Corona Infantry

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Spanish Army >> Corona Infantry

Origin and History

The unit was initially raised in Spain on February 27 1566 by don Pedro de Padilla. It counted 5 companies. It was soon sent to the kingdom of Naples.

In 1569, this tercio, designated by the name of its owner, took part to the expedition of don Juan de Cordoba to the island of Malta. It then returned to Spain where it joined the force destined to fight in Morocco. In 1571, it took part to the battle of the golf of Corinth. In 1572, it returned to Naples. From 1573 to 1575, it took part to various campaigns in Tunisia.

On May 3 1577, the tercio counted 4,000 men and was known as the Tercio de Nápoles.

In 1580, the tercio took part to the occupation of Portugal.

In 1588, 10 companies of the tercio served aboard the Invincible Armada.

In 1601, the tercio served aboard a fleet sent to the coasts of Calabria to clear them from the Turkish pirates. The same year, part of the tercio garrisoned Milan. In 1603, the tercio returned to Spain. In 1605, it took part to the capture of Durazzo in Albania then went to Naples. In 1606, it operated against the pirates on the island of Elba. In 1608, it took part to the capture of Larache in Morocco.

In 1614, a detachment of the tercio took part to the landing at Oneglia in Italy and to the captures of Monbaldone, Dente, Rocaberedo and Cortemiglia. In 1615, it defended the town of Bistagno. In 1617, it was at the siege of Vercelli.

From 1625 to 1630, the tercio served in Italy against the French and Piemonteses.

On July 28 1633, the unit was renamed Tercio de la Mar de Nápoles. In 1634, it operated on the coasts of Provence. In 1635, it reinforced the Spanish army of Lombardia where it served until 1653.

From 1655 to 1657, the tercio took part to various campaigns in Italy.

In 1678, the tercio garrisoned Milan.

On August 18 1690, the tercio fought at the battle of Staffarda where it suffered heavy losses. In 1691, it defended Carmagnola. In 1692, the unit counted only 300 men, it joined the army who invaded Dauphiné and took part to the capture of Embrun (August 19). It then campaigned in Italy until 1696.

In 1700, the tercio garrisoned Cremona.

At the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, the unit sided for the Bourbon. On August 31, it joined the brigade of Lombardia and attacked the Austrian entrenchments at Chiavi. In 1702, it garrisoned the castle of Tortona and took part to the battle of Luzara (August 15). In 1704, it was at the sieges of Vercelli and Ivrea. In 1705, the tercio was transformed into a regiment and renamed Corona. It served in the Torralba division in Vendome's army. In 1707, it vainly defended the city of Milan against an Austrian attack and retired to Spain where it served at Pamplona and Valencia. In 1708, it played an active part in the reconquest of Tortosa. In 1710, it was at the battle of Zaragosa (August 20) and retreated to Castile. In 1714, it took part to the pacification of Catalonia and then garrisoned Cadiz.

In 1717, the second battalion took part to the naval expedition which tried to reinstate James II as the king of England.

On February 10 1718, the unit officially became the Corona regiment.

In 1720, the regiment took part to an expedition in Morocco to defend Ceuta.

From 1725, to 1732, the regiment garrisoned Pamplona.

At the beginning of the War of the Polish Succession, the regiment embarked for Italy in 1733 where it served under the duke de Montemar and fought at the battle of Bitonto (May 25) and took part to the blockade of Capua. In 1735, it was at the capture of Messina in Sicilai.

In 1740, the regiment was transferred from Sicilia to the island of Majorca.

At the beginning of the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment was sent to Italy in 1742. In 1743, it fought at the battle of Camposanto (February 8). In 1745, it took part to the sieges of Tortona and Pavia and fought at the battle of the Tanaro (September 27). In 1746, it took part to the battlee of Piacenza (June 16). It followed the Franco-Spanish army when it retired towards Nice.

In 1749, the regiment remained in Naples until peace was secured. It then returned to Spain where it was assigned to garrison duty.

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment ranked 6th and was under the command of:

  • no information available yet

Service during the War

In 1756, the regiment garrisoned Ceuta on the North African coast.

In 1761, the regiment returned to Spain, went across Catalonia, reached Andalusia and entered into Cádiz.

In 1762, when war broke out with Portugal, the regiment was ordered to move towards the province of Extremadura bordering Portugal. During the campaign, it covered the places of Alcántara and Albuquerque.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1759 - Source: Ibrahim90
Uniform Details as per
the Album de Taccoli of 1759
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white with a red cockade fastened with a white button
Grenadier black bearskins probably with a blue flame
Neckstock probably white
Coat white with white buttons on the right side
Collar none
Shoulder Straps none
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 white buttons
Cuffs blue with 3 white buttons
Turnbacks white with red “heart-shaped” fasteners
Waistcoat blue with white buttons and horizontal pockets
Breeches white
Gaiters white
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather
Waistbelt natural leather
Cartridge Box natural leather
Bayonet Scabbard black
Scabbard brown


Armaments consisted of a musket, a bayonet and a sword (brass hilt)

Officers

no information available yet

Musicians

no information available yet

Colours

The coronela (colonel flag) of the regiment was white with a red Burgundian cross terminated in each corner by a medallion carrying the arms of the regiment (two crossed black anchors on a blue field surmounted by a golden crown) surmounted by a golden crown. In the middle: the arms of Charles III surrounded by the necklace of the order of the Toison de Oro (Golden Fleece).

The batallonas (ordonnance flags) of the regiment were white with a red Burgundian cross terminated in each corner by a medallion carrying the arms of Savoy (two crossed black anchors on a blue field surmounted by a golden crown) surmounted by a golden crown.

Colonel Colour - Source: Richard Couture
Ordonnance Colour - Source: Richard Couture

References

This article is mostly made of abridged and adapted excerpts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Clonard, Conde de, Historia Orgánica de las Armas de Infantería y Caballería, vol. VII, Madrid, 1851-62, pp. 3-48

Other sources

Album de Taccoli, 1759

Acknowledgment

Juan José Torres and the Asociación Cultural de Modelismo Histórico Alabarda for the information and counselling provided for this article.