G-NG/G-III/G-IV Kahlden Grenadiers

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Prussian Army >> G-NG/G-III/G-IV Kahlden Grenadiers

Origin and History

As per a Cabinet-Ordre of March 16 1743, the grenadiers from Garrison Regiment III (1 coy), Garrison Regiment IV (1 coy) and New Garrison Regiment (2 coys) were converged into the I. Stehende Grenadier-Bataillon.

From July 3 to 30 1757, the battalion was temporarily converged with Grenadier Battalion 12/39, Grenadier Battalion 47/G-VII and Grenadier Battalion 33/42. Then from July 30 1757 to March 1758, it was temporarily converged with Grenadier Battalion 47/G-VII under von Rosenberg.

After the Battle of Torgau, on November 3 1760, the battalion was temporarily converged with Grenadier Battalion 35/36.

During the Seven Years' War, the battalion was commanded by:

  • since February 1749: Colonel Hennig Alexander von Kahlden
  • from January 26, 1758: Friedrich Just von Wangenheim
  • from December 24, 1758: W. E. von Buddenbrock
  • from January 4, 1759 till July 27, 1771: Georg Karl von Carlowitz

Service during the War

On June 26 1756, Frederick ordered to reinforce the Province of Pomerania with 4 additional infantry regiments (Jung Braunschweig Fusiliers, Amstell Infantry, Duke von Württemberg Fusiliers and Erbprinz von Hessen-Darmstadt Infantry) with their grenadier coys along with the present battalion, Seydlitz Hussars and 2 artillery coys. By August 26, the battalion was attached to the Reserve Corps in Pomerania under the command Lieutenant-General Hereditary Prince of Hessen-Darmstadt. In December, Frederick recalled this Reserve Corps from Pomerania and stationed it in Lusatia.

In April 1757, the battalion took part in the invasion of Bohemia. On April 21, at the Combat of Reichenberg, the battalion was deployed at the extreme left of the first line of the Duke of Bevern's force. The battalion attacked the Austrians behind their abatis, forcing them to draw back behind their second line of abatis. On May 6, the battalion took part in the Battle of Prague where it was deployed on the extreme left of the first line of the infantry centre in Winterfeldt's Brigade. On June 18, the battalion took part in the Battle of Kolin where it was initially deployed in the rearguard (extreme right) but was soon sent to reinforce the van at the extreme left under Hülsen. On September 7, when an Austrian force under the command of General Nádasdy attacked Winterfeldt's isolated corps during the Combat of Moys, the battalion was sent as reinforcement by Bevern from Görlitz. On November 22, the battalion took part in the Battle of Breslau where it was deployed in Prince Franz of Brunswick's Brigade, in the first line of the left wing. Along with Grenadier Battalion Schenkendorff, Werner Hussars and Zieten Hussars, they threw back Nádasdy's diversionary attack. On December 5, at the Battle of Leuthen, the battalion was deployed in Oldenburg's Brigade in the second line of the infantry centre.

In the spring of 1758, the battalion took part in the invasion of Moravia. By May 20, it was attached to Frederick's Corps covering the Siege of Olmütz. On June 21, the battalion was part of the reinforcements sent to the post of Kleinsenitz (present-day Senička) to maintain communication with the field-hospital at Littau. On June 30, the battalion took part in the Combat of Domstadl where the Prussians lost the huge supply convoy on its way to Olmütz. Frederick then lifted the siege and retired. On October 14 in Saxony, the battalion fought at the Battle of Hochkirch where it was initially deployed in Manteuffel's Corps on the extreme left flank of the Prussian positions. Around 8:00 a.m., it was sent to occupy the big battery (30 guns) planted in front of the defile to the north of Rodewitz. Austrian columns under the command of Ahremberg attacked the battery and the battalion was reinforced by Grenadier Battalion Heyden. These two Prussian battalions were finally forced to abandon the battery.

On July 27 1759, during the campaign in Upper Silesia and Lusatia, the Austrian General de Ville launched an attack on Fouqué's positions on the Heights of Vogelgesang and Todtenhubels. He sent Jahnus' light corps forward to cover his movements. The battalion, along with Frei-Infanterie von Lüderitz and Thile Infantry, distinguished itself, repulsing Jahnus' assault.

On September 17 1760, the battalion took part in the Combat of Hochgiersdorf where it was deployed in the rearguard. On November 3, the battalion fought at the bloody Battle of Torgau where it was deployed in Syburg's Brigade in the first column of Frederick's army.

From August to October 1762, the battalion was present at the siege and recapture of Schweidnitz where it was attached to corps defending the contravallation entrenchments.

Uniform

The grenadiers from G-III and G-IV were put together with those from G-NG because they were in der Montur am egalsten (i.e.: had almost similar uniforms). The uniforms of the grenadiers of G-IV and G-NG were completely identical while the uniforms of the grenadiers of G-III had different cuffs. It is very likely that the grenadiers of G-III, G-IV and G-NG had the same grenadier caps.

Exceptionally, the uniforms of these grenadier companies differed from those of the musketeer companies of the corresponding regiment. Hereafter, we depict the uniform of these grenadier companies.

Grenadiers of G-III

Privates

Uniform in 1756 - Source: Richard Couture
Uniform Details
Headgear mitre cap with yellow metal front plate; yellow metal headband decorated with yellow metal ornaments; red backing piped yellow; red within white pompom
Neckstock black
Coat Prussian blue lined red with 2 brass buttons under the right lapel; 6 brass buttons grouped 2 by 2 on the chest; and 3 brass buttons on each side to fasten the skirts forming the turnbacks
Collar red
Shoulder Straps Prussian blue edged in red fastened with a brass button
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets edged in red, each with 2 brass buttons
Cuffs red (in the Swedish pattern), each with 2 brass buttons
Turnbacks red fastened with a small brass button
Waistcoat white
Breeches white
Gaiters black
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt one white belt over the left shoulder for the cartridge box and one narrower white belt over the right shoulder for the haversack
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black
Bayonet Scabbard brown
Scabbard brown
Footgear black shoes


Privates were armed with a musket, a bayonet and a curved blade sabre.

NCOs

NCOs wore uniforms similar to those of the privates with the following distinctions:

  • no shoulder straps
  • gold laced cuffs
  • yellowish leather gloves
  • black and white sabre tassel

NCOs were armed with a sabre and a white half-pike measuring 10 Rhenish feet (3.06 m.) in the musketeer companies and 13 Rhenish feet (4.10 m.) in the grenadier companies (carried by the 3 most senior NCOs while other grenadier NCOs were armed with rifled muskets since 1744).

NCOs also carried canes (normally attached to a button at the top of the right front while carrying the half-pike).

Officers

Uniforms of officers were very similar to those of the privates with the following exceptions:

  • black tricorne with a scalloped golden lace (officers always wore tricornes notwithstanding if they were commanding musketeers, fusiliers or grenadiers)
  • no shoulder strap on the coat
  • no turnbacks on the coat
  • black and silver sash around the waist

Officers carried white spontoons measuring 7 ½ Rhenish feet (2.36 m.) and an officer stick.

Musicians

Lace of the drummer uniform in 1755 - Source: Tressenmusterbuch von 1755

The lace of the drummers consisted of a yellow braid decorated with 2 red stripes. The collar, coat and pockets were edged with this lace. Shoulder decorated with 4 vertical laces and 1 horizontal lace. The cuffs were edged with a double lace.

Grenadiers of G-IV and G-NG

Privates

Uniform in 1756 - Source: Richard Couture
Uniform Details
Headgear mitre cap with yellow metal front plate; yellow metal headband decorated with yellow metal ornaments; red and blue backing piped yellow (the 2 lateral quarters were blue, the 2 rear qurters red); red within white pompom
Neckstock red
Coat Prussian blue lined red with 2 yellow buttons under the right lapel; 6 yellow buttons grouped 2 by 2 on the chest; and 3 yellow buttons on each side to fasten the skirts forming the turnbacks
Collar red
Shoulder Straps Prussian blue edged in red fastened with a yellow button
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets edged in red, each with 3 yellow buttons
Cuffs red (in the Prussian pattern) with 4 yellow buttons on the sleeve
Turnbacks red fastened with a small yellow button
Waistcoat straw
Breeches straw
Gaiters black
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt one white belt over the left shoulder for the cartridge box and one narrower white belt over the right shoulder for the haversack
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black
Bayonet Scabbard brown
Scabbard brown
Footgear black shoes


Privates were armed with a musket, a bayonet and a curved blade sabre.

NCOs

NCOs wore uniforms similar to those of the privates with the following distinctions:

  • black and white quartered pompom on the mitre cap
  • no shoulder straps
  • gold laced cuffs
  • yellowish leather gloves
  • black and white sabre tassel

NCOs were armed with a sabre and a white half-pike measuring 10 Rhenish feet (3.06 m.) in the musketeer companies and 13 Rhenish feet (4.10 m.) in the grenadier companies (carried by the 3 most senior NCOs while other grenadier NCOs were armed with rifled muskets since 1744).

NCOs also carried canes (normally attached to a button at the top of the right front while carrying the half-pike).

Officers

Uniforms of officers were very similar to those of the privates with the following exceptions:

  • black tricorne with a thin golden lace (officers always wore tricornes notwithstanding if they were commanding musketeers, fusiliers or grenadiers)
  • no collar on the coat
  • no shoulder strap on the coat
  • no turnbacks on the coat
  • black and silver sash around the waist

Officers carried white spontoons measuring 7 ½ Rhenish feet (2.36 m.) and an officer stick.

Musicians

Lace of the drummer uniform in 1755 - Source: Tressenmusterbuch von 1755

The lace of the drummers consisted of a yellow braid decorated with 2 red stripes. The collar, coat , pockets and cuffs were edged with this lace. Shoulder decorated with 4 vertical laces and 1 horizontal lace.

Colours

The converged grenadier battalions did not carry any colour.

References

Bleckwenn, Hans: Die friderzianischen Uniformen 1753-1786, Band II: Infanterie II, Osnabrück 1984

Fiedler, Siegfried: Geschichte der Grenadiere Friedrichs des Großen, Munich, 1981

Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 1 Pirna und Lobositz, Berlin, 1901, App. 2

Hohrath, Daniel: The Uniforms of the Prussian Army under Frederick the Great from 1740 to 1786; Vol. 2; Verlag Militaria, Vienna: 2011, pp. 414-415

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756 - 1763. Edited and published by KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg e.V., Magstadt: 1989, pp. 30-32

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.