Fijo de Oran Infantry

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Spanish Army >> Fijo de Oran Infantry

Origin and History

The first mentions of this tercio date from 1633 but its official date of creation is 1663. Until 1715, the tercio would be known by the name of its Maestre de Campo.

In 1663, during the Portuguese Restoration War (1640–1668), the tercio was sent to garrison Fuenterrabia. It then marched to Pasages and Badajoz where it formed part of the garrison. In 1664, it took part in the battle of Ameixial; in 1665, in the battle of Montes Claros. In 1666, it served in the Province of Extremadura.

At the beginning of June 1668, the tercio was sent to Flanders.

In 1674, during the Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), the tercio took part in the battle of Seneffe

In 1690, during the Nine Years' War (1688–97), the tercio took part in the relief of Mons; in 1692, in the defence of Charleroi which surrendered on 11 October; in 1693, in the battle of Landen; in 1695, in the defence of the lines between the Lys and the Scheldt, in the defence of Bruxelles and in the siege and capture of Namur.

In 1703, during the War of the Spanish Succession, the tercio served in the Franco-Spanish army in the Spanish Netherlands and took part in the Battle of Ekeren near Antwerp. In 1706, it participated in the attack on the lines between Menin and Courtrai and, in the defence Bruxelles and Dendermonde. In 1708, the two battalions of the tercio were sent to man the Lines of Ghent. They then reinforced the garrisons of Ghent and Bruges until their capitulations. On 28 September, they were at the Engagement of Wijnendale. In 1713, by royal orders, the tercio evacuated the Low Countries and marched to Catalonia to fight the insurgents, taking the tower of San Pol, routing the rebels at Manresa and Verdú, surprising the Castle of Biosca and relieving Berga. In 1714, the tercio protected the convoys destined to the army besieging Barcelona.

On 20 April 1715, the unit was renamed “Tercio de Cuenca” and stationed in Old Castile.

In 1718, the regiment was sent to Navarra where it garrisoned Pamplona.

In 1723, the regiment was sent to the coast of North Africa to defend Melilla and Peñon de Velez de la Gomera. In 1726, it returned to Spain where it was transferred to the District of Valencia.

In 1732, the regiment was sent to reconquer Oran from the Moors. In 1733, after the capture of the place, it assumed garrison duty in Oran and defended the place. The same year, the regiment was renamed “Regimiento Fijo de Orán”. From 1734 to 1744, it continued to defend Oran against the enterprises of the Moors.

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was under the command of:

  • no information available yet

Service during the War

The regiment did not take part in any action or campaign during the war. It was probably still stationed in Oran.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1759 - Source: Ibrahim90
Uniform Details as per
the Album de Taccoli of 1759
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white with a red cockade fastened with a white button
Grenadier black bearskins probably with a green flame
Neckstock white
Coat white with white buttons on the right side
Collar green
Shoulder Straps none
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets with white buttons
Cuffs green with 3 white buttons
Turnbacks white with green “heart-shaped” fasteners
Waistcoat green
Breeches white
Gaiters white
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather
Waistbelt natural leather
Cartridge Box natural leather
Bayonet Scabbard black
Scabbard brown


Armaments consisted of a musket, a bayonet and a sword (brass hilt).

N.B.: the conde de Clonard illustrates an officer with green turnbacks while Taccoli shows white turnbacks.

Officers

Officer of Regiment Fijo de Oran in 1761 - Source: Conde de Clonard, Álbum de la Infantería española reproduced with the kind authorisation of the Asociación Cultural de Modelismo Histórico Alabarda

The colonel, lieutenant-colonel, sargentos mayores and officers carried a spontoon and an officer stick. They used to hang this stick at the second button of the coat. The type of handle of the officer stick was different for each rank:

  • gold for the colonel
  • silver for the lieutenant-colonel
  • silver (but only one finger wide) for the Sargento Mayor and the captains
  • ivory for assistants, lieutenants and for the chaplain
  • wooden with a silver ring for sub-lieutenants

Sergeants carried a halberd instead of a spontoon. Furthemore, their officer stick had no handle.

Musicians

no information available yet

Colours

The coronela (colonel flag) of the regiment was white with a red Burgundian cross terminated in each corner by a medallion carrying the arms of the regiment (unknown) surmounted by a golden crown. In the middle: the arms of Charles III surrounded by the necklace of the order of the Toison de Oro (Golden Fleece).

The batallonas (ordonnance flags) of the regiment were white with a red Burgundian cross terminated in each corner by a medallion carrying the arms of the regiment (unknown) surmounted by a golden crown.

References

This article is mostly made of abridged and adapted excerpts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Clonard, Conde de, Historia Orgánica de las Armas de Infantería y Caballería, vol. X, Madrid, 1851-62, pp. 5-32

Other sources

Album de Taccoli, 1759

Clonard, Conde de, Álbum de la Infantería española, 1861

Acknowledgment

Juan José Torres and the Asociación Cultural de Modelismo Histórico Alabarda for the information and counselling provided for this article.