Browne Infantry

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Origin and History

On January 2 1683, Jacob Count Leslie, military commander of the Österreichische Vorlande (Further Austria) in Konstanz, got a decree to raise an infantry regiment of 10 companies for a total of 2,040 men. The recruits should be enlisted in Bavaria and Salzburg and in the Reichsstädte (free cities) of Konstanz, Nuremberg and Augsburg. Assembly point was at Augsburg. Johann Dominik Marchese Spinola was appointed lieutenant-colonel; and Wilhelm Baron Malowetz, major.

On September 12 1683, during the Great Turkish War, the regiment took part in the Battle of Vienna where Count Leslie distinguish himself leading the left wing of the second line. He commanded the artillery at Nussdorf and was wounded. In 1685, 700 men under the Marchese Spinola participated in the unsuccessful storming of Eszek. In 1686, the Marchese Spinola was replaced by Josef Karl Count Dietrichstein as regiment commander. The same year, the regiment took part in the expedition in Lower-Hungary. In 1687, it fought in the Battle of Mohacs and took part in operations in Slavonia. In 1688, it participated in the storming of Belgrade. In 1695, during the Battle of Lugos, it guarded the baggage. In 1696, it was at the Battle of Ollasch; in 1697, at the siege of Bihacz and at the Battle of Zenta.

On February 1 1692, Fürst Philipp Erasmus von Lichtenstein, formerly lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, received the Emperor's authorisation to buy the regiment from Count Leslie. Since that day, the Duke Liechtenstein became proprietor of the regiment.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, in 1701, two battalions of the regiment (1,000 men) were sent to Northern Italy to reinforce the army of Prince Eugène de Savoie. On November 20, they arrived on the Mincio River and were sent to blockade Mantua. They took their winter-quarters at Concordia on the Po. In January 1702, 600 men of the regiment were at Spinosa as part of the Imperial forces encircling Mantua. At the beginning of March, the Vienna War Council decided to send the two other battalions to Northern Italy. On March 14, 400 men of the regiment defended the Castle del Dosso which was stormed by a French party. In April, the third battalion arrived in Northern Italy. In May, three battalions of the regiment took part in the blockade of Mantua. On August 1, IV./Liechtenstein Infantry (1 bn and 1 grenadier coy) finally arrived at Ostiglia from the Hereditary Lands. On 15 August, two battalions and one grenadier company of the regiment (7 officers and 579 men only) took part in the Battle of Luzzara. In January 1703, the regiment received 1,015 new recruits from Bohemia. On January 11 1704, the regimental proprietor, Duke Liechtenstein, was killed in a skirmish on the Bormida River. On January 30, Colonel Max Ludwig Baron Regal got his decree as new regimental proprietor. In 1706, half of the regiment garrisoned Turin, the other part was at Calcinato (the entire regiment counted only 1,057 men). On September 7, the regiment took part in the Battle of Turin. It then spent winter near Cremona.

In May 1736, the regiment returned to Transylvania.

On July 4 1738, during the Austro-Turkish War of 1737–1739, the regiment fought at Kornia. On October 29 1737, Major-General Ulysses Browne de Camus was appointed proprietor of the regiment. On July 15, the regiment took part in the Battle of Mehadia. On July 22 1739, it fought in the Battle of Grocka. One grenadier company formed part of the grenadier vanguard (18 companies) while two battalions and 1 grenadier company were in the column of FML Prince Waldeck. In this battle, the regiment lost 2 officers and 41 men killed, 10 officers and 54 men wounded.

In 1741, during the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment initially served in Silesia where Colonel Roth was appointed commander of Breslau (present-day Wroclaw/PL) and the regiment garrisoned there. On April 10, it took part in the Battle of Mollwitz where it lost 20 men killed, 9 officers and 65 men wounded and 146 men missing. One battalion then garrisoned Brieg and, after surrender of the fortress, marched to Prague. On June 4 1745, the regiment fought in the battles of Hohenfriedberg where it lost 7 men killed, 5 wounded and 37 missing. On September 30, in the Battle of Soor, the regiment was on the left wing, in Meligny's Brigade and lost 14 men killed, 82 wounded and 78 taken as prisoners of war.

As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).

During the Seven Years' War, the chef of the regiment was:

  • since October 29 1737: Maximilian Ulysses Count Browne de Camus (died on June 26 1757 from his wounds in the Battle of Prague
  • from July 4 1757: Joseph Ulysses Maria Franz de Paula Count Browne de Camus (second son of the former chef, died on May 1 1759 from his wounds at the Battle of Hochkirch)
  • from May 1759: Johann Anton Baron von Tillier (died in January 1761 in Padua)
  • from February 6 1761 to 1763: Franz-Ulrich Fürst von Kinsky, FML

During the Seven Years' War, its colonel-commander was:

  • since December 19 1748: Ferdinand Baron Unruhe (promoted to general in 1756)
  • from October 1756: Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Ulysses Maria Franz de Paula Count Browne de Camus
  • from October 15 1758: Johann Baron von Koch (promoted to general in 1763)
  • from February 26 1763: Wenzel Count Herberstein

Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 36".

Service during the War

On September 25 1756, one battalion (the second followed some days later) took part in Colonel Moritz Count Lacy's reconnaissance towards Leitmeritz (present-day Litoměřice/CZ) and Schreckenstein (present-day Střekov/Ústí n. Labem/CZ). Lacy then returned to Browne's main army. On October 1, the regiment fought in the Battle of Lobositz where it lost 37 men killed, 45 wounded, and 48 missing or taken as prisoners of war. Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Count Browne fought with the grenadier corps. In the first days of October, the regiment formed part of the force under Field Marshal Browne sent to Saxony to relieve the Saxon Army blockaded in Pirna after the Prussian invasion of Saxony. The attempt failed and Browne's detachment quitted the region of Pirna on October 14 and retraced its step to Bohemia in October. During winter , the regiment formed part of the cordon deployed along the Bohemian border between Tetschen (present-day Děčín/CZ) and Gabel (present-day Jablonné v Podještědí/CZ).

On May 6 1757, two battalions of the regiment (a total of 1,676 men) took part in the Battle of Prague where they were deployed in Count d’Ursel's Brigade, in the first line of the right wing of infantry under Count Königsegg. During this battle, its chef, Filed-Marshal Ulysses Count Browne de Camus, was mortally wounded. The regiment lost 2 officers killed; 10 officers and 213 men wounded; 1 officer and 213 men missing. Part of the regiment took refuge within the walls of Prague. On June 3, Colonel Joseph Browne at the head of his regiment, and of 6 grenadier coys. 200 volunteers and 250 Grenzer light troops made a sortie and destroyed some Prussian guns. The regiment then accompanied the army who followed the retreating Prussians through Gabel and Zittau but did not participate in any action. On November 22, one battalion of the regiment took part in the Battle of Breslau where it was deployed in Würben's Brigade, in the second line of the infantry centre under Baron Kheul. General Würben was killed at the very beginning of the engagement, Colonel Joseph Browne was wounded and Lieutenant-Colonel Preyss took the command. In this battle, the regiment lost a total of 323 men. On December 5 at the Battle of Leuthen, one battalion of the regiment was deployed in Haller's Brigade in the second line of the infantry left wing under Colloredo. At the end of the battle, the regiment along with Pallavicini Infantry and Hildburghausen Infantry defended the bridge crossing the Schweidnitz River. In this battle, the regiment lost a total of 297 men, including 9 officers. It took up its winter-quarters in East Bohemia. Throughout the year, the third battalion garrisoned Triest.

In January 1758, the regiment could muster a single field battalion (333 men) while 588 men were reported ill. In February, after the arrival of new recruits the regiment counted one grenadier company (109 men) and one field battalion (791 men). Lieutenant-Colonel Preyss was appointed colonel in the general staff of the army. In May, the regiment was deployed in Harsch's Corps (more precisely in Vogelsang's Brigade) near Trautenau (present-day Trutnov/CZ). Later on, it joined Daun's main army in Moravia. By August 2, the regiment served in the first line of the main Austrian army under the command of Daun near Jarmeritz (present-day Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou). Daun was following up the Prussian army retiring through Bohemia after the failure of the invasion of Moravia. On October 14, two battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Hochkirch where they were deployed in the vanguard of the leftmost column under O'Donnell, to the west of Steindörfel. In this battle, the regiment lost a total of 17 officers and 291 men (from them 4 officers and 77 men from the grenadier companies). Furthermore, Colonel Joseph Count Browne was wounded (he would die of this wound in May 1759). Lieutenant-Colonel Koch took command of the regiment. Major Count Seriman would later receive the Knight Cross of the military Maria-Theresia-Order for his heroic conduct during this battle. After the battle, Daun went to Dresden. In October, Colonel Count Joseph Browne was promoted to general and, consequently, Lieutenant-Colonel Johann Baron Koch was promoted to colonel and regiment commander. On November 9, the regiment – now allocated to the corps of G.d.C O'Donell – arrived at the camp at Nöttniz near Dresden. The weather was very bad, therefore the army marched to its winter-quarters in Bohemia. The regiment took up its quarters at Aussig (present-day Ústí n. Labem/CZ) and later at Beraun (present-day Beroun/CZ). It counted 1,519 men (2 battalions and 2 grenadier companies). Since July, the garrison battalion had been transferred to Laibach (present-day Ljubljana/Slovenia).

In 1759, the regiment joined the main army once more. At the end of February, it went to the camp near Jaromir (present-day Jaroměř/CZ). In July, the regiment was attached to the Corps de Reserve under the command of FZM Sincére near Reichenberg (present-day Liberec/CZ). By mid August, the regiment was part of Daun's Corps posted in Silesia. On September 2, it took part in the Combat of Sorau. On November 20, two battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Maxen where they were deployed in the first line of the first column of Sincère's Corps under the command of Lieutenant-General d'Aynse while its grenadiers fought under GFWM Siskovics. The regiment and its grenadiers were praised in FZM Sincére's relation, and Colonel Koch later received the Maria-Theresia-Order.

In early June 1760, the regiment was part of Daun's Grand Army posted near Dresden. At the end of June, the regiment (2 grenadier companies and 2 field battalions for a total of 1,329 men) was allocated to FML Stampa's Corps. It marched to Greifenberg (present-day Gryfow Slaski/PL). On September 17, two battalions of the regiment took part in the Combat of Hochgiersdorf where they were attached to the Reserve Corps of the Fürst Löwenstein. On November 3, two battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Torgau where they were attached to Bibow's Brigade. Late in the afternoon, FM Daun led the present regiment and Bayreuth Infantry, supported by the grenadier and the reserve corps with 2 cuirassier regiments in an attack against the Süptizer Heights. During this attack, FM Daun was wounded but retained command. In this battle, the regiment lost one flag and a total of 517 men. There was not a single officer who had not been wounded! At the end of November, the regiment (now a single battalion and 1 grenadier company for a total of only 791 men) took up its winter-quarters in Dresden.

In February 1761, the regiment counted 1,721 men fit for duty (2 field battalions and 2 grenadier companies). In May, it was sent with G.d.C. O´Donell's and FZM Sincère's Corps to support Loudon in Upper Lusatia. However, in July, it was sent back to the main army, in Pellegrini's Brigade near Plauen. It did not see further action during this campaign and took up its winter-quarters near Dresden, on left bank of Elbe River. That year, the third (garrison) battalion was once more stationed at Laibach.

In 1762, the regiment was allocated to FZM Loudon's Corps, in Unruhe's Division. The grenadiers were for their part attached to Ferrari's Grenadier Brigade. One detachment (Captain Fischer with 291 men) took part in the defence of Schweidnitz. On October 9, when the fortress surrendered they became prisoners of war. On October 16, the army went in preliminary camps, the regiment to Wernersdorf (present-day Vernířovice/CZ ). At the end of October the regiment marched to its winter-quarters along the Bohemian border around Arnau (present-day Hostinné/CZ), Arnsdorf (present-day Arnultovice/CZ) and Herrmannseifen (present-day Heřmanovy Seify/CZ). In December, the regiment got more comfortable accommodations around Lauterwasser (present-day Čistá v Krkonoších/CZ).

In March 1763, the regiment (including its grenadiers) was sent to Prague to form part of the garrison. Furthermore, the same month, the third (now fourth) battalion joined the regiment in Prague.

Uniform

For the moment we have very few information on the uniform in 1756, at the outbreak of the war. Most of our references describe the uniform in 1762. However, Muhsfeldt, Wrede and Schirmer mention that, in 1756-57, the coat was white lined white (therefore white turnbacks), the distinctive colour was light blue and the waistcoat and breeches were white. Therefore, the uniform at the beginning of the war seems to have been almost identical to the uniform of 1762.

Somewhere in 1762, the distinctive colour of the regiment was changed from ultramarine to pale-red.

Privates

Uniform in 1762 - Source: Kronoskaf
Uniform in 1762
as per the Albertina Handschrift

completed with other sources where necessary
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne scalloped white; white strap with a white button; with a red and gold pompom; a red and blue tassel in each lateral corne
Grenadier bearskin with a ultramarine bag probably laced white and a white tassel
Neckstock one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks)
Coat white lined white with 3 white buttons under the right lapel and 1 white button in the small of the back on each side
Collar none
Shoulder Straps ultramarine with a white central wavy stripe, bordered white and fastened by a white button (left shoulder only)
Lapels ultramarine lapels with 7 white buttons (1-3-3)
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 white buttons
Cuffs ultramarine, each with 3 white buttons
Turnbacks white fastened with an ultramarine tab with a white central wavy stripe, bordered white and fastened by 2 small white buttons
Waistcoat white with 2 rows of small white buttons (3-3-3) and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 white buttons
Breeches white
Gaiters one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white with a brass buckle
Cartridge Box black with a small brass plate carrying the initials “MT”
Bayonet Scabbard black with brass fittings
Scabbard black (grenadiers only)
Footgear black shoes


Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre while fusiliers carried only a bayonet.

Other interpretations

The Bautzener Handschrift illustrates the following differences:

  • black tricorne scalloped white; no strap but a yellow button; white within ultramarine pompom
  • yellow buttons on the coat and waistcoat
  • white bordered ultramarine tab to fasten the turnbacks

Donath illustrates the following differences:

  • black tricorne laced white; white strap with a white button; gold within red pompom and ultramarine and red tassels
  • ultramarine shoulder strap with a white central wavy stripe
  • a white tab with a central ultramarine stripe and a small white button on each turnback
  • a single row of white buttons on the waistcoat

Knötel illustrates the following differences:

  • black tricorne laced white; white strap with a white button; gold within red pompom and tassels
  • plain ultramarine shoulder strap
  • ultramarine tab with a small white button to fasten turnbacks
  • a single row of white buttons on the waistcoat

NCOs

no information available yet

Officers

The officers wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:

  • tricorne scalloped gold with a white and green cockade
  • black neckstock
  • no turnbacks
  • yellow and black silk sash

Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:

  • lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
  • captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
  • major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
  • lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
  • colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob

Musicians

As per a regulation of 1755, musicians were now distinguished from troopers only by ultramarine swallow nests on the shoulders.

The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.

Colours

All German infantry regiments carried identical colours: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The hand painted colours were made of silk and measured Size 178 cm x 127 cm. The 260 cm long flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.

The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.

Colonel flag (Leibfahne):

  • field: white
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
  • reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
Leibfahne – Source: PMPdeL

Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):

  • field: yellow
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
  • reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
Regimentsfahne – Source: PMPdeL

In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.

References

This article contains texts from the following sources, which are now in the public domain:

  • Anon.: Geschichte des k. k. 36. Linien-Infanterie-Regiments, Prague, 1875
  • Gräffer, August: Geschichte der kaiserl. Königl. Regimenter, Corps, Bataillons und anderer Militär-Branchen seit ihrer Errichtung biz zu Ende des Feldzuges 1799, Vol. 1, Vienna, 1804, pp. 161-166
  • Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, pp. 6-7

Other sources

Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio

Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979

Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759

Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760

Funcken, Liliane and Fred, Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

Hausmann, Friedrich, Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967

Knötel, Herbert d.J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63

Muhsfeldt, Th.; Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904

Pengel, R. D. and G.R. Hurt; Austro-Hungarian Infantry 1740-1762; On Military Matters; Birmingham, 1982

Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio

Thümmler, L.-H., Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgments

Harald Skala for translating and integrating excerpts from the book "Geschichte des k. k. 36. Linien-Infanterie-Regiments" in this article

Michael Zahn for gathering most of the information about the uniform of this regiment