Difference between revisions of "Clare Infanterie"

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==Origin and History==
 
==Origin and History==
 
[[File:Clare Infanterie Private.jpg|right|frame|Clare Infanterie Private - Source: Edmond Lajoux, ''Le Lys, l’Ancre et la Croix - Les régiments qui construisirent l’empire d’outre-mer 1665-1786'' from the collection of Dr Marco Pagan]]
 
[[File:Clare Infanterie Private.jpg|right|frame|Clare Infanterie Private - Source: Edmond Lajoux, ''Le Lys, l’Ancre et la Croix - Les régiments qui construisirent l’empire d’outre-mer 1665-1786'' from the collection of Dr Marco Pagan]]
This Irish regiment was raised on June 18 1690 under the name of Mountcashel from Irish soldiers who had followed James II to France.  
+
In May 1690, during the Nine Years' War (1688–97), a large number of Irish soldiers arrived in France with their dethroned King James II. On 18 June of the same year [[Louis XIV]] formed three regiments with them. The present regiment was immediately employed for the conquest of [[Savoy]] under M. de Sainte-Ruth, and distinguished itself in a combat fought in a pass of Savoy. The same year, it took part in the siege of Montmélian. In 1691, it was stationed at Pinerolo. In 1693, it took part in the Battle of Marsaglia In 1697, it was transferred to the Meuse. in Flanders where it took part in the siege of Ath.
  
During the War of the Polish Succession, the regiment served on the Rhine in 1733 and 1735.
+
In 1698, the regiment was reduced to one battalion.
  
During the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment was initially stationed in Flanders in 1741. From 1743 to 1745, it served on the Rhine. It was supposed to take part to the expedition in Scotland but was finally sent to Flanders from 1746 to 1748.
+
In 1701, at the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-13), the regiment which was stationed in Alsace was increased to two battalions. In 1703, it took part in the siege of Kehl, in the Combat of Munderkingen and in the Battle of Höchstädt; and in 1704, in the battles of Schellenberg and Blenheim. In 1705, the regiment formed part of the Army of the Moselle. In 1706, it took part in the Battle of Ramillies; in 1708, in the Battle of Oudenarde; in 1709, in the Battle of Malplaquet; in 1711, in the attack on Arleux; in 1712, in the Battle of Denain and in the recapture of Douai, Le Quesnoy and Bouchain; and in 1713, in the siege and recapture of Landau and in the siege and capture of Freiburg. At the end of the year, the regiment was reduced to a single battalion.
  
The regiment counted only 1 battalion.
+
In 1719, during the War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718-20), the regiment formed part of the Army of the Pyrenees and was at the sieges of Fuenterrabía, San Sebastian and Urgell, and at the blockade of Roses.
 +
 
 +
In 1733, during the War of the Polish Succession (1733-35), the regiment took part in the siege of Kehl. In 1734, in the attack of the Lines of Ettlingen and in the siege of Philisbourg; and in 1735 in the Battle of Klausen.
 +
 
 +
In 1741 and 1742, during the [[War of the Austrian Succession]] (1740-48), the regiment was stationed on the frontier of Flanders. In 1743, it was transferred to the Army of the Rhine and took part in the Battle of Dettingen. In 1744, it returned to Flanders and took part in the sieges of Menin, Ypres and Furnes. In 1745, it distinguished itself at the Battle of Fontenoy and was at the capitulation of Tournai. It was then supposed to take part in the expedition to Scotland but finally remained in Flanders. In 1746, it took part in the Battle of Rocoux; in 1747, in the defence of Malines and in the Battle of Lauffeld; and in 1748, in the covering of the siege of Maastricht.
 +
 
 +
On the eve of the Seven Years' War, the regiment counted only one battalion.
  
 
When the French infantry was reorganised in 1762, the regiment incorporated the disbanded [[Ogilvy Infanterie]] on December 21.
 
When the French infantry was reorganised in 1762, the regiment incorporated the disbanded [[Ogilvy Infanterie]] on December 21.
  
 
During the Seven Years' War, the regiment ranked 93<sup>rd</sup> and was under the command of:  
 
During the Seven Years' War, the regiment ranked 93<sup>rd</sup> and was under the command of:  
*since August 3 1720 until his death on September 9 1761: Thomond Charles O'Brien, Comte de Clare
+
*from August 3, 1720 until his death on September 9, 1761: Charles O'Brien de Clare, Comte de Thomond
*from September 20 1761 to 1775: Vicomte de Thomond
+
*from September 20, 1761 to April 26, 1775: Charles O'Brien de Clare, Vicomte de Thomond
<br clear="all"/>
+
<br clear="all">
 
==Service during the War==
 
==Service during the War==
By August 1 1757, the regiment was stationed at Cherbourg in Lower Normandy.
+
During the first years of the war, the regiment served on the coasts of Normandy and usually had its quarters at Valognes.
 +
 
 +
By August 1, 1757, the regiment was stationed at Cherbourg in Lower Normandy.
  
 
At the beginning of August 1758, the regiment formed part of the French force defending Cherbourg during the [[1758 - British second expedition against the French Coasts|second British expedition against the French Coasts]]. It garrisoned the town with [[Horion Infanterie]].
 
At the beginning of August 1758, the regiment formed part of the French force defending Cherbourg during the [[1758 - British second expedition against the French Coasts|second British expedition against the French Coasts]]. It garrisoned the town with [[Horion Infanterie]].
  
In 1761, the regiment was stationed at Marburg.
+
In 1760, the regiment was sent to Germany. By May 23, it was part of the first line of the infantry centre of [[Broglie, Victor François, Duc de|Broglie]]'s Army in Germany. By December 30, the regiment had taken up its winter-quarters in Giessen.
 +
 
 +
In 1761, the regiment contributed to the defence of Marburg. On July 16, it took part in the [[1761-07-16 - Battle of Vellinghausen|Battle of Vellinghausen]].
 +
 
 +
In 1762, the regiment was at the camp of Dunkerque. On December 21, it incorporated the remnants of the disbanded [[Ogilvy Infanterie]].
 +
 
 +
In 1763, the regiment was initially placed in garrison in Valenciennes. In May, it was transferred to Gravelines.
  
To do: details of the campaigns from 1759 to 1761.
 
 
==Uniform==
 
==Uniform==
 
===Privates===
 
===Privates===
Line 39: Line 52:
 
|}
 
|}
 
|-
 
|-
|'''Neckstock'''||black
+
|'''Neck&nbsp;stock'''||black
 
|-
 
|-
|'''Coat'''||red lined yellow and 1 tin button on each side at the small of the back
+
|'''Coat'''||red lined yellow and 1 pewter button on each side at the small of the back
 
{| class="tblunin"
 
{| class="tblunin"
 
|-
 
|-
 
|'''Collar'''||yellow
 
|'''Collar'''||yellow
 
|-
 
|-
|'''Shoulder&nbsp;Straps'''||one yellow
+
|'''Shoulder&nbsp;Straps'''||yellow (left shoulder only)
 
|-
 
|-
|'''Lapels'''||one lapel running down to the waist on the same side as the buttons, 12 tin buttons down to the waist grouped 2 by 2
+
|'''Lapels'''||one lapel running down to the waist on the same side as the buttons, 12 pewter buttons down to the waist grouped 2 by 2
 
|-
 
|-
|'''Pockets'''||horizontal pockets (4 tin buttons on each pocket)
+
|'''Pockets'''||horizontal pockets, each with 4 pewter buttons on each pocket
 
|-
 
|-
|'''Cuffs'''||yellow narrow cuffs (''en botte'') with 4 tin buttons
+
|'''Cuffs'''||yellow narrow cuffs (''en botte''), each with 4 pewter buttons
 
|-
 
|-
 
|'''Turnbacks'''||yellow
 
|'''Turnbacks'''||yellow
 
|}
 
|}
 
|-
 
|-
|'''Waistcoat'''||red lined white with 2 rows of tin buttons and white buttonholes on both sides
+
|'''Waistcoat'''||red lined white with 2 rows of pewter buttons and white buttonholes on both sides
 
|-
 
|-
 
|'''Breeches'''||white
 
|'''Breeches'''||white
Line 66: Line 79:
 
{| class="tblunin"
 
{| class="tblunin"
 
|-
 
|-
|'''Crossbelt'''||probably natural leather
+
|'''Cross-belt'''||probably natural leather
 
|-
 
|-
|'''Waistbelt'''||probably natural leather
+
|'''Waist-belt'''||probably natural leather
 
|-
 
|-
 
|'''Cartridge Box'''||probably natural leather
 
|'''Cartridge Box'''||probably natural leather
Line 87: Line 100:
 
Drummers wore uniforms similar to those of the privates but with laces on the cuffs and arms of the coat.  
 
Drummers wore uniforms similar to those of the privates but with laces on the cuffs and arms of the coat.  
 
==Colours==
 
==Colours==
:'''Colonel flag''': white field with a white cross; centre device consisting of a golden Irish harp surmounted by a golden crown with the motto ''In Hoc Signo Vinces''; 1 gold crown in each corner.
+
:'''Colonel colour''': white field with a white cross; centre device consisting of a golden Irish harp surmounted by a golden crown with the motto ''In Hoc Signo Vinces''; 1 gold crown in each corner.
  
:'''Ordonnance flag''': red and yellow opposed cantons with a red cross bordered white; centre device consisting of a golden Irish harp surmounted by a golden crown with the motto ''In Hoc Signo Vinces''; 1 gold crown in each canton.
+
:'''Ordonnance colours''': red and yellow opposed cantons with a red cross bordered white; centre device consisting of a golden Irish harp surmounted by a golden crown with the motto ''In Hoc Signo Vinces''; 1 gold crown in each canton.
  
 
{|
 
{|
Line 98: Line 111:
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
Évrard P., [http://pfef.free.fr/Index.htm Praetiriti Fides]
+
This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
 +
*Susane, Louis: ''Histoire de l'ancienne infanterie française'', J. Corréard, Paris, 1849-1856, Tome 7, pp. 194-200
 +
 
 +
'''Other sources'''
  
Funcken, Liliane and Fred; ''Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle''  
+
Funcken, Liliane and Fred: ''Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle''  
  
Menguy, Patrice; [http://patricemenguy.free.fr/sujetsdubienaime/Sommaire.html Les Sujets du Bien Aimé]
+
Menguy, Patrice: ''Les Sujets du Bien Aimé'' (a website who has unfortunately disappeared from the web)
  
Mouillard, Lucien, '''Les Régiments sous Louis XV''', Paris 1882
+
Mouillard, Lucien: ''Les Régiments sous Louis XV'', Paris 1882
  
Pajol, Charles P. V., ''Les Guerres sous Louis XV'', vol. VII, Paris, 1891, pp. 208
+
Pajol, Charles P. V.: ''Les Guerres sous Louis XV'', vol. VII, Paris, 1891, pp. 208
  
Rogge, Christian; ''The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War'', Frankfurt, 2006
+
Rogge, Christian: ''The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War'', Frankfurt, 2006
  
Service historique de l'armée de terre, ''Sommaire des forces armées Françaises à l'intérieur et à l'extérieur de la France - 1er Août 1757''
+
Service historique de l'armée de terre: ''Sommaire des forces armées Françaises à l'intérieur et à l'extérieur de la France - 1er Août 1757''
  
Vial J. L., ''http://vial.jean.free.fr/new_npi/''
+
Vial, J. L.: [http://vial.jean.free.fr/new_npi/ Nec Pluribus Impar]
  
 
N.B.: the section ''Service during the War'' is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
 
N.B.: the section ''Service during the War'' is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
  
 
[[Category:French Land Unit]]
 
[[Category:French Land Unit]]

Latest revision as of 07:49, 8 June 2019

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> French Army >> Clare Infanterie

Origin and History

Clare Infanterie Private - Source: Edmond Lajoux, Le Lys, l’Ancre et la Croix - Les régiments qui construisirent l’empire d’outre-mer 1665-1786 from the collection of Dr Marco Pagan

In May 1690, during the Nine Years' War (1688–97), a large number of Irish soldiers arrived in France with their dethroned King James II. On 18 June of the same year Louis XIV formed three regiments with them. The present regiment was immediately employed for the conquest of Savoy under M. de Sainte-Ruth, and distinguished itself in a combat fought in a pass of Savoy. The same year, it took part in the siege of Montmélian. In 1691, it was stationed at Pinerolo. In 1693, it took part in the Battle of Marsaglia In 1697, it was transferred to the Meuse. in Flanders where it took part in the siege of Ath.

In 1698, the regiment was reduced to one battalion.

In 1701, at the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-13), the regiment which was stationed in Alsace was increased to two battalions. In 1703, it took part in the siege of Kehl, in the Combat of Munderkingen and in the Battle of Höchstädt; and in 1704, in the battles of Schellenberg and Blenheim. In 1705, the regiment formed part of the Army of the Moselle. In 1706, it took part in the Battle of Ramillies; in 1708, in the Battle of Oudenarde; in 1709, in the Battle of Malplaquet; in 1711, in the attack on Arleux; in 1712, in the Battle of Denain and in the recapture of Douai, Le Quesnoy and Bouchain; and in 1713, in the siege and recapture of Landau and in the siege and capture of Freiburg. At the end of the year, the regiment was reduced to a single battalion.

In 1719, during the War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718-20), the regiment formed part of the Army of the Pyrenees and was at the sieges of Fuenterrabía, San Sebastian and Urgell, and at the blockade of Roses.

In 1733, during the War of the Polish Succession (1733-35), the regiment took part in the siege of Kehl. In 1734, in the attack of the Lines of Ettlingen and in the siege of Philisbourg; and in 1735 in the Battle of Klausen.

In 1741 and 1742, during the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48), the regiment was stationed on the frontier of Flanders. In 1743, it was transferred to the Army of the Rhine and took part in the Battle of Dettingen. In 1744, it returned to Flanders and took part in the sieges of Menin, Ypres and Furnes. In 1745, it distinguished itself at the Battle of Fontenoy and was at the capitulation of Tournai. It was then supposed to take part in the expedition to Scotland but finally remained in Flanders. In 1746, it took part in the Battle of Rocoux; in 1747, in the defence of Malines and in the Battle of Lauffeld; and in 1748, in the covering of the siege of Maastricht.

On the eve of the Seven Years' War, the regiment counted only one battalion.

When the French infantry was reorganised in 1762, the regiment incorporated the disbanded Ogilvy Infanterie on December 21.

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment ranked 93rd and was under the command of:

  • from August 3, 1720 until his death on September 9, 1761: Charles O'Brien de Clare, Comte de Thomond
  • from September 20, 1761 to April 26, 1775: Charles O'Brien de Clare, Vicomte de Thomond


Service during the War

During the first years of the war, the regiment served on the coasts of Normandy and usually had its quarters at Valognes.

By August 1, 1757, the regiment was stationed at Cherbourg in Lower Normandy.

At the beginning of August 1758, the regiment formed part of the French force defending Cherbourg during the second British expedition against the French Coasts. It garrisoned the town with Horion Infanterie.

In 1760, the regiment was sent to Germany. By May 23, it was part of the first line of the infantry centre of Broglie's Army in Germany. By December 30, the regiment had taken up its winter-quarters in Giessen.

In 1761, the regiment contributed to the defence of Marburg. On July 16, it took part in the Battle of Vellinghausen.

In 1762, the regiment was at the camp of Dunkerque. On December 21, it incorporated the remnants of the disbanded Ogilvy Infanterie.

In 1763, the regiment was initially placed in garrison in Valenciennes. In May, it was transferred to Gravelines.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1758 - Source: rf-figuren
Uniform Details as per
Etrennes Militaires 1756 and 1758, Etat Militaire 1758, 1760 and 1761, Abrégé du Dictionnaire Militaire 1759 and Gal Hanotaux 1757

completed where necessary as per Mouillard
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced silver
Grenadier black tricorne laced silver
Neck stock black
Coat red lined yellow and 1 pewter button on each side at the small of the back
Collar yellow
Shoulder Straps yellow (left shoulder only)
Lapels one lapel running down to the waist on the same side as the buttons, 12 pewter buttons down to the waist grouped 2 by 2
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 4 pewter buttons on each pocket
Cuffs yellow narrow cuffs (en botte), each with 4 pewter buttons
Turnbacks yellow
Waistcoat red lined white with 2 rows of pewter buttons and white buttonholes on both sides
Breeches white
Gaiters white
Leather Equipment
Cross-belt probably natural leather
Waist-belt probably natural leather
Cartridge Box probably natural leather
Bayonet Scabbard n/a
Scabbard n/a


Armaments consisted of a musket and a bayonet. Fusiliers carried a sword (brass hilt) while the grenadiers had a sabre.

N.B.: the uniform seems to have changed in 1762 during the general reorganisation. The coat was still red but lined white and with yellow lapels and a yellow shoulder strap.

Officers

no information available yet

Musicians

Drummers wore uniforms similar to those of the privates but with laces on the cuffs and arms of the coat.

Colours

Colonel colour: white field with a white cross; centre device consisting of a golden Irish harp surmounted by a golden crown with the motto In Hoc Signo Vinces; 1 gold crown in each corner.
Ordonnance colours: red and yellow opposed cantons with a red cross bordered white; centre device consisting of a golden Irish harp surmounted by a golden crown with the motto In Hoc Signo Vinces; 1 gold crown in each canton.
Colonel Colour - Source: PMPdeL
Ordonnance Colour - Source: PMPdeL

References

This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Susane, Louis: Histoire de l'ancienne infanterie française, J. Corréard, Paris, 1849-1856, Tome 7, pp. 194-200

Other sources

Funcken, Liliane and Fred: Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

Menguy, Patrice: Les Sujets du Bien Aimé (a website who has unfortunately disappeared from the web)

Mouillard, Lucien: Les Régiments sous Louis XV, Paris 1882

Pajol, Charles P. V.: Les Guerres sous Louis XV, vol. VII, Paris, 1891, pp. 208

Rogge, Christian: The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006

Service historique de l'armée de terre: Sommaire des forces armées Françaises à l'intérieur et à l'extérieur de la France - 1er Août 1757

Vial, J. L.: Nec Pluribus Impar

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.