Garde-Grenadier-Regiment

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Palatine Army >> Garde-Grenadier-Regiment

Origin and History

The regiment was raised in 1698 from the grenadier companies of all Palatine infantry regiments (Lubeck, Sachsen-Meiningen, Bourscheidt and Wurtbi). It was designated as the Garde-Grenadier-Regiment and garrisoned Mannheim.

In 1757 the regiment was raised from two to three battalions and renamed Garde-Regiment zu Fuss (Foot Guard).

At the outbreak of the Seven Years' War, the regiment was not at full strength, totalling only some 1,000 men. It consisted of 3 battalions. Theoretically, each of these battalions should count 1 grenadier coys (100 men) and 5 musketeer coys (each of 140 musketeers): however, according to Lange (quoted in Pengel & Hurt), the diary of the Landgraf Ludwig IX of Hessen-Darmstadt reports that "..in 1757 the Garde-Grenadiers had their grenadiers cap taken away and they were left with only 6 companies of grenadiers. Instead of their former name they were now called the Garde Regiment zu Fuss". Therefore from this comment it seems that each battalion had two grenadier companies instead of the usual one.

The regimental artillery consisted of 1 gun per battalion, each served by 20 artillerymen detached from the Palatine Artillery.

During the Seven Years' War, the chef of the regiment was:

  • since May 8 1751 until October 17 1767: prince Friedrich Michael von Zweibrücken

During the Seven Years' War, its commanders were:

  • since 1751: lieutenant-colonel von Bock
  • from 1758: von Haultepenne
  • from 1759 to 1767: count von Harscamp

The II Battalion commander was Oberst von Balderbusch.

Service during the War

In 1757, the Garde battalions remained in Palatine territories garrisoning Mannheim.

In 1758, the II./Garde battalion with one grenadier company and two 4-pdr. battalion guns joined the Palatine contingent in the Reichsarmee, serving with this army till the end of the war. In May 1758, prior to the invasion of Saxony, the 2nd battalion had a strength of 661 men. On November 15, it saw action at Eilenburg.

On September 8 1759, the 2nd battalion of the regiment took part in the Combat of Zinna where it was deployed in the first line of the infantry centre. On November 20, the same battalion reinforced Stolberg's brigade after the Battle of Maxen.

On August 20 1760, the 2nd battalion fought in the Combat of Strehla. That year, it was attached to the Imperial Main Corps under Zweibrücken.

In June 1761, the strength of the 2nd battalion was reduced to 532 men "fit for duties" and to 425 by December.

No information on the 1762 campaign. However the battalion was not present at Freiberg.

Uniform

According to the diary of the Landgraf Ludwig IX of Hessen-Darmstadt (Lange, quoted in Pengel&Hurt), "..in 1757 the Garde-Grenadiers had their grenadiers cap taken away, and they were left with only 6 grenadiers companies." Accordingly, we may assume that only the grenadier companies had the fur-cap, the remaining companies wearing tricorne.

Privates

Uniform in 1757 - Source: rf-figuren from a Not By Appointment template
Uniform in 1757
Headgear Musketier: black tricorne with white lace. Black cockade, blue/white pom-pom.

Grenadier: Austrian style bearskin with brass shield and a red bag laced white with a white tassel
N.B.: up to 1755, the grenadiers still wore Prussian-style mitre caps, the Austrian-style bearskin was introduced in 1756

Neckstock black
Coat blue coat with 3 brass buttons and 3 white buttonholes under the lapels and 1 in the small of the back
Collar none
Shoulder Straps red with 1 brass button (left shoulder)
Lapels white with 7 brass buttons and 7 white buttonholes grouped 1,2,2,2
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 brass buttons and 3 white buttonholes
Cuffs red with 3 brass buttons and 3 white buttonholes
Turnbacks red fastened with a small brass button
Waistcoat white with 15 brass buttons
Breeches white
Gaiters black with 22 brass buttons
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt paille (straw) or white
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black with 4 little yellow grenades, grenadiers wore an additional little cartridge box at their waistbelt, it was black carrying one yellow grenade
Bayonet Scabbard natural leather
Scabbard natural leather with brass fittings only at the beginning of war, later none
Footgear black shoes


Privates were armed with a musket, a bayonet and a curved sword.

Other interpretations

Knötel illustrates a uniform with the following differences:

  • white edged collar, lapels and cuffs
  • 3 buttons on the sleeve above each cuff instead of 3 buttons on each cuff
  • blue bearskin bag laced white with a white tassel

NCOs

The NCOs wore the same uniform with the following exceptions:

  • gold buttons and laces on the cuffs
  • gold hat-lace
  • white and blue sword knots
  • hazelwood stick with leather strap attacked on the top.

They were armed with a 6 and half renish feet Kurzgewehr. At the top it was formed as a small partisan , below it was shaped like and upward-curving crescent. Where the head of the weapon joined the shaft there was an iron crossbar. At the bottom of the shaft there was a a pointed iron shoe for planting the weapon on the gropund. Fouriere, Feldschere and Grenadier NCO didn't carry the Kurzgewehr: instead they were armed with a musket. Grenadiers NCO had cartouches like those of the men.

Officers

The officers wore the same uniform with the following exceptions:

  • scalloped tricorne with a black cockade and no pompoms
  • gold gorget (since 1755)
  • gold buttons and laces
  • white and blue striped sash (silver and blue for staff officers)
  • white and blue sword frog (silver and blue for staff officers)
  • buff gloves
  • black cane

Grenadier officers used a musket instead of a spontoon. Therefore, they wore a little cartouche (laced gold with a golden front plate) at the waistbelt.

Musicians

no information available yet

Colours

Colours before 1760

Colonel flag (Leibfahne): white field bordered with white and blue flames; centre device consisting of an image of the Madonna of Dorfen standing on a snake, surmounted by a white scroll carrying the motto “Sub Tuum Praesidium Virgo Gloriosa”; each corner monogram consisting of the yellow cypher of Karl IV Theodor surrounded by a wreath.

Regimental flags (Kompaniefahnen): blue field; centre device consisting of the yellow cypher of Karl IV Theodor surmounted by a red and gold Electoral cap; each corner monogram consisting of the yellow cypher of Karl IV Theodor surrounded by laurel branches bound with a red ribbon.

Colours from 1760

Each battalion carried 2 colours.

Colonel flag (Leibfahne): white field bordered with white and blue flames; centre device consisting of an image of the Madonna of Dorfen standing on a snake, surmounted by a white scroll carrying the motto “Sub Tuum Praesidium Virgo Gloriosa”; each corner monogram consisting of the yellow cypher of Karl IV Theodor surrounded by a wreath.

Regimental flags (Kompaniefahnen): blue or yellow field bordered with blue and white squares in a checker pattern; centre device consisting of the Electoral arms on a shield resting on clouds and flanked by a lion passant holding a sword and by a cannon and a flag; each corner monogram consisting of the yellow cypher of Karl IV Theodor surrounded by laurel branches bound with a red ribbon.

References

Becher, Johann Christian: Wahrhaftige Nachricht derer Begebenheiten, so sich in dem Herzogthum Weimar by dem gewaltigen Kriege Friedrichs II., Königs von Preußen, mit der Königin von Ungarn, Marien Theresen, samt ihren Bundesgenossen zugetragen, Weimar, ca. 1757-1760

  • Original (Stiftung Weimarer Klassik - Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek Weimar)
  • Copy (Bibliothèque nationale de France, De Ridder collection)

Bezel, Oskar;: Geschichte des Kurpfälzischen Heeres ..., Bayrisches Kriegsarchiv, München, 1925.

Boehm, E.; Rottgardt, D.: Die Reichsarmee 1757-1763 I. Teil. Zusammensetzung und Organisation, Manuskript, KLIO - Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, 1979.

Boehm, E.; Rottgardt, D., Weirich, W.-D.: Die Reichsarmee 1757-1763 II. Teil. Die einzelnen Einheiten, ihre Stärke, Zusammensetzung, Uniform und Feldzeichen, Manuskript, KLIO - Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, o.J.

Brabant, Arthur: Das heilige römische Reich teutscher Nation im Kampf mit Friedrich dem Großen, vol. I, II Berlin 1904, vol. III Dresden 1931

Funcken, Liliane and Fred: Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

Kessel, E.: Das Ende des Siebenjährigen Krieges 1760-1763, Hrgb. von T. Linder, Anhang 41, p. 553, Padeborn – München – Wien – Zürich 2007

Pengel, R.D. And G. R. Hurt: Bavaria, Saxony & the Palatinate Supplement: Uniforms and Flags of the Seven Years War, Hopewell: On Military Matters, 1981

Acknowledgments

rf-figuren for the initial version of this article.