G-I/G-XI Lossau Grenadiers

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Prussian Army >> G-I/G-XI Lossau Grenadiers

Origin and History

Garrison Regiment XI officer and grenadier - Source: Horvath, Carl Christian, Friedrichs II. König von Preussen Armee-Montirungen…
Garrison Regiment I officer and grenadier - Source: Horvath, Carl Christian, Friedrichs II. König von Preussen Armee-Montirungen…

In 1746, the grenadiers from Garrison Regiment I (2 coys), Garrison Regiment II (2 coys) and Garrison Regiment XI (2 coys) were converged into the IV. Stehende Grenadier-Bataillon (6 coys) oermanently stationed in Königsberg (present-day Kaliningrad). Their parent regiments were all stationed in East Prussia.

With the mobilisation order of February 5 1757, the two companies from Garrison Regiment II were detached from the IV. Stehende Grenadier-Bataillon and converged with the grenadiers of IR2 Kanitz to form the Grenadier Battalion 2/G-II Manstein.

On August 12 1759, after the Battle of Kunersdorf, till the winter of 1759-60, the battalion was temporarily converged with Grenadier Battalion 2/G-II.

In December 1760, the two grenadier companies from Garrison Regiment XI were exchanged with those from Garrison Regiment II. Thus, from December 1760 to 1763, the IV. Stehende Grenadier-Bataillon was formed of the grenadiers from Garrison Regiment I and Garrison Regiment II.

During the Seven Years' War, the battalion was commanded by:

  • since December 4 1755 till November 23 1765: Major Matthias Ludwig von Lossau (aka Lossow)

After the war, in 1763, the grenadiers from the Garrison Regiment XI rejoined the IV. Stehende Grenadier-Bataillon which now consisted of 6 companies from Garrison Regiment I (2 coys), Garrison Regiment II (2 coys) and Garrison Regiment XI (2 coys) as in 1744. In 1775, 4 companies of Garrison Regiment XI formed the VII. Stehende Grenadier-Bataillon.

The regiment was disbanded in 1788.

Service during the War

In August 1756, the battalion was part of the army left in East Prussia under Field-Marshal von Lehwaldt to observe the Russian army.

In 1757, the battalion was still part of Lehwaldt's Army assigned to the defence of East Prussia against a Russian invasion. On August 30, at the Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf, the battalion was kept in reserve behind the infantry right wing.

On August 25 1758, the battalion fought at the Battle of Zorndorf where it formed part of the vanguard led by Lieutenant-General von Manteuffel.

On July 23 1759, the battalion was at the Battle of Paltzig but was initially posted at Züllichau to guard the field bakery. A few weeks later, on August 12, the battalion fought in the Battle of Kunersdorf where it was deployed in the second line of the right centre as part of Grabow's Brigade.

For the campaign of 1760, the battalion served in Saxony. On August 20, it took part in the Combat of Strehla where it was initially posted on the Dürre Berg, protecting the right wing. At the opeing of the battle, the right wing had to retire into new defensive positions in the forest. On November 3, the battalion fought in the bloody Battle of Torgau where it was attached to the second Column under Major-General von Hulsen.

On February 15 1761, the battalion was attached to Syburg's Prussian Corps who took part in the surprise attack on the Franco-Saxon quarters in the Combat of Langensalza.

During the campaign of 1762 in Saxony, at the beginning of August, the battalion took part in an incursion in Bohemia. On August 2, it fought in the Combat of Teplitz. On October 29, the battalion took part in the Battle of Freiberg.

Uniform

Exceptionally, the uniforms of these grenadier companies differed from those of the musketeer companies of the corresponding regiment. Hereafter, we depict the uniforms of these grenadier companies.

Grenadiers of G-I

Privates

Uniform in 1756 - Source: Richard Couture
Uniform Details
Headgear mitre cap with silver-plated front plate; red headband edged with a yellow braid (yellow braid bordered with red and yellow squares) and decorated with silver-plated ornaments; blue backing piped with a yellow braid (same as above); red within green pompom

original grenadier cap - Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin

N.B.: In regiments with white metal, the front plates were to be coloured with a water-based silver paste which needed to be re-applied regularly lest the cap plates revert to their original brass colour. Therefore, during campaign, particularly in bad weather, it is possible that the silvering could have worn off and needed to be silvered again.

Neckstock black
Coat Prussian blue lined red with 2 white buttons under the right lapel; 6 white buttons grouped 2 by 2 on the chest; and 3 white buttons on each side to fasten the skirts forming the turnbacks
Collar none
Shoulder Straps Prussian blue fastened with a white button
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets edged in red, each with 2 white buttons
Cuffs Prussian blue (in the Swedish pattern) with 2 white buttons
Turnbacks red fastened with a small white button
Waistcoat white
Breeches white
Gaiters black
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt one white belt over the left shoulder for the cartridge box and one narrower white belt over the right shoulder for the haversack
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black
Bayonet Scabbard brown
Scabbard brown
Footgear black shoes


Privates were armed with a musket, a bayonet and a curved blade sabre.

NCOs

NCOs wore uniforms similar to those of the privates with the following distinctions:

  • quartered black and white pompom on the mitre cap
  • no shoulder straps
  • silver laced cuffs
  • yellowish leather gloves
  • black and white sabre tassel

Grenadier NCOs were armed with a sabre and a white pike measuring 13 Rhenish feet (4.10 m.) in the grenadier companies (carried by the 3 most senior NCOs while other grenadier NCOs were armed with rifled muskets since 1744).

N.B.: the long pike (4,10 m long), was introduced in 1756 just before the war. This long pike was not very popular and was often shortened. At the beginning of the Seven Years' War and throughout the conflict, NCOs carried a mixture of M1713 half-pikes (2,37 m long), M1755 half-pikes (3 m long) and M1756 (4,10 m long) pikes.

NCOs also carried canes (normally attached to a button at the top of the right front while carrying the half-pike).

Officers

Uniforms of officers were very similar to those of the privates with the following exceptions:

  • black tricorne wearing a silver scalloped lace with black and silver quartered pompoms (officers always wore tricornes notwithstanding if they were commanding musketeers, fusiliers or grenadiers)
  • no shoulder strap on the coat
  • no turnbacks on the coat
  • black and silver sash around the waist

Officers carried white spontoons measuring 7 ½ Rhenish feet (2.36 m.) and an officer stick.

Musicians

Lace of the drummer uniform in 1755 - Source: Tressenmusterbuch von 1755

The lace of the drummers consisted of a red braid decorated with 4 rows of alternating yellow and red rectangles (the yellow rectangles being about thrice the length of the red ones).

The uniforms of the drummers were similar to those of the privates but had much more elaborate lacing and other peculiarities:

  • 4 vertical drummer laces and 1 horizontal drummer lace on each shoulder
  • coat, cuffs and pockets edged with the drummer lace


Grenadiers of G-II

Privates

Uniform in 1756 - Source: Richard Couture
Uniform Details
Headgear mitre cap with silver-plated front plate; red headband edged with a white braid (decorated with blue squares) decorated with silver-plated ornaments; blue backing piped white (same braid as above); green pompom

N.B.: In regiments with white metal, the front plates were to be coloured with a water-based silver paste which needed to be re-applied regularly lest the cap plates revert to their original brass colour. Therefore, during campaign, particularly in bad weather, it is possible that the silvering could have worn off and needed to be silvered again.

Neckstock black
Coat Prussian blue lined red with 2 white buttons under the right lapel; 6 white buttons grouped 2 by 2 on the chest; and 3 white buttons on each side to fasten the skirts forming the turnbacks
Collar none
Shoulder Straps Prussian blue fastened with a white button
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets edged in red, each with 2 white buttons
Cuffs white (in the Swedish pattern) with 2 white buttons
Turnbacks red fastened with a small white button
Waistcoat white
Breeches white
Gaiters black
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt one white belt over the left shoulder for the cartridge box and one narrower white belt over the right shoulder for the haversack
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black
Bayonet Scabbard brown
Scabbard brown
Footgear black shoes


Privates were armed with a musket, a bayonet and a curved blade sabre.

NCOs

NCOs wore uniforms similar to those of the privates with the following distinctions:

  • quartered black and white pompom on the mitre cap
  • no shoulder straps
  • silver laced cuffs
  • yellowish leather gloves
  • black and white sabre tassel

Grenadier NCOs were armed with a sabre and a white pike measuring 13 Rhenish feet (4.10 m.) in the grenadier companies (carried by the 3 most senior NCOs while other grenadier NCOs were armed with rifled muskets since 1744).

N.B.: the long pike (4,10 m long), was introduced in 1756 just before the war. This long pike was not very popular and was often shortened. At the beginning of the Seven Years' War and throughout the conflict, NCOs carried a mixture of M1713 half-pikes (2,37 m long), M1755 half-pikes (3 m long) and M1756 (4,10 m long) pikes.

NCOs also carried canes (normally attached to a button at the top of the right front while carrying the half-pike).

Officers

Uniforms of officers were very similar to those of the privates with the following exceptions:

  • black tricorne wearing a silver scalloped lace, black and silver quartered pompoms (officers always wore tricornes notwithstanding if they were commanding musketeers, fusiliers or grenadiers)
  • no shoulder strap on the coat
  • no turnbacks on the coat
  • black and silver sash around the waist

Officers carried white spontoons measuring 7 ½ Rhenish feet (2.36 m.) and an officer stick.

Musicians

Lace of the drummer uniform in 1755 - Source: Tressenmusterbuch von 1755

The lace of the drummers consisted of a white braid decorated with an elaborate blue pattern and bordered red.

The uniforms of the drummers were similar to those of the privates but had much more elaborate lacing and other peculiarities:

  • 4 vertical drummer laces and 1 horizontal drummer lace on each shoulder
  • coat, cuffs and pockets edged with the drummer lace


Grenadiers of G-XI

Privates

Uniform in 1756 - Source: Richard Couture
Uniform Details
Headgear mitre cap with silver-plated front plate; rose red headband edged with a white braid and decorated with silver-plated ornaments; rose red backing piped white; rose red pompom

N.B.: In regiments with white metal, the front plates were to be coloured with a water-based silver paste which needed to be re-applied regularly lest the cap plates revert to their original brass colour. Therefore, during campaign, particularly in bad weather, it is possible that the silvering could have worn off and needed to be silvered again.

Neckstock black
Coat Prussian blue lined red with 2 white buttons under the right lapel; 6 white buttons grouped 2 by 2 on the chest; and 3 white buttons on each side to fasten the skirts forming the turnbacks
Collar none
Shoulder Straps Prussian blue fastened with a white button
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets edged in red, each with 2 white buttons
Cuffs rose red (in the Swedish pattern) with 2 white buttons
Turnbacks red fastened with a small white button
Waistcoat white
Breeches white
Gaiters black
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt one white belt over the left shoulder for the cartridge box and one narrower white belt over the right shoulder for the haversack
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black
Bayonet Scabbard brown
Scabbard brown
Footgear black shoes


Privates were armed with a musket, a bayonet and a curved blade sabre.

NCOs

NCOs wore uniforms similar to those of the privates with the following distinctions:

  • quartered black and white pompom on the mitre cap
  • no shoulder straps
  • silver laced cuffs
  • yellowish leather gloves
  • black and white sabre tassel

Grenadier NCOs were armed with a sabre and a white pike measuring 13 Rhenish feet (4.10 m.) in the grenadier companies (carried by the 3 most senior NCOs while other grenadier NCOs were armed with rifled muskets since 1744).

N.B.: the long pike (4,10 m long), was introduced in 1756 just before the war. This long pike was not very popular and was often shortened. At the beginning of the Seven Years' War and throughout the conflict, NCOs carried a mixture of M1713 half-pikes (2,37 m long), M1755 half-pikes (3 m long) and M1756 (4,10 m long) pikes.

NCOs also carried canes (normally attached to a button at the top of the right front while carrying the half-pike).

Officers

Uniforms of officers were very similar to those of the privates with the following exceptions:

  • black tricorne wearing a silver scalloped lace, black and silver quartered pompoms (officers always wore tricornes notwithstanding if they were commanding musketeers, fusiliers or grenadiers)
  • no shoulder strap on the coat
  • no turnbacks on the coat
  • black and silver sash around the waist
  • a silver and gold gorget

Officers carried white spontoons measuring 7 ½ Rhenish feet (2.36 m.) and an officer stick.

Musicians

Lace of the drummer uniform in 1755 - Source: Tressenmusterbuch von 1755

The lace of the drummers consisted of a red braid decorated with 4 rows of alternating yellow and red rectangles (the yellow rectangles being about thrice the length of the red ones).

The uniforms of the drummers were similar to those of the privates but had much more elaborate lacing and other peculiarities:

  • 4 vertical drummer laces and 1 horizontal drummer lace on each shoulder
  • coat, cuffs and pockets edged with the drummer lace


Colours

The converged grenadier battalions did not carry any colour.

References

Bleckwenn, Hans: Die friderzianischen Uniformen 1753-1786, Band II: Infanterie II, Osnabrück 1984

Fiedler, Siegfried: Geschichte der Grenadiere Friedrichs des Großen, Munich, 1981

Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 1 Pirna und Lobositz, Berlin, 1901, App. 2

Hohrath, Daniel: The Uniforms of the Prussian Army under Frederick the Great from 1740 to 1786; Vol. 2; Verlag Militaria, Vienna: 2011, pp. 406-409

Horvath, Carl Christian: Friedrichs II. König von Preussen Armee-Montirungen, Potsdam 1789. Vierte Sammlung

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756 - 1763. Edited and published by KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg e.V., Magstadt: 1989, pp. 30-32

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgments

Martina Hager and User:Zahn for the initial version of this article.