Enghien Infanterie

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> French Army >> Enghien Infanterie

Origin and History

The regiment, counting two battalions, was created on 1 February 1, 1706 for Louis Henri de Bourbon-Condé, Duc d'Enghien. After the death of Louis de Bourbon-Condé, Comte de Clermont, on April 1, 1710, the regiment remained without owner until July 17, 1788.

In 1707, during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-13), the regiment took part in the attack of the Lines of Stollhofen and in the expeditions in Swabia and Franconia. In 1708, a battalion was sent to Flanders to reinforce the army campaigning on this frontier. While the other battalion remained in Alsace. In 1709, the regiment took part in the Combat of Rumersheim. The regiment remained on the eastern frontier till the end of the war. In 1713, it contributed to the recapture of Landau and to the reduction of Freiburg.

In 1714, the regiment was reduced to a single battalion.

In 1727, the regiment took part in the training camp on the Saône.

In 1733, at the outbreak of the War of the Polish Succession (1733-35), the regiment joined the Army of Germany. In 1734, it took part in the attack of the Lines of Ettlingen and in the capture of Philisbourg. On December 16, it was re-established at two battalions. In 1735, it was at the Battle of Klausen.

In 1742, during the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48), the regiment was sent to Bavaria along with Auvergne Infanterie. After the expulsion of the Austrians from Bavaria, it penetrated in Bohemia and took part in the capture of Elnbogen and Kaaden and in the relief of Braunau. In 1743, during the retreat of the French army, it was initially posted at Burkenfeld on the Naab, then at Landeshut and later at the Castle of Wörth. The same year it also took part in the affair of Deckendorf, before retiring to the Rhine, and in the combat of Rheinweiler. In 1744, it was initially stationed at Huningue, then at Fort-Louis. It then took part in the recapture of Wissembourg and in the combats of Suffelsheim and Augenheim and in the siege of Freiburg. In 1745, it took part in the attack of Kronembourg. In 1746, it was transferred to the Meuse where it took part in the sieges of Mons, Charleroi and Namur, and in the Battle of Rocoux. In 1747, it distinguished itself in the Battle of Lauffeld. In 1748, it was at the siege of Maastricht.

In 1754, the regiment took part in the training camp of Saarlouis.

On the Seven Years' War, the regiment counted two battalions.

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment ranked 100th. In the absence of a colonel/owner, it was under the command of its successive lieutenant-colonels:

  • from January 23, 1750: François-Alexandre, Comte de Polignac
  • from May 7, 1758: Antoine de Malvin, Chevalier de Montazet
  • from May 16, 1760: François Auson de Lammerville
  • from December 1, 1762 to March 1, 1784: Charles de Malvin, Marquis de Montazet

Service during the War

In 1756, the regiment was stationed in Honfleur in Normandy.

In 1757, the regiment joined the Army of the Lower Rhine commanded by the Maréchal d'Estrées for the planned invasion of Hanover. At the end of June, it was at the camp of Bielefeld with d'Estrées' Main Corps. On July 26, the regiment took part in the Battle of Hastenbeck where it was in the column under Chevert who accomplished the flanking movement to attack the Hanoverian left wing in the woods. In this battle, it lost captains Saint-Pont and de Mirval, killed; and Major La Peyouse, aides-majors de Vésigny and Foucard, captains La More, de Bressay, Grandvillars, Mespierre, Tournefort, de Beaumont and de Mont, and 11 lieutenants, wounded. The regiment then followed the Maréchal de Richelieu for the conquest of Hanover. After the Convention of Kloster-Zeven, it followed the main body, led by Richelieu, who encamped at Halberstadt in Prussian territory from September 28 to November 5. The regiment was placed in the centre of the second line. At the end of the year, it took its winter-quarters in the first line of the French army in the city of Braunschweig.

In February 1758, when Ferdinand of Brunswick launched his winter offensive in Western Germany, the regiment retired on the Rhine with the rest of the French army. From March 30 to April 4, it was in the first line of Clermont's Army in the camp of Wesel on the Lower Rhine. In April, when Clermont redeployed his army along the Rhine, the regiment remained in Wesel. After the successful crossing of the Rhine by Ferdinand's Allied Army on May 31, the regiment retired towards Rheinberg where it joined Clermont's Army on June 2. It remained in this camp until June 12 and was placed in the centre of the first line. On June 23, the regiment took part in the Battle of Krefeld where it was placed on the right wing of the first line under Chevert. In Mid August, after Ferdinand's retreat to the east bank of the Rhine, the regiment, as part of the army of the Lower Rhine under Contades, recrossed the Rhine to follow the Allied Army. On August 20, it was encamped near Wesel where it was placed in the first line of the infantry left wing. It then took part in the capture of Hanau where it was placed in garrison.

On April 13, 1759, the regiment took part in the Battle of Bergen where it formed part of reserve of the left wing deployed in regimental columns behind the Warthberg. In this battle, it lost the Captain Marquis de Ray In May, the regiment was sent as reinforcement to the Army of the Lower Rhine. In June, during the French offensive in Western Germany, the regiment was part of the main army under the command of the Marquis de Contades and was deployed in the first line of the infantry centre. On August 1, the regiment took part in the Battle of Minden where it was deployed in the first line of the infantry left wing under the command of Guerchy. In this battle it lost captains de Migré, Vauferment and Pracomtal, killed; and captains Montcoy, de Voys, Versac, Saint-Légier and 8 lieutenants, wounded.

By May 23, 1760, the regiment was part of the left reserve of the first line of Broglie's Army, placed under the command of Saint-Germain. On July 31, the regiment took part in the Battle of Warburg where it was deployed in the first line of the right wing. At the end of the engagement, the regiment formed on the heights in front of the bridges to cover the retreat of the French. On October 4, M. de Maupéou's Corps (including this regiment) left for the Lower Rhine. On October 13, the regiment arrived at Neuss with Castries. On October 17, after having been left behind during Castries' advance from Neuss to Clostercamp, the regiment finally made a junction with Castrie's main corps.

On July 3, 1761, the regiment distinguished itself at the combat of Werl where its elite companies contributed to drive the enemy out of the mill and of the Castle of Schaffhäusen. In September, it was at the siege of Meppen.

At the beginning of 1762, the regiment returned to France where it garrisoned Mézières and Rocroi.

In May 1763, the regiment was transferred to Landrecies and Avesnes.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1758 - Source: Kronoskaf
Uniform Details as per
Etrennes Militaires 1758,
and Etat militaire 1761

completed where necessary as per Taccoli's illustration
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced silver with a black cockade (white cockade as per Taccoli)
Grenadier black tricorne laced silver with a black cockade

towards 1759, bearskins became increasingly common among grenadiers of the French Infantry

Neck stock black
Coat grey-white line white with pewter buttons down to the waist on the right side
Collar none (red in 1761)
N.B.: Taccoli's work, published in 1760, illustrates a red collar
Shoulder Strap n/a
Lapels none
Pockets double vertical pockets (5 pewter buttons on each single pocket)
Cuffs red, each with 5 pewter buttons
Turnbacks none
N.B.: Taccoli's work, published in 1760, illustrates white turnbacks
Waistcoat grey-white with pewter buttons (red in 1761)
N.B.: Taccoli's work, published in 1760, illustrates a red waistcoat
Breeches grey-white
Gaiters white
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather
Waistbelt natural leather
Cartridge Box natural leather
Bayonet Scabbard black with white metal fittings
Scabbard n/a


Armaments consisted of a musket and a bayonet. Fusiliers carried a sword (brass hilt) while the grenadiers had a sabre.

Officers

n/a

Musicians

n/a

Colours

Colonel colour: white field with a white cross.

Ordonnance colours: a white cross with feuille morte (reddish brown), blue, black and red cantons.

Colonel Colour - Source: Kronoskaf
Ordonnance Colour - Source: Kronoskaf

References

This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Susane, Louis: Histoire de l'ancienne infanterie française, J. Corréard, Paris, 1849-1856, Tome 7, pp. 253-259

Other sources

Menguy, Patrice: Les Sujets du Bien Aimé (a website which has unfortunately disappeared from the web)

Mouillard, Lucien: Les Régiments sous Louis XV, Paris: 1882

Pajol, Charles P. V.: Les Guerres sous Louis XV, vol. VII, Paris, 1891

Rogge, Christian: The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006

Taccoli, Alfonso: Teatro Militare dell' Europa, Part 1, vol. 2; Madrid, March 1760

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.