Origin and History
The use of rifled handguns, because of their longer range and higher accuracy, began rather early in warfare (not only in sieges, but also in the field, where officers were the targets of choice).
- Note 1: The employment of rifles could be dangerous to both sides. A random example from actions in Europe during the Seven Years' War: on October 6, 1759 there was a spirited engagement between Allied light troops and Austrian hussars and Grenzer light troops near Sangershausen and finally the Austrians were victorious. The source states that most of the Allies were taken prisoner, but some 40 of them were killed, most of them jägers because the victorious hussars (from Baranyay Hussars) would not give them pardon, the rifled guns having wounded too many horses...ref_01
While the advantages were obvious, there were certain drawbacks: rifled guns were more expensive than the mass produced muskets of the common infantryman; their rate of fire was slower because of the difficulty and care taken in loading; most rifle in Europe were shorter and therefore seldom fitted for bayonets. And most important, training a recruit to become a sharpshooter (Schütze) could not be accomplished in a short time. To overcome this latter difficulty the common recourse was to hire members of sharpshooter guilds (where these were allowed ) or, for best results professional hunters (Jäger); the latter being the preferred choice because in addition to being trained riflemen they would also be used to life in the woods (and hopefully also bring their own rifles, to whose idiosyncrasies they were used). Of course, these men had to be paid better than the common foot soldier (for ex.: The Generalreglement of 1769 plans for a daily pay of 12 kr for a Jäger, whereas a common Stabsinfanterist had to be content with 5 krref_02.
So while most infantry units of the armies of the Seven Years' War were line infantry (relying on musket-armed men), special Schützen' or Jäger- Corps were not unusual; these were normally kept only 'for the duration' of the conflict. A modern Austrian view on background, origins and development of Jäger units can be found in Die Jägertruppe - Ursprung und Geschichteref_03 and also Wrederef_04.
In the Habsburg monarchy there had been a Tyroler Land-Bataillon created by incorporating six companies of Scharfschützen which had been raised in defence against the Bavarian invasion in 1703 during the War of the Spanish Succession. This unit was stationed in Innsbruck and in 1745 was used as the kernel of the Tyroler Land-and Feld-Regimentref_05. So any Jäger military expertise still existing there at the time would have been lost in normal garrison duty.
For the War of the Austrian Succession in 1745, a Deutsche Jäger-Compagnie (under a Captain Pfeiler) was raised, which went to the Netherlands theatre. It was dissolved in 1746ref_04, p.504.
The first trace of a SYW Feldjägerkorps in the Seven Years' War can be seen in the fall of 1756, when a group of some 50 Jäger assembled in northern Bohemia. These had volunteered (or 'been volunteered' by their quasi-feudal employers) for armed duty against the Prussian invasion. Their participation would have been even more welcome because they would have had local connections and knowledge.
The next snippet of information comes from ÖMZ, 1824ref_08, which states about the situation in spring 1757 (after Prague): 'At the same time the raising of a Jägercorps was ordered, the daily pay for a common jäger being set at 7 Kreuzer'. This can only mean that the situation of the existing Jäger unit was to be regularized, the numbers possibly augmented.
The Feldjäger-Corps definitely became established officially with the creation of the Generalquartiermeister-Stab' at the beginning of 1758; but even then it was treated as an adjunct to the staff-supporting Pionnier-Regiment.
As per Wrederef_06, the Deutsches Feld-Jäger-Corps was raised in 1758 by Generalquartiermeister FZM Lacy and originally consisted of only 50 men, soon increased to two companies in 1759 and to 10 companies in 1760 when it was subordinated to the Pionier Korps. From 1761 onwards, it became an independent unit and was finally disbanded in 1763.
The successive Inhaber of the corps (in their function as Generalquartiermeister) were:
The successive commanding officers of the corps were:
- from 1757: Captain/Major Christian von Richard
- from 1758: OTL Carl von Montmartin
- from 1760: Major Carl von Enzenberg
- Note: three inaccuracies in Wrede's work:
- Lacy was promoted to FZM in November 1759 after leaving the Generalquartiermeister post;
- when officially created as part of the Generalquartiermeister Stab, theFeld-Jäger-Corps was to be 100 men strong;
- Captain Richard was appointed as commanding officer already in 1757, but the raising of the corps by Lacy is dated only of 1758.
The Neues Generalstabswerkref_07 has the Deutsches Jägercorps being raised in Bohemia in 1756 from professional hunters; augmented in 1758 and attached to the Pionier Korps; counting two companies in 1759; increased to ten companies in 1760 and independent; and finally amalgamated with the Stabs-Infanterie-Regiment in 1762.
For some details about the situation in 1758, see ref_09. To sum up: each of the four Pionner-Companies included a complement of 1 corporal and 50 jägers, meaning the jägers were subject to the commanding pioneer captain. Later, in 1759, they formed 2 companies of their own, still as part of the pioneers.
When, on FM Daun's proposal, it was decided in Vienna to increase Staff support troops to such an extent as to be able to give each detached corps its own support unit, the Jäger-Corps was augmented to 10 companies, and these were separated from the pioneer organization and formed into a independent Deutsches Feld-Jäger-Corps.
Finally, the Deutsche Feld-Jäger-Corps was disbanded with the Stabs-Infanterie-Regiment in 1763. Its re-creation in time of war was envisaged in the General-Reglement of 1769.
Concerning recruitment: it was not limited to Bohemia and Moravia. There are a number of newspaper reports from 1758 and 1760 (e.g. ref_09 and ref_10) dealing with recruitment of hundreds of volunteer hunters in Tyrol for the Feldjäger-Corps (the Tyroleans had a good reputation for marksmanship).
- Note: Neues Generalstabswerkref_11 under 'Corrections' has a one-sentence remark, which translates to 'For some time there existed a mounted Stabs-Jäger-Detachment with the Deutsche Feldjägercorps'. The Bautzen Manuscriptref_12 on plate 129 under the heading 'Jaeger Corps zu Pferde' shows a mounted officer and a man, giving the following (translated) caption: 'This was raised in 1758 and consists of all trained marksmen. They serve as escort (or guard) and also are used as couriers. Chief: Col Count von Kockorswa. Strength 300 men'. No further information has been found.
Service during the War
The Jäger Corps in all probability was never included in the main line of battle; it was clearly conceived as a light unit for special occasions.
No reports on activities have been found earlier than for August 1757 in Silesia. This is a (rather bland) item from the Austrian Headquarters stating that, on August 23, 50 own jäger were captured during the movement of 2,000 Prussians from Lauban (present-day Lubań) to Greiffenberg (present-day Gryfów Śląski, 15 km se of Lauban)ref_13. Fortunately the Chronicle of Greiffenbergref_14 is more explicit . We find Austrian jägers mentioned there as parts of execution troops during the first half of August. Then the morning of August 23, a Captain de Pinto with 200 jägers had hardly moved into town, when the Prussian Major-General von Grumbkow with (parts of?) Kreytzen Fusiliers, Fouqué Fusiliers and Kurssell Fusiliers and Wartenberg Hussars coming from Lauban showed up and demanded the jägers' surrender. These blocked the town gates and had the temerity to resist and to open fire at the hussars, killing two. Thereupon the Prussian commander with 4 cannon shots broke open the Lauban Gate and took the Austrian jägers and their officers prisoners. Another mention of a jäger unit has come down to us via a newspaper item containing a report by Colonel Gersdorf (or Gerstorf/Gersdorff) of Birkenfeld Cuirassiers who, in the hiatus of operations before Breslau, was detached towards Glogau (present-day Glogow, Poland). Part of his detachment were 35 men of a 'Frey-Compagnie' of jägers, led by a Captain Paccala, who together with some cavalrymen were stationed at Raudten (present-day Rudna, 25 km SE of Glogau). In the morning of November 6, 1757 the Austrian troops were surprised by a superior force of Prussians and forced out of the village. They withdrew into a wood, tried to rally there but were attacked again and in fleeing one jäger was shot and 17 others were captured (among them Paccala) or disappearedref_15, ref_16.
Obviously these setbacks did not discredit the idea of using jägers; else the raising of a regular corps would not have been considered for the Generalquartiermeister Staff in 1758. Recruitment and training where necessary must have been rapid as pioneers and jägers are reported as marching from Prague to join the army on March 12, 1758ref_17.
During the time the jägers were attached to separate companies of pioneers much of their employ may have been routine covering for their (partly unarmed) workers when these were preparing routes and roads for the expected marching army main body. As can be seen from the description by Zeinarref_18, the jägers then were not in the forefront of the reconnoitring staff but stayed with the workers (which may be judged a squandering of talents and capabilities).
A break from routine occurred during the Prussian withdrawal after the failed siege of Olmütz in 1758. FML Lacy as leader of the grenadier- and carabinier-corps followed a day's march before the main army under FM Daun. As at the same time Quartermaster General, Lacy would have had pioneers and jägers with him when he caught up with part of the slowly retreating wagon train. The so-called skirmish at Krenau (present-day Křenov) took place on July 7 in the Schönhengst mountain range (present-day Hřebečovský hřbet) on the border between Moravia and Bohemia. We have an account from the Prussian side from Friedrich von Kalckreuth (later FM, at the time a young subaltern). He writesref_19 that this was the first time that in addition to the well-known Grenzer light troops, the Prussians made the (obviously unwelcome) acquaintance of Austrian sharpshooters. The Austrian government had been forced (he writes) to form this corps of Tyroleans (Kalckreuth mentions the name 'Migazzi' here; no relationship of General Migazzi with the jägers has been found) because in earlier campaigns the Prussian Feldjäger zu Fuß had caused heavy losses. In the end, the Prussian column broke through; but the jägers had shot dead 2 soldiers and 5 officers of Prinz Ferdinand Infantry (not particularly high losses for a fight lasting for hours, but remarkable by the distribution of casualties).
The hunters' qualifications and mindset may have come into better use once the Corps had become independent from the Pionier Korps. While part of its companies surely were kept with the Main Army headquarter, the impression can be gained by going through various sources that, starting in 1759, detachments of jägers (in the order of companies) were attached to most independent major corps.
In the fall of 1758, during the campaign for Neisse, the Pionier Korps and the Jägercorps as part of the Reserve under Duke Arenberg were sent to occupy the town of Görlitz (then in Silesia, now Saxony)ref_20.
In 1759, a Jägercorps detachment is reported in actions of the Combinierte kk-and Reichs-Executions-Armee in Thuringia at Eisenachref_21 and in Saxony at Holzweissigref_22 and Colditzref_23.
The year 1760 gives the greatest amount of references to jägers activities. At the beginning of April all Stabs-Truppen (Stabs-Infanterie-Regiment, Stabsdragoner, Pionier Korps and Jägercorps) are mustered at Prague and ready to join the armyref._24. The Neues Generalstabswerkref_25 at the beginning of June shows the Jäger with 700 men with FM Daun's main army, whereas FZM Lacy (by now commanding a separate corps) has 500.
Near the end of June, the Prussian King's Army and Daun's Army (with Lacy nearby) confronted each other on the eastern bank of the Elbe River, north of Dresden; Frederick wanting to march to Silesia (under threat by Loudon and a Russian army), but not daring to leave Saxony to Daun unopposed. There were a number of small skirmishes, one of which is given in Helden- Staats- und Lebens-Geschichte...ref_26 as follows: 'When on June 27, the 7 battalions were attacked again, which under the orders of MG Anton von Krockow were guarding the field bakery at Groß Dobritz ( i.e. a village 10 km NE of Meissen), 100 Austrian jägers were left lying on the field, 10 were captured and the Prussians kept their post.' Intensive search of available sources has failed to turn up any confirmation of this report.
The Jägercorps next shows up in connection with the siege of Dresden. In order to establish communications with the embattled defenders of Dresden, FM Daun slowly advancing from the east had sent out advance corps under FZM Buckow and Major-General Ried. The latter with light troops which included a jäger detachment, had first contact with Prussian troops under command of Duke of Holstein at Weisser Hirsch (a location east of Lockwitz, on the right bank of the Elbe upstream of Dresden) on July 16, but without enduring advantages on this day (as Tempelhoff reportsref_27). He came back two days later with reinforcements and, supported by a sortie of the garrison of Dresden-Neustadt (north of the Elbe) succeeded in pushing Holstein into withdrawing across the river via a pontoon bridge at Ubigau. Communication was thus ensured for the Austrians but the siege (and bombardment) dragged on. The jägers took part in fighting in the suburbs (a Lieutenant Mac-Dermotrae being especially mentioned for his leadership by the commanding General Maquireref_28). Finally, coinciding with the arrival of the news of the taking of Glatz by Loudon, King Frederick decided to raise the siege: the requirement of his presence in Silesia had become very urgent.
Later in this same year in Silesia a detachment of 150 of the Feldjäger is reported in the defence of Arnsdorf (near Schweidnitz, present-day Milikowice in Powiat Swidnicki) under FML Beck on September 3ref_27 where it incurred significant losses.
The participation of jägers is also found in a report of the action of Major-General Ried on September 17, 1760 near Dittmannsdorf (present-day Dziećmorowice, east of Waldenburg/Wałbrzych) where in cooperation with the Stabsdragoner, they saved the whole baggage of Ried's Corps from falling into enemy handsref_29.
One of the highlights of the concerned jägers' experiences must have been FZM Lacy's raid to Berlin (Sept/Oct.1760) in which fully 800 men of the corps are said to have taken partref_30.
Lacy's jägers also took part in the Battle of Torgau on November 3, where they were employed as an advance picket/guard (under Captain D'Alton) on the Leipzig road against Zieten's part of the Prussian armyref_31). But also in the confused fighting around the western part of the old abattis there were detachments of jägers. These were part of Ried's Corps which had been sent north earlier towards Wittenberg to reconnoitre the advance of the King's Army and had been pushed back by superior forces, ending up at Wildenhayn in the morning of the battleref_32.
For the year 1761, only a single reference has been found; and this relates to late in the yearref_33: among the reinforcements sent from Silesia to Saxony there were 4 companies of the Jägercorps.
Early in 1762, there was a detachment of jäger in the Reichsarmee under FM Serbelloniref_34. An action of the jägers is reported for the night of February 2 /3 at Gross-Partha (near Grimma in Saxony), which was occupied by the Prussian Frei-Infanterie de la Badie. The Austrian force was commanded by Captain Edward d'Alton and consisted of 150 jägers, 100 Grenzer light troops and 60 mounted men (hussars and Stabsdragoner). It succeeded in surrounding the village and after some resistance (with slight own losses) dispersed the Freicorps, killing some and taking about 100 men, including the commanding Major Wortmann, prisonersref_35.
Later in the year (April 21), we find a movement of jägers and Stabsdragoner going through Dresden to relieve the detachment of General Beck when it moved from Gerlachsheim (Lusatia) to Silesiaref_36.
In Silesia, Kloppertref._37 found mentions of jäger in Hadik's Corps; he gives 266 men on July 10 (these include the 2 companies belonging to FML Brentano). On July 6, Brentano was attacked at Adelsbach (present-day Struga in Powiat Wałbrzyski) by Lieutenant-General Wied as part of Frederick's attempts to isolate Schweidnitz but Brentano's troops held their position. When the Prussians returned the next day with superior forces, Brentano having held up the enemy's advance for one day, had to withdraw towards Dittersbach (present-day Dzietrzychów / Wałbrzych). In his report, he especially mentions his jäger detachment for its precise fire from a cleverly chosen hiding placeref_38.
One last mention of the activities of the Feldjäger-Corps during the Seven Years' War can be found in the Gazette de Vienne: GDC Hadik writes in a report dated August 4: “Our Chasseurs at Koschbach (i.e. Kaschbach/Potoczek, part of Rosciszow in Powiat Dzierżoniówski) surprised an enemy picket, of whom they killed and captured a few, with on their own side only having one jäger lightly wounded.“
The Feldjäger-Corps was disbanded at the end of the war in 1763 but the General-Reglement of 1769 planned for a re-establishment of a Jäger-Corps of 10 companies in time of war.
Descriptions are based on the Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762ref_12. Additions and differences from other sources are specifically noted below.
|dark green Kaskett, that is a leather (or felt) cap, in a shape rather similar to a Prussian fusilier cap, but slightly lower and without headband; front plate almost as low as the cap's crown; front plate is seamed with ochre (brass?) band and decorated with a large brass double-headed eagle. Upright dark feather on the left side.
|blueish grey, lined dark green, with 6 (?) brass buttons on each side on the chest
|Dark green with 2 rows of small brass buttons
|black (or black knee length boots? Manuscript does not differentiate)
Privates were armed with a short rifle and with a short infantry sabre (or hanger), brass mounted (see additional information on armament below).
Differences to other sources
- plain black Kaskett with white facing on front shield; a green sprig on left side.
- grey strap on left shoulder. Single row (right side) of (11?) brass buttons on the coat. No buttons on cuffs, but a single brass button holding green turn-backs together.
- single row of small brass buttons on waistcoat
- grey breeches.
- black belt with brass buckle
- black knee length boots
- green bordering braid on Kaskett
- no shoulder straps.
Additional uniform information:
- in the article on the creation of the Austrian Generalstabref_39 Angeli concerning the uniform of the Jägercorps states that these were to be fitted out with long grey overcoats ('roquelaures'; pioneers to have white ones). This could imply that these units were not then entitled to tents, but had to take shelter in available houses and cottages or to camp rough.
no information found
According to the Bautzener Bilderhandschrift, officers wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:
- "brass" replaced by "gilt"
- no collar
- no turnbacks
- golden aiguillette on the right shoulder
- dark green breeches
- yellow and black silk sash (not shown in the Bautzen plate)
- black cartridge box with gilt border and round centre plate
- straight officer's sword in brown leather scabbard with golden tip
- yellow gloves
no information found
One must assume that some type of acoustic signalling was necessary for the kind of dispersed fighting the jägers were used for. Hunting bugles would have been appropriate; but no information has come down to us.
Horse Jäger Uniform
The earlier mentioned Jäger Corps zu Pferde is depicted in ref. Ib ( Bautzen Manuscript) as follows
- Note: front of both figures is not visible! 'Green' in all cases below is noticeably lighter than for the Feldjägercorps
|green Kaskett with ochre braids on front shield (and round the bottom and crossing on the apex, to conclude from the officer's Kaskett which is shown from the back). Front shield carries an ochre (brass?) double headed eagle. Upright dark feather on left side.
|light blue with a grey tinge
|no information available
no information found
According to the Bautzener Bilderhandschrift, officers wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:
- "brass" replaced by "gilt"
- more elaborate golden aiguillette
- dull brick red saddlecloth with a broader golden border
no information found
Armament and its use
Most of the following information is gleaned from Dolleczek, Monographie...ref_40, complemented where necessary from Eckardt-Morawietz, Handwaffen...ref_41.
In order to fulfil their purpose to fire at choice targets the jägers had to be equipped with precision arms, i.e. rifles. Originally they probably provided their own to which they were used; these would have been of different calibres and models; jägers therefore had to assemble their own special ammunition, meaning they would have been provided with army powder and lead ingots and have cast their own fitting bullets and measured appropriate amounts of black powder into cartridges.
By 1759, an army issue centrally produced rifle model ('Stutzen') was handed out, simplifying ammunition supply (see attached depiction). It had a barrel of 79 cm for a total length of 112 cm and weighed 3 kg (compared to an ordinary Commiss-Flinte of 150 cm, 4,8 kg). Muzzle loading, firing by a normal flintlock. The wooden ramrod was carried in the Stutzen stock; a bayonet could not be mounted.
In order for the ball to take to the rifling (to induce reliable consistent spin) rifles at the time were usually loaded with patched balls. This had the advantage of eliminating windage between bore and ball without destroying the spherical form of the ball as a result of forcing it down from the muzzle against the resistance of the rifle lands.
A good part of the accuracy of the stutzen was owed to the care of loading it. Flint, battery and pan were carefully wiped. A measured amount of powder was poured down the muzzle (not like in ordinary musket firing where part of the charge was used for priming). A greased patch of linen or fustian (cut to measure beforehand) was centred on the muzzle and a ball placed on it, then pushed into the slightly hollowed out muzzle bore (Some armies provided small wooden mallets for starting the greased wrapped ball on its way down; there is no indication that this was so in Austrian service at the time). Then came the strenuous work of pushing the projectile down to the powder load against the friction resistance of the lands and the assembled powder crud of previous shots (the grease may have helped some) with both hands, holding the rifle upright between knees. Once this was accomplished the weapon was turned over for priming (taken from a separate container, Pulverhorn), fully cocking, aiming and firing.
It was a wearing and time-consuming procedure (taking perhaps the sixfold time of the 'normal' platoon fire) and may have caused some shaking hands after repetition.
Jägers were provided with a Kruckenmesse (crutch knife); this could be rammed into tree trunks to take some of the weight of the rifle muzzle when aiming.
For the precision of jäger shooting, Eckardt-Morawietz state that it was sufficient to requirements. 'With a certain amount of confidence one could expect a hit on a hand-sized target at 80-100 paces; head-sized target at 150 and breast-sized at 200 paces.'
Taken the time for reloading and the chance of miss-fire (about 6% with flintlocks) into account, jägers did well in acting in groups, particularly against cavalry men.
The unit probably did not carry any colour. Indeed, we have not found any specific mention of colours for this unit.
01 Münchner-Zeitungen von denen Kriegs-Friedens-Staats- und anderen Begebenheiten, October 22, 1759
02 General-Reglement, Trattner, Wien 1769
03 Konzett, Ernst: Die Jägertruppe - Ursprung und Geschichte in: Truppendienst Folge 344, Ausgabe 2/2015
04 Mittheilungen des k.u.k.Kriegs-Archivs - Supplement. Geschichte der K.u.k. Wehrmacht; Vol. 2 (bearbeitet von Alfons Freiherrn von Wrede), Vienna, 1898 page 629
05 Brinner,Wilhelm: Geschichte des k.k Pionnier-Regimentes, Wien,1878
06 Mittheilungen des k.u.k.Kriegs-Archivs - Supplement. Geschichte der K.u.k. Wehrmacht; Vol. 2 (bearbeitet von Alfons Freiherrn von Wrede), Vienna, 1898, page 505
07 Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II – Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 1, Anlage 4, p.81
08 Streffleurs militärische Zeitschrift ( Oestreichische militärische Zeitschrift), 1824, Erstes Heft, 'Die Schlacht von Kolin am 18., und der Entsatz von Prag am 20 Juni 1757'
09 Münchner-Zeitungen, von denen Kriegs-, Friedens- und Staatsbegebenheiten inn-und-ausser Landes, March 23, 1758
10 Wienerisches Diarium, April 16, 1760
11 Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II – Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 3, 'Berichtigungen und Nachträge zu Band 1'
12 Thümmler, L.-H.: Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993
13 Münchner-Zeitungen, von denen Kriegs-, Friedens- und Staatsbegebenheiten inn-und-ausser Landes, Sept 6, 1757
14 Luge, Johannes Gotthelf : Chronik der Stadt Greiffenberg in Schlesien, Greiffenberg 1861
15 Münchner-Zeitungen, von denen Kriegs-, Friedens- und Staatsbegebenheiten inn-und-ausser Landes, November 17, 1757
16 Supplement à la Gazette de Vienne du 9. Novembre 1757
17 Münchner-Zeitungen, von denen Kriegs-, Friedens- und Staatsbegebenheiten inn-und-ausser Landes..., March 23, 1758
18 Zeinar, Hubert: Geschichte des österreichischen Generalstabes, Böhlau, Wien 2006
19 Kalkreuth, Friedrich Adolf: Kalkreuth zu seinem Leben und zu seiner Zeit : Erinnerungen [des General-Feldmarschalls ... , 1840
20 Helden- Staats- und Lebens-Geschichte Des Allerdurchlauchtigsten und ..., Band 5, Frankfurth und Leipzig 1760
21 Augspurgische Ordinari-Post-Zeitung, July 27, 1759
22 Münchner-Zeitungen, von denen Kriegs-, Friedens- und Staatsbegebenheiten inn-und-ausser Landes... , Aug. 20, 1759
23 Gazette de Vienne, Octobre 6, 1759
24 Ordinari-Münchner-Zeitungen, April 14, 1760
25 Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II – Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 12
26 Helden- Staats- und Lebens-Geschichte Des Allerdurchlauchtigsten und ..., Band 6, Frankfurth und Leipzig 1762
27Tempelhoff, Geschichte des siebenjährigen Krieges in Deutschland, etcs Vierter Theil, welcher den Feldzug von 1760 enthält, Band 4
28 Maguire, Josef Siegmund von: Diarium, was sich vom 12. bis 30. Jul. 1760. in der Stadt Dreßden während der Preußischen Belagerung zugetragen, und ..., Dreßden, 1760
29 Hirtenfeld, Jaromir: Der Militär-Maria-Theresien-Orden und seine Mitglieder, 1857 ( there the citation for Neugebauer, Franz)
30 Neue genealogisch-historische Nachrichten von den vornehmsten... Band 12
31 Thielen, Maximilian von: Der Siebenjährige Krieg: vom Jahre 1756 bis 1762
32 Friedrich Jihn: Der Feldzug 1760 in Sachsen und Schlesien mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Schlacht bei Torgau, Vienna 1882
33 Wiener Zeitung, Nov. 15, 1761
34 Helden- Staats- und Lebens-Geschichte Des Allerdurchlauchtigsten und ..., Band 7
35 Gazette de Vienne, Février 20, 1762
36 Wiener Zeitung, May 5, 1762
37 Kloppert, Achim: Der Schlesische Feldzug von 1762, Dissertation Bonn, 1988, p. 269
38 Helden- Staats- und Lebens-Geschichte Des Allerdurchlauchtigsten und ..., Band 7, Frankfurth und Leipzig 1764
39 (Angeli, Moritz von): Zur Geschichte des k.k. Generalstabes, in the newspaper 'Die Vedette', Vienna, in 8 parts, starting from February 25, 1876
40 Dolleczek, Anton : Monographie der k.u.k. österr-ung blanken und Handfeuer-Waffen, Wien, 1896
41 Werner Eckardt; Otto Morawietz: Die Handwaffen des brandenburgisch-preußisch-deutschen Heeres 1640 – 1945, Hamburg 1973
Dieter Müller for the original version of this article