Carl Lothringen Infantry
Origin and History
On June 30 1715, Leopold, Duke of Lothringen offered to the Emperor to raise two infantry regiments. His offer was welcome. Since the Duchy of Lothringen (Lorraine) was occupied by France, the Duke of Lothringen gave orders to his brother, Elector Carl von Lothringen of Trier, to raise these two regiments in his own principality and to put them into the Emperor's service. The regiments were called “Alt Lothringen” and “Jung Lothringen” (the present regiment). Recruits were enlisted in Elchingen, Riedlingen, Mengen, Günzburg and Munterkingen. In accordance to the decree, 1 battalion and 1 grenadier company should be ready to be reviewed at Günzburg on March 1 1716; the second battalion, in mid-March; and the third, at the beginning of April. Once completed, the regiment should count 2,300 men in 15 fusilier companies and 2 grenadier companies. Each battalion consisted of 5 fusilier companies. It was strictly forbidden to enlist recruits from France, Italy, Switzerland, Poland, Hungary and Croatia.
On April 25 1716, the regiment was taken in imperial service, Carl Duke of Lothringen was appointed proprietor and commander of the regiment. However, before the end of the year, Franz Stephan von Lothringen, who would later marry Maria Theresa, was appointed proprietor and the regiment was renamed “Prinz Franz von Lothringen”. To improve the quality of the regiment, he exchanged some companies with more senior regiments of the Austrian Army (Regal, Guttenstein, Harrach, d'Arnan, Plischau and Wendt. All officers came from these regiments, most of them from Regal.
Once ready, the regiment was sent to Hungary where it fought against the Turks until 1719.
In 1720, the regiment garrisoned Temesvár and worked at the improvement of the fortifications.
In 1726, the two field battalions of the regiment were sent to Transylvania where they remained there until 1730.
In the Summer of 1730, the two field battalions were transported by ship to Naples where they arrived in mid-July. In mid-October, they were transferred to Lombardy.
From the outbreak of the War of the Polish Succession (1733–1738), the regiment fought in Italy until 1736, distinguishing itself at Colorno in 1734.
In 1736, during the Austro-Turkish War), the regiment was sent back to Hungary where it participated in several campaigns against Turks. During winter of 1737-38, the field battalions and the grenadier companies garrisoned Pressburg (present-day Bratislava/SK) while the third battalion was stationed at Gradiska. In 1738, the regiment fought at Grotzka. It then continued to campaign in Hungary until the end of the war in 1739.
In 1739, the regiment assumed garrison duties in at Esseg (first and second battalions) and Szegednin (third battalion).
At the outbreak of the First Silesian War (1740–1742), the entire regiment was transferred to Bohemia: one battalion joined Neipperg's Army and participated in the Battle of Mollwitz (April 10 1741) where it lost 223 men. In 1742, the regiment fought against Prussians in the Battle of Chotusitz (May 17). During the winter of 1742, the entire regiment assumed garrison duties in Gmünd.
In 1743, it fought against the French in Bavaria and Southern Germany.
During the Second Silesian War (1744–1745), the regiment fought against the Prussians in Bohemia and Silesia, taking part in the battles of Hohenfriedberg (June 4 1745 ) and Soor (September 30 1745). After the war, the regiment was stationed in Rakonitz (present-day Rakovník/CZ).
In 1746, during the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment was instructed to join the army operating on the Rhine under the command of FZM Leopold Daun. It later campaigned against the French in the Low Countries until the end of the war in 1748.
From 1748 to 1756, the regiment assumed garrison duties in Roermond, and later Bruxelles and Ghent in the Austrian Netherlands (present-day Belgium).
As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).
Since its creation, the successive chefs of the regiment were:
- since 1716: Carl von Lothringen, Elector of Trier
- from 1716: Franz Stephan, Prince of Lothringen (became proprietor of IR No. 1 in 1726)
- from 1726: Leopold Count Ligneville (killed in action at Colorno in 1734)
- from 1734: Gottfried Ernst Baron Wuttgenau (became proprietor of IR No. 12 in 1736)
- from 1736: Lucas Comte Pallavicini (became proprietor of IR No. 15 in 1736)
- from 1736 until 1780: Carl Alexander Duke of Lothringen and Bar, governor of the Austrian Netherlands
During the Seven Years' War, its colonel-commander was:
- since 1752: Colonel Vogelsang (killed at Prague on May 6 1757)
- from 1757: Joseph Johann Count Ferraris (promoted to general on March 13 1759)
- from 1759: Colonel Karl Maximilian von Schorlemer
Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 3".
Service during the War
At the beginning of 1756, the regiment (4 bns, 2 grenadier coys) was garrisoning Ghent in the Austrian Netherlands. The regiment was reorganised and three of its battalions regrouped into two field battalions. By October, the two field battalions counted 1,350 men; and the two grenadier coys. 194 men. At the end of the year, the field battalions and the grenadiers marched through Luxembourg to Donauwörth while the third battalion remained in Bruges to assume garrison duties.
On 20 January 1757, after having been delayed by heavy snow storms, the field battalions and the grenadiers finally arrived at Tábor in Southern Bohemia. In the Spring, the two field battalions (1,680 men) and the 2 grenadier coys (200 men) formed part of FM Browne's Army encamped near Prague. On May 6, they took part in the battle of Prague where they were deployed on the on the Zizkaberg in the Marquis d'Hinse's Brigade, in the first line of the left wing of infantry under Baron Kheul. The grenadiers were converged with 21 other grenadier coys posted near Sterbohol. In this battle, the regiment lost its colonel, Vogelsang, killed in action, 68 men dead and wounded and 59 men missing. Part of the regiment, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel von Grevenitz retreated south of Prague while the largest part took refuge in Prague. FM Daun instructed Grevenitz to collect soldiers from all the regiments who had escaped after the battle and to march to Olmütz (present-day Olomouc/CZ) with them. They remained there until July 4 and then returned to Daun's main army. Meanwhile, the largest part of the regiment (1,122 fusiliers and 165 grenadiers) was still trapped in Prague with Waldeck Infantry, Marschall Infantry and Leopold Pálffy Infantry along the eastern and south-eastern walls of Prague under command of General Unruh and FML Ahremberg. During the Siege of Prague, the regiment lost 11 men. After Daun's victory at Kolin, his army followed the retreating Prussians from Jungbunzlau (present-day Mladá Boleslav/CZ) to Gabel (present-day Jablonné v Podještědí/CZ). On 15 July, the grenadiers of the regiment took part in the storming of Gabel. The army then marched on Zittau. On 23 July, a bombardment set Zittau afire and the town capitulated. The regiment, along with Harsch Infantry, was sent to the town to extinguish the fire. Afterwards, the regiment participated in the campaign of Silesia. By October, it was with in the main army in a camp camp near Breslau (present-day Wroclaw/PL). On November 22, one battalion (probably the remnants of the two field battalions combined in a single battalion) took part in the Battle of Breslau where it was deployed in Wulffen's brigade, on the right wing in the second line of infantry under Baron Kheul. Its grenadiers were attached to the grenadier corps (35 coys) under FML Sprecher and GM Reichlin. Towards the end of the battle, Erzherzog Joseph Dragoons were threatened by a Prussian counter-attack but the battalion along with Lucchesi Cuirassiers relieved them, forcing the Prussians to retire towards the suburbs of Saint-Nicholas. In this battle, the regiment lost 34 men. On December 5 at the Battle of Leuthen, one battalion of the regiment (1 converged bn) was deployed in Starhemberg's Division in the second line of the infantry right wing under Kheul. Towards the end of the battle, along with Waldeck Infantry, Wallis Infantry, and Baden-Durlach Infantry, it defended the “Windmühlenberg” against superior Prussian forces. In this combat, the regiment lost there 1 officer and 96 men dead, 19 officers and 301 men wounded (including Major von Vogelsang and Lieutenant-Colonel von Grevenitz), 2 officers and 453 men missing. After these heavy losses the regiment counted a single weak battalion (13 officers, 363 men). From mid-December, 2 officers and 61 men of the regiment, belonging to the garrison of Schweidnitz, were blockaded by Prussians in this fortress.
Since July 20 of the same year, its third battalion garrisoned Ghent. From September 7, it was posted at Emden in East Frisia with one battalion of Platz Infantry under the command of Major-General Piza. It acted in support of a French army operating in Western Germany and garrisoned Emden.
By January 12 1758, the remains regiment (1 bn of only 524 men) was encamped near Brandeis (present-day Brandýs nad Labem/CZ). On April 29, it joined the main army near Skalitz (present-day Skalice/CZ) and remained with this army during the Siege of Olmütz by Frederick II of Prussia. By August 2, this battalion served in the second line of the main Austrian army under the command of marshal Daun near Jarmeritz. Daun was following up the Prussian army retiring through Bohemia after the failure of the invasion of Moravia. The regiment (now increased to 2 field bns for a total of 1,156 men fit for duty) participated in several actions against the retreating Prussians. By mid-August, along with Waldeck Infantry and Gaisruck Infantry, it was near Reichenberg (present-day Liberec/CZ), attached to the second line of the right wing under Major-General Kinsky, FML Angern and FZM Ahrenberg. From August, the two grenadier coys were detached from the regiment and, for the rest of the campaign operated as part of a converged grenadier battalion which also included the grenadiers of Leopold Pálffy Infantry, Wallis Infantry and an unidentified regiment. On October 14, two battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Hochkirch where they were deployed in the left column (under the Duke d'Ursel) of Arenberg's Corps on the Austrian right wing to the east of Rodewitz. Its grenadiers were in the fourth column of the main attack (under Colonel Browne). During the attack on the big Prussian battery on their left wing, Colonel Ferraris of the regiment made himself master of the battery. In this battle, the regiment lost 8 officers and 331 men. Daun's Army (including the regiment) then marched to Dresden. On November 4, it encamped near Loschwitz. On November 9, the regiment participated in a combat in the garden in front of Dresden (Thiergarten). Daun's Army then took his winter-quarters in Bohemia, the regiment came in the neighbourhood of Leitmeritz (present-day Litoměřice/CZ).
The same year, the third battalion was recalled from Emden to reinforce the Austrian army in Bohemia. At the beginning of September, this third battalion joined a corps under the command of Major-General Dombasle, who was sent from Emden to join the Reichsarmee. On October 2, it joined this army in Saxony.
In 1759, the regiment was directed to FML Beck's Corps. On March 8, it was at Wartenberg. On March 26, Beck captured Greifenberg in Saxony but the regiment was not involved. In April, it was sent to Bohemia to Klein-Skal (present-day Malá Skála/CZ), Starkenbach (present-day Jilemnice/CZ ) and finally Jaromier (present-day Jaroměř/CZ). On May 2, it reached this camp and was immediately attached to the first line of the left wing with Harsch Infantry and Pallavicini Infantry. By mid August, the regiment was part of Daun's Army posted in Silesia. On September 2, it took part in the combat of Sorau. At the end of November, it arrived at Dresden and took its winter-quarters in this city and its vicinity.
In 1760, the main Austrian army remained in the region of Dresden until the end of June. In July, the regiment marched towards Silesia where it joined Loudon's corps. Frederick II marched on Dresden and laid siege to the city. Daun followed him and arrived on July 18. In the night of July 21, FML Baron Angerer attacked the Prussian siege battery in the suburbs of Dresden at the head of 10 grenadier coys, 9 bns (including one from the present regiment) and 8 sqns. The guns were destroyed, the Austrian troops returned to their original positions after suffering a loss of 603 men (including 170 men from the regiment). The interim commander of the regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel Schorlemer was wounded during this action (he would receive the MTO order on December 22 1761 for his conduct). Both armies then returned to Silesia. On August 15, the regiment was not involved in the Battle of Liegnitz. However, Colonel Ferrari from the regiment was involved in a combat near Burckersdorf where he led 3 grenadier bns against a superior Prussian force, losing 363 men. On November 3, the colonel of the regiment once more commanded 3 grenadier bns and the Batthyányi Dragoons during the Battle of Torgau. These troops defended the defile behind the main army. This sanguinary battle ended around 8:00 p.m.. On 4 November around 3:00 p.m., the Austrian forces retreated. The rearguard, led by FML O'Donell of the present regiment, Mercy-Argenteau Infantry and Botta Infantry. In this battle, the regiment lost 55 men. From November 8, the regiment formed part of the garrison of Dresden along with Leopold Daun Infantry and Tillier Infantry. Meanwhile, the third battalion of the regiment had been stationed in Eger (present-day Cheb/CZ) until September and was then directed to Glatz (present-day Klodsko/PL).
By February 17 1761, the regiment had a strength of 1,748 men (the third battalion at Glatz counting 470 men) and was sent, as part of FML Baron Buttler's Corps to Loudon's Army in Silesia. In May, the corps was posted at Zittau. On July 17, it joined Loudon's main body at Herwichswalde. In the night of October 1, the regiment participated in the storming of Schweidnitz. Major Dombasle led a battalion of the regiment against the “Galgenfort”, distinguishing himself. On October 19, Buttler's Corps was sent from Schweidnitz to Saxony. On November 1, it reached Dresden. The regiment was detached to Chemnitz where it took its winter-quarters. During winter, Carl Duke of Lothringen was appointed “Hoch-und-Deutschmeister” and thus became proprietor of the Deutschmeister Infantry.
On 15 January 1762, the regiment, now part of FML Campitelli's Corps, went to Altenburg. During the following months the regiment was successively attached to various corps. In April, it returned to Dresden. On May 9, the regiment set off for Silesia under the command FML Stampa, along with Gyulay Infantry and 3 cavalry regiments. On May 18, it reached Hirschberg (present-day Jelenia Gora/PL) but was soon recalled to Dresden. On May 27, FM Serbelloni decided to attack Lieutenant-General Hülsen near Dippoldiswalde. The regiment was in the third column under FML Wied. The attack was unsuccessful and Serbelloni's Corps returned to Dresden. On June 28, Major-General Pellegrini at the head of the regiment and of Benedikt Daun Cuirassiers was sent to Teplitz (present-day Teplice/CZ). At the beginning of July, Pellegrini's detachment marched from Teplitz by Aussig (present-day Ústí n. Labem/CZ) to Zittau. Then 300 men of the regiment and 300 horse remained in Zittau while the rest of the detachment, now under FML Stampa, went to Leitmeritz (present-day Litoměřice/CZ). At Teplitz, Stampa's detachment joined the corps with of G.d.C. Löwenstein. This corps (2 bns and 2 grenadier coys of the regiment, 2 bns and 2 grenadier coys of O’Kelly Infantry, 1 bn and 1 grenadier coy of Pallavicini Infantry, 2 bns and 2 grenadier coys of Gyulay Infantry, and 1 bn and 1 grenadier coy of Nikolaus Esterházy Infantry secured Northern Bohemia against Prussian raids. On August 1 and 2, during combats against Seydlitz's Corps in the region of Teplitz, colonel Schorlemer and OWM Reisky were wounded. By the end of August, the regiment counted 2,002 men, including 1,448 men fit for duty in two battalions and two grenadier coys. The third battalion (457 men) was still garrisoning Glatz. In September, FML Hadik assumed command of this corps after Serbelloni's decision to attack the Prussian cordon along the Bohemian border. Duke Löwenstein with his corps should march on September 26 from Teplitz to Einsiedel (present-day Mníšek v Krušných Horách/CZ) and attack the Prussians there. The Prussian retired before Löwenstein's arrival. On September 27, Löwenstein attacked between the village of Chemnitz and Dittersbach. The regiment was brigaded with Pallavicini Infantry and Gyulay Infantry under Pellegrini and FML Plunquet. They fought on the right wing and the regiment lost only 3 men. Afterwards, the Duke of Löwenstein went to Plauen with the present regiment, Pallavicini Infantry, Jung-Colloredo Infantry, Di Stampa Cuirassiers and Hadik Hussars. The Emperor then gave orders to send 6,000 men (the present regiment, Salm Infantry, Roth Würzburg Infantry, Prinz Savoyen Dragoons, Di Stampa Cuirassiers, Buccow Cuirassiers and Bretlach Cuirassiers) to Bohemia to support the Reichsarmee. During this march, the third battalion of the regiment, arriving from Glatz, joined the two field battalions. When the Prussians sent troops to Westphalia, Major-General Seckendorf was transferred to the Rhine with the present regiment, Salm Infantry, Roth Würzburg Infantry, and 2 cavalry regiments.
At the beginning of February 1763, the regiment arrived at Brussels where it remained after the 1763 - Treaty of Hubertusburg. Colonel Karl Maximilian von Schorlemer, commander of the regiment since 1761, died on December 3 1769 at Brussels. Lieutenant-Colonel Reisky, formerly commanding a converged grenadier battalion, was promoted to colonel of the regiment.
For the moment we have very few information on the uniform in 1756, at the outbreak of the war. Most of our references describe the uniform in 1762. However, Muhsfeldt and Schirmer mention that, in 1756-57, the coat was white lined red, and the waistcoat and breeches were red.
|Neck stock||one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neck stocks)|
|Coat||white lined white with 3 yellow buttons under the right lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back on each side
|Waistcoat||white with one row of small yellow buttons (3-3-3) and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons|
|Gaiters||one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)|
Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre while fusiliers carried only a bayonet.
no information found yet
The officers wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:
- tricorne laced gold with a white and green cockade
- black neckstock
- no turnbacks
- yellow and black silk sash
Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:
- lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
- captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
- major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
- lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
- colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob
Sergeants carried a halberd and a wooden stick.
Corporals carried a halberd.
Until 1760, despite the new regulation of 1755, the musicians wore coats of reversed colours with white swallow nests and white turnbacks. From 1760, they wore uniforms identical to those of the privates with swallow nests on the shoulders.
The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.
All German infantry regiments carried identical colours: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The hand painted colours were made of silk and measured Size 178 cm x 127 cm. The 260 cm long flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.
The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.
Colonel flag (Leibfahne):
- field: white
- border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
- obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
- reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):
- field: yellow
- border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
- obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
- reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.
J. Stanka does not list the regiment commanders in his book. Their names are rather mentioned randomly in the text. It seems that two officers named Vogelsang commanded the regiment during the same years: the commander (colonel) killed in May 1757 at Prague and another in the rank of major. Also the name Dombasle appears twice.
This article contains texts from the following sources, which are now in the public domain:
- Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 29-30
Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio
Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979
Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759
Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760
Funcken, Liliane and Fred, Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle
Hausmann, Friedrich, Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967
Knötel, Herbert d.J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called „Brauer-Bogen"), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63
Muhsfeldt, Th.; Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904
Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989
Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio
Stanka, J.: Geschichte des K. und K. Infanterie-Regimentes Erzherzog Karl Nr. 3, Vienna 1894
Thümmler, L.-H., Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
Harald Skala and Michael Zhan for gathering most of the information about this regiment