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Origin and History
The regiment was raised in 1688, during the Nine Years’ War (1688-1697), by Colonel Euno Josua Baron von Bülow. It initially consisted of six companies. In 1689, it served on the Rhine. In 1690, it was sent to the Netherlands. In 1691 and 1692, it remained in Hanover. In 1692, it contributed two companies to the creation of a new regiment which was sent to Hungary. After their return from Hungary these two companies were reintegrated into their former regiment. In 1693, the regiment was sent to Brabant where it took part in the Battle of Landen. In later took part in the sieges of Huy and Namur.
In 1700, the regiment took part in the campaign against the Danes in Holstein.
In 1703, during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-13), the regiment took part in the capture of Bonn and Limbourg; in 1704, in the Battle of Blenheim; in 1705, in the passage of the French lines at Elixheim; in 1706, in the Battle of Ramillies; in 1708, in the Battle of Oudenarde and in the siege of Lille; and in 1709, in the siege of Tournai and in the Battle of Malplaquet.
In 1719, the regiment took part in the campaign in Mecklenburg and in the action of Wallsmühlen.
In 1742, during the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48), the regiment was sent to the Netherlands. In 1743, it took part in the Battle of Dettingen. In 1744 and 1745, it campaigned in the Netherlands. In 1746, it returned to Hanover.
During the Seven Years' War the successive Inhabers of the regiment were:
- from 1733: Brigadier Ernst August von der Busche (promoted to major-general in 1735, lieutenant-general in 1740 and general of cavalry in 1757, died in 1761)
- from 1761 to 1781: Colonel Johann Vincent von Müller (promoted to major-general in 1776 and inspector of cavalry in 1780, died on 22 January 1781)
Service during the War
On July 26, 1757, during the French invasion of Hanover, the regiment took part in the Battle of Hastenbeck where it fought in the second line of the right wing under the command of Dachenhausen.
In March 1758, during the Allied winter offensive in Western Germany, the regiment took part in the siege and capture of Minden. On May 26, it was with Ferdinand's main force in the camp of Nottuln. When Ferdinand crossed the Rhine to undertake a campaign on its west bank during the night of May 31, the regiment remained at Brünen as part of Lieutenant-General von Imhoff's detachment charged to watch Wesel. On August 5, the regiment took part in the Combat of Mehr where Imhoff's force repulsed the French attempt directed against the Allied bridgehead at Rees. On October 10, the regiment took part in the Battle of Lutterberg where it was placed in the second line of the right wing. In this battle, Lieutenant von der Wisch was wounded.
In June 1759, the regiment was part of the Allied main army under the command of Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick. On July 27 in the afternoon, the Hereditary Prince set off from Petershagen, near Minden, with 6 bns and 8 dragoon sqns (including this regiment), totalling some 6,000 men, and marched south-westwards towards Lübbecke to threaten the French left flank and the supply line between Minden and Paderborn. On August 1, the regiment was part of the left wing of the corps of the Hereditary Prince who attacked and defeated Brissac's French corps in the engagement of Gohfeld. At the end of the year, the regiment was sent to the siege of Münster.
On July 10 1760, the regiment was part of Lieutenant-General Waldegrave's Reserve at the Combat of Corbach. This reserve did not take part in the engagement.
Early in 1761, the regiment took part in the Allied winter offensive in Hesse. On February 18, it was part of Oheimb’s Corps who attacked Maupéou's Corps near Sachsenberg. Maupéou was captured along with a lieutenant-colonel, 5 officers and 50 soldiers. On July 16 1761, the regiment was present at the Battle of Vellinghausen where it formed part of the cavalry right wing under the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick. On August 29, the regiment, along with three grenadier battalions, was detached to to Dorsten under General von Huth. On August 30, this detachment stormed Dorsten, destroying the bakery of Soubise’s Army, taking 40 officers and 600 privates prisoners, and capturing 6 cannon and 2 colours.
In 1762, the regiment once more took part in a campaign in Western Germany, By May 23, it was attached to the Corps of the Hereditary Prince operating in Westphalia. On August 30, it fought in the Combat of Nauheim where it was initially part of Lieutenant-General Oheimb's column before being sent as reinforcements to Luckner. The regiment suffered heavily in this battle, losing Captain Hofmeister, Captain-Lieutenant Becker, Lieutenant Schöning and Ensign Urhof killed; and Major von Bothe, Captain von Ziegesar, Lieutenants von Freytag, Duve and Blocker and Ensign Guhl wounded. Furthermore, it lost more than 200 NCOs and private killed or wounded. Colonel von Müller had his horse killed under him and was taken prisoner. On September 21, the regiment took part in the Combat of Amöneburg where it was attached to Zastrow's Corps occupying the ground immediately before the Brücker Mühle.
Accurate Vorstellung der saemtlichen Churfürstl. hannöverischen Armee zur eigentlichen Kentniß der Uniform von jedem Regimente nebst beygefügter Geschichte, worinne von der Stiftung, denen Chefs, der Staercke und den wichtigsten Thaten jedes Regiments Nachricht gegeben wird Nürnberg: Raspe 1763 (Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt)
|Coat||white without lace with 3 golden buttons under each lapel
|Waistcoat||light buff (according to Wissel, the waistcoat was dark blue until 1761)|
Troopers were armed with a Pallasch' straight steel hilted sword, two pistols, a musket and a bayonet.
Officers wore a yellow silken sash across the right shoulder; a silver gorget, a silver porte-epee; and gold lace on the tricorne. They did not carry a bandoleer.
NCO had gold laces on the cuffs, pockets, lapels and waistcoat. They did not carry a bandoleer.
Musicians were dressed in reverse colours and probably wore shoulder laces. The staff kettle-drummer probably carried NCO distinctives. His kettle-drums were made of copper and had a blue apron fringed gold carrying a device consisting of the Springing White Horse on a red ground surmounted by an Electoral crown; the motto “NEC ASPERA TERRENT” underneath
As dragoons, musicians were drummers. The likely drum pattern would have been similar to the foot with hoops in alternating facing colour and red diagonal stripes, white drum cords over a brass drum with the Arms of Hanover in the centre.
The first squadron carried the Leibstandarte while the 3 remaining squadrons carried an Eskadronstandartewhich could vary from one squadron to the other.
Colonel Standard (Leibstandarte): white field with gold fringe
- obverse: centre device consisting of the White Horse of Hanover on a red ground within the Garter; surmounted by a crown; the motto “NEC ASPERA TERRENT” underneath; corner devices consisting of the reversed and entwined “GR” cipher
- reverse: centre device consisting of an illustration of the double-headed Janus; trophies of arms on both sides; the motto “DECET ET ORNAT” above
2nd Squadron Standard (Eskadronstandarte): blue field with gold fringe
- obverse: centre device depicting the God Mars above a trophy of arms, holding a sword in one hand and a laurel branch in the other; the motto “POST BELLUM NOMEN” underneath
- reverse: centre device depicting St. George fighting the dragon; the motto “VIRTUS ANIMI SUPERAT OMNIA” above
3rd Squadron Standard (Eskadronstandarte): blue field with gold fringe
- obverse: centre device consisting of the initials “GR” surmounted by a crown within the Garter supported by a Lion and a Unicorn; the motto “DIEU ET MON DROIT” underneath
- reverse: centre device depicting a golden oriole holding a ring in its beak; the motto “FELICI AUSPICIO” underneath
4th Squadron Standard (Eskadronstandarte): blue field with golden embroideries; gold fringe
- obverse: centre device depicting an eagle and an eaglet flying towards the sun; the motto “PROSPEROS FAVET” underneath
- reverse: centre device consisting of a shield with 4 crowns guarded by an armed Lion; corner devices consisting of “GR” ciphers
This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Wissel, Friedrich v. and Georg von Wissel: Geschichte der Errichtung sämmtlicher Chur-Braunschweig-Lüneburgischen Truppen, sammt ihren Fahnen, Standarten und Pauken-Devisen ..., Zelle, 1786, pp. 215-227
Biles, Bill: The Hanoverian Army in the 18th Century, Seven Years War Association Journal Vol. VI No. 3
Knötel, Richard: Die Uniformen des Hannoverschen Heeres 1763 und 1770. Part I : Das Heer von 1763, in: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, vol. XVI, no. 1-4 (1909), page 3-15
Knötel, Richard: Die Uniformen des Hannoverschen Heeres 1763 und 1770. Part II: Das Heer von 1770, in: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, vol. XVI, no. 4-5 (1909), page 15-20
Knötel, Richard: Die Uniformen des Hannoverschen Heeres 1763 und 1770. Kurze Stammliste. 1617 bis 1803, in: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der militärischen Tracht, vol. XVI, no. 6-11 (1909), page 22-42
Lawson, Cecil C. P.: A History of the Uniforms of the British Army - from the Beginnings to 1760, vol. II
Niemeyer, Joachim and Georg Ortenburg: The Hanoverian Army during the Seven Years War; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Heereskunde
Pengel, R.D, Hurt G.R.: German States in the Seven Years War 1740 to 1762, Imperial Press
Pengel, R.D, Hurt G.R.: Seven Years War. Brunswick-Luneburg (Hanover). Hessen Cassel. Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. Schaumburg Lippe. Supplement, Birmingham 1984
Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989
Schirmer, Friedrich: Nec Aspera Terrent: Eine Heereskunde der hannoverschen Armee von 1631 bis 1803, Niedersächische Hausbücherei, Bd. 3, Hannover 1929