Bothe Cavalry

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Origin and History

The regiment was raised in 1675 by Colonel Gordon. It initially consisted of two squadrons.

During the Franco-Dutch War (1672-78), the regiment was among the troops assembled on the frontier.

In 1679, the regiment participated in the relief of Hamburg, threatened by the Danes.

In 1681, the regiment received two additional companies.

In 1685, the regiment formed part of the relief corps under the command of the Hereditary Prince Georg Ludwig von Hannover to fight the Turks in Hungary; and took part in the Battle of Gran and in the storming of the Fortress of Neuhäusl. In 1686, the regiment participated in the siege and capture of Ofen; in 1687, in the Battle of Mohács

In 1688, at the outbreak of the Nine Years’ War (1688-97), the regiment was recalled to the Rhine. In 1689, it was transferred to Holstein, before returning to the Rhine where it was at the capture of Mainz and Bonn. In 1690, it was transferred to the Spanish Netherlands. In 1693, the regiment campaigned on the Rhine.

In 1700, the regiment was sent to the Duchy of Holstein to contain the Danes.

In 1702, the regiment took part in the invasion of the Principality of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel.

In 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment took part in Marlborough's march to the Danube and in the Battle of Blenheim; in 1706, in the Battle of Ramillies; in 1708, in the Battle of Oudenarde; and in 1709, in the Battle of Malplaquet.

In 1719, the regiment was part of the Imperial force which were sent to Mecklenburg. The regiment took part in the engagement of Wallsmühlen against the Russians.

In 1742, during the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48), the regiment was sent to the Netherlands. In 1743, it took part in the Battle of Dettingen; in 1746, in the Battle of Rocoux; in 1747, in the Battle of Lauffeld.

During the Seven Years' War, the regimental inhabers were:

  • from 1751: Colonel Johann Arnold Bothe, retired in 1757 as major-general
  • from 1757: Colonel Ernst Friedrich von Reden, promoted to major-general in 1758, became inhaber of the former Breidenbach Dragoons in 1759
  • from 1759: Colonel Georg von Walthausen, became inhaber of the former Reden Dragoons in 1761
  • from 1761: Colonel Johann Friedrich von Behr (aka Alt-Behr), promoted to major-general in 1768, died in 1776

The regiment was disbanded in 1803.

Service during the War

On June 26 1757, during the French invasion of Hanover, the regiment took part in the Battle of Hastenbeck where it fought in the second line of the cavalry right wing. The cavalry was not really tested in this battle. It was superbly mounted but drilled in the old German style tactics which meant that they were steady, but slow. They would have charged at a trot and quite likely would have received an enemy charge at the halt relying on their firearms.

In February 1758, during the Allied winter offensive in Western Germany, the regiment took part in the capture Minden. On May 26, the regiment was with the main force of Ferdinand of Brunswick in the camp of Nottuln. On May 31, it accompanied Ferdinand in his offensive on the west bank of the Rhine. On June 12, during the aborted attack on the French positions at Rheinberg, the regiment was in Spörcken's (second) Column of attack. On June 23, the regiment took part in the Battle of Krefeld where it was deployed on the left wing under the command of Lieutenant-General von Spörcken. On October 10, the regiment took part in the Battle of Lutterberg where it was placed in the second line of the right wing.

In June 1759, the regiment was part of Wangenheim's Corps who had taken position at Dülmen in Westphalia to observe the movement of a French Corps under the Marquis d'Armentières. On August 1, the regiment took part in the Battle of Minden where it was deployed in Wangenheim's Corps between Kutenhausen and the Weser, in the second line of the cavalry right wing under Major-General von Grothausen. In this battle, Lieutenant Helmers was wounded.

On July 10 1760, the regiment took part in the Combat of Corbach where it was attached to the left column under Lieutenant-General Griffin.

On February 15 1761, the regiment was among the Allied forces who launched a surprise attack on Langensalza against the Saxon Contingent fighting alongside the French Army. On July 16, the regiment was posted at Herzfeld on the left bank of the Lippe with part of Spörcken's Corps. It did not take part in the Battle of Vellinghausen.

By May 23 1762, in preparation for the campaign in Western Germany, the regiment was attached to the Allied main army. On June 24, it took part in the Battle of Wilhelmsthal where it was deployed in the 7th column. On July 23, the regiment took part in the Combat of Lutterberg, another attempt against the Saxon Contingent.

Uniform

Accurate Vorstellung der saemtlichen Churfürstl. hannöverischen Armee zur eigentlichen Kentniß der Uniform von jedem Regimente nebst beygefügter Geschichte, worinne von der Stiftung, denen Chefs, der Staercke und den wichtigsten Thaten jedes Regiments Nachricht gegeben wird Nürnberg: Raspe 1763 (Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt)

Privates

Uniform in 1759 - Source: Hannoverdidi
Uniform Details
Headgear black tricorne laced yellow with oak leaves as a field sign, a black cockade and a blue small bob (yellow bobs in 1761) on the hat
Neck stock black
Coat white with 10 brass buttons on the right side and 1 brass button on each side at the small of the back
Collar none
Shoulderknot none
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal, each with 3 brass buttons
Cuffs dark blue, each with 3 brass buttons
Turnbacks dark blue fastened with a small brass button
Waistcoat straw edged dark blue; small brass buttons
Breeches chamois
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt buff
Waistbelt buff
Cartridge Box black
Scabbard black
Footgear black
Horse Furniture
Saddlecloth basic color dark blue; border from inner edge out a crimson-green-white leaf pattern, border of white/yellow diagonal lines; emblem white horse on red ground over green turf within a blue garter with white lettering, above is a gold crown with red cushions.

The saddle was fastened by a blue and white girth.

Sabretache see saddlecloth
Blanket roll dark blue


Troopers were armed with a Pallasch (straight steel hilted sword), two pistols and a carbine. The carbine was slung from the shoulder belt on a swivel hook.

Officers

Officers wore a yellow silken sash around the waist; a silver gorget, a silver porte-epee; gold lace on the tricorne; gold lace around the collar and cuffs. They did not carry any cross-belt.

NCOs

NCO had gold laces on the cuffs, pockets, and waistcoat. They did not carry any cross-belt.

Musicians

The musicians were kettle-drummers and trumpeters. They were probably dressed in reverse colours and probably had swallow nests at the shoulders. Staff trumpeter probably carried NCO distinctives.

The kettle-drums of the regiment were made of copper.

The kettle-drum apron and trumpet banners were white, probably fringed gold, carrying the Springing White Horse on a red ground within the Garter; the motto “NEC ASPERA TERRENT” underneath.

Colours

The regiment carried one Leibstandarte and one regimental standard.

Colonel Standard (Leibstandarte): white field, there is no mention of the colour of the fringe and embroideries, here we assume them to be gold to fit with the colour of the buttons of the uniform:

  • obverse: centre device consisting of the Springing White Horse on a red ground within the Garter with an unknown motto underneath (maybe “MUORO DOVE M'ATTACO” or “NEC ASPERA TERRENT”)
  • reverse: centre device consisting of a column surmounted by an Electoral crown; motto “MUORO DOVE M'ATTACO” above
Leib Standard – Source: rf-figuren

Regimental Standard: blue field, there is no mention of the colour of the fringe and embroideries, here we assume them to be gold to fit with the colour of the buttons of the uniform:

  • obverse: centre device consisting of a the golden initials “GR” on a red ground within a Garter
  • reverse: centre device consisting of a column surmounted by an Electoral crown; the motto “MUORO DOVE M'ATTACO” above
Regimental Standard – Source: rf-figuren

References

This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

Other sources

Deutsche Uniformen, Bd. 1, Das Zeitalter Friedrich des Großen, 240 Bilder von Herbert Knötel d. J., Text und Erläuterungen von Dr. Martin Letzius, hrsg. von der Sturm-Zigaretten GmbH, Dresden 1932

Knötel, R.: Farbiges Handbuch der Uniformkunde: Die Entwicklung der militärischen Tracht der deutschen Staaten, Österreich-Ungarns und der Schweiz. Begründet von Prof. Richard Knötel. Grundlegend überarbeitet und bis zum Stand von 1937 fortgeführt von Herbert Knötel d.J. und Herbert Sieg. Dem Stand der Forschung angepaßt und ergänzt von Ingo Pröper, überarbeitete Neuauflage, Stuttgart 1985

Knötel, Richard: Die Uniformen des Hannoverschen Heeres 1763 und 1770. Part I : Das Heer von 1763, in: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, vol. XVI, no. 1-4 (1909), page 3-15

Knötel, Richard: Die Uniformen des Hannoverschen Heeres 1763 und 1770. Part II: Das Heer von 1770, in: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, vol. XVI, no. 4-5 (1909), page 15-20

Knötel, Richard: Die Uniformen des Hannoverschen Heeres 1763 und 1770. Kurze Stammliste. 1617 bis 1803, in: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, vol. XVI, no. 6-11 (1909), page 22-42

Lawson, Cecil C. P.: A History of the Uniforms of the British Army - from the Beginnings to 1760, vol. II

Manley, S.: Uniforms of the Danish and German States' Armies 1739 - 1748, Potsdam Publications

Niemeyer Joachim, and Georg Ortenburg: Die Chur-braunschweig-lüneburgische Armee im Siebenjährigen Kriege: Das Gmundener Prachtwerk, Beckum 1976

Niemeyer, Joachim and Georg Ortenburg: The Hanoverian Army during the Seven Years War; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Heereskunde

Pengel & Hurt: German States in the Seven Years War 1740 to 1762, Imperial Press

Pengel, R.D., and G. R. Hurt: Seven Years War. Brunswick-Luneburg (Hanover). Hessen Cassel. Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. Schaumburg Lippe. Supplement, Birmingham 1984

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Uniformierung der kurhannoverschen Infanterie 1714 - 1803 in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, 1970

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Schirmer, Friedrich: Nec Aspera Terrent: Eine Heereskunde der hannoverschen Armee von 1631 bis 1803, Niedersächische Hausbücherei, Bd. 3, Hannover 1929

Sichart, Louis von: Geschichte der Königlich-Hannoverschen Armee. Dritter Band. Vierter Zeitraum. 1756-1789, Hanover 1870 [google books]

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.