Enghien Infanterie

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> French Army >> Enghien Infanterie

Origin and History

The regiment was created on February 1 1706 for L.-H. de Bourbon-Condé, Duc d'Enghien. After the death of Louis de Bourbon-Condé, Comte de Clermont, on April 1 1710, the regiment remained without owner until July 17 1788.

During the War of the Polish Succession, the regiment served on the Rhône from 1733 to 1735.

During the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment initially served on the Naab in 1742 and 1743. In 1744, it was stationed at Huningue, in 1745 at Fribourg. In 1746, the regiment was transferred to the Meuse. In 1747 and 1748, it took part in the last campaigns of the war in Flanders.

The regiment counted two battalions.

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment ranked 100th. In the absence of a colonel/owner, it was under the command of its successive lieutenant-colonels:

  • since January 23 1750: Comte de Polignac
  • from May 7 1758: Chevalier de Montazet
  • from May 16 1760: de Lammerville
  • from December 1 1762 to 1784: Marquis de Montazet

Service during the War

In 1756, the regiment was stationed in Honfleur in Normandy.

In 1757, the regiment joined the Army of the Lower Rhine commanded by the Maréchal d'Estrées for the planned invasion of Hanover. At the end of June, it was at the camp of Bielefeld with d'Estrées' Main Corps. On July 26, the regiment took part in the Battle of Hastenbeck where it was in the column under Chevert who accomplished the flanking movement to attack the Hanoverian left wing in the woods. After the Convention of Kloster-Zeven, it followed the main body, led by the Maréchal de Richelieu, who encamped at Halberstadt in Prussian territory from September 28 to November 5. The regiment was placed in the centre of the second line. At the end of the year, it took its winter-quarters in the first line of the French army in the city of Braunschweig.

In February 1758, when Ferdinand of Brunswick launched his winter offensive in Western Germany, the regiment retired on the Rhine with the rest of the French army. From March 30 to April 4, it was in the first line of Clermont's Army in the camp of Wesel on the Lower Rhine. In April, when Clermont redeployed his army along the Rhine, the regiment remained in Wesel. After the successful crossing of the Rhine by Ferdinand's Allied Army on May 31, the regiment retired towards Rheinberg where it joined Clermont's Army on June 2. It remained in this camp until June 12 and was placed in the centre of the first line. On June 23, the regiment took part in the Battle of Krefeld where it was placed on the right wing of the first line under Chevert. In Mid August, after Ferdinand's retreat to the east bank of the Rhine, the regiment, as part of the army of the Lower Rhine under Contades, recrossed the Rhine to follow the Allied Army. On August 20, it was encamped near Wesel where it was placed in the first line of the infantry left wing.

On April 13 1759, the regiment took part in the Battle of Bergen where it formed part of reserve of the left wing deployed in regimental columns behind the Warthberg. In May, the regiment was sent as reinforcement to the Army of the Lower Rhine. In June, during the French offensive in Western Germany, the regiment was part of the main army under the command of the Marquis de Contades and was deployed in the first line of the infantry centre. On August 1, the regiment took part in the Battle of Minden where it was deployed in the first line of the infantry left wing under the command of Guerchy.

By May 23 1760, the regiment was part of the left reserve of the first line of Broglie's Army, placed under the command of Saint-Germain. On July 31, the regiment took part in the Battle of Warburg where it was deployed in the first line of the right wing. At the end of the engagement, the regiment formed on the heights in front of the bridges to cover the retreat of the French. On October 4, M. de Maupéou's Corps (including this regiment) left for the Lower Rhine. On October 13, the regiment arrived at Neuss with Castries. On October 17, after having been left behind during Castries' advance from Neuss to Clostercamp, the regiment finally made a junction with Castrie's main corps.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1758 - Source: Kronoskaf
Uniform Details as per
Etrennes Militaires 1758,
and Etat militaire 1761

completed where necessary as per Taccoli's illustration
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced silver with a black cockade (white cockade as per Taccoli)
Grenadier black tricorne laced silver with a black cockade

towards 1759, bearskins became increasingly common among grenadiers of the French Infantry

Neck stock black
Coat grey-white line white with pewter buttons down to the waist on the right side
Collar none (red in 1761)
N.B.: Taccoli's work, published in 1760, illustrates a red collar
Shoulder Strap n/a
Lapels none
Pockets double vertical pockets (5 pewter buttons on each single pocket)
Cuffs red, each with 5 pewter buttons
Turnbacks none
N.B.: Taccoli's work, published in 1760, illustrates white turnbacks
Waistcoat grey-white with pewter buttons (red in 1761)
N.B.: Taccoli's work, published in 1760, illustrates a red waistcoat
Breeches grey-white
Gaiters white
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather
Waistbelt natural leather
Cartridge Box natural leather
Bayonet Scabbard black with white metal fittings
Scabbard n/a


Armaments consisted of a musket and a bayonet. Fusiliers carried a sword (brass hilt) while the grenadiers had a sabre.

Officers

n/a

Musicians

n/a

Colours

Colonel colour: white field with a white cross.

Ordonnance colours: a white cross with feuille morte (reddish brown), blue, black and red cantons.

Colonel Colour - Source: Kronoskaf
Ordonnance Colour - Source: Kronoskaf

References

Menguy, Patrice: Les Sujets du Bien Aimé (a website who has unfortunately disappeared from the web)

Mouillard, Lucien: Les Régiments sous Louis XV, Paris: 1882

Pajol, Charles P. V.: Les Guerres sous Louis XV, vol. VII, Paris, 1891

Rogge, Christian: The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006

Taccoli, Alfonso: Teatro Militare dell' Europa, Part 1, vol. 2; Madrid, March 1760

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.