf: Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979

Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759

Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760

Grosser Generalstab: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Hiller, Berlin, 1830-1913

Magyar Huszar Baranyay-Huszárezred website

Knötel, Herbert d. J.: Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Uniformbogen No. 71

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Seyfart: Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 65-66

Skala, H.: Österreichische Militärgeschichte

Thadden, Franz-Lorenz v.: Die theresianische Kavallerie - III. Teil, Die Zinnfigur, Klio, 1968

Thümmler, Lars-Holger: Die Österreichische Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993

Thürheim, A. V.: Die Reiterregimenter der k. K. Österreichischen Armee, file I., Vienna 1862

Treuenfest, A. v.: Geschichte des k. k. Huszaren-Regimentes Alexander Freiherr v. Koller Nr. 8, Vienna 1880

Wrede, Alphons Freiherr von: Geshichte der K und K Wehrmacht, Vienna and Leipzig 1911

N.B.: the section Service during the War is partly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgments

Digby Smith for the initial version of this article, User:Zahn for information on the uniform, and Harald Skala for the detailed history of the regiment.