German Free-Jäger Corps (Otto)

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Introduction

The unit is also found under the names of : Jäger-Corps Otto (or: without hyphen); Otto'sche (also: Ottoische) Jäger (or: Freicorps).

Note: When searching for this corps, care should be taken not to confuse it with the freicorps of the same name (and the same commander) which was raised for the War of the Bavarian Succession in 1778 and dissolved in May 1779.

Origin and History

Detail of a portrait of Michael Ludwig Otto by Johann Heinrich Balzer

This corps was established in 1759 in Saxony by a Saxon hunter named Michael Ludwig Otto who was granted a Ober-Lieutenant's commission by the Vienna authorities. (In an autobiography by his brother, the later k.k. General der Kavallerie Rudolph von Otto, the first names of the corps commander are given as 'Wilhelm Ludwig' and it is stated that this man had raised the corps 'inproprio', probably meant to signify 'on his own (cost?)'ref 001. From other sources it appears that M. Ludwig Otto had earlier been a hunter in the employ of Saxon General Emilian Friedrich von Rochow (whose regiment was given by Frederick II to General von Wietersheim in 1757ref 002.

So Otto may have been exposed to a military environment before his offer to the Austrians; whether he was acting from purely patriotic sentiment or rather saw in such a free corps a means to own advancement and gain is anybody's guess (a footnote in ref 002 describes him as of average height and a stout-hearted officer, who, employed mostly im kleinen Krieg repeatedly found opportunity to enrich himself).

Otto's portrait shows him later in life (his rank is given as colonel; the highest rank he was granted during the Seven Years' War was major in February 1762).

The corps was to be recruited purely from Saxons and to consist of a company of 'Jäger (sharpshooters) and a detachment of Cheveauxlegers and Hussars (about 100 horse together)ref 003. It was raised in 1759 in Saxony and was to consist of one company of Jäger (sharpshooters) on foot and a detachment of cheveauxlegers and hussars (together around 100 arms-bearing men).

During its existence it suffered a number of severe losses (considering its small size); but the reputation of its commander easily drew replacement personnel into the corps. But desertion also happened: in a newspaper notice of September 18 1761 from Naumburgref 024 there is mentioned the desertion overnight of 2 Jägers with their horses and baggage.

In June 1760 the ottoische Jägercorps is reported from Saalfeldref 022 as counting 223 men.

An etat of the Reichsarmee of April 30, 1762ref 021 shows

  • Otto, Jäger zu Fuß with 188 men
  • Otto, Jäger zu Pferde with 90 men and 98 horses

Unbelievable as it may seem, this small corps should have had hussars of its own, a newspaperref 024 mentions 'ottoische Husaren' bringing in prisoners of war.

During the Seven Years' War, the commander of the corps was:

  • from 1759 to 1763: Michael Ludwig Otto (initially Ober-Lieutenant, later captain and, in spring of 1762, major)

The corps was disbanded in 1763.

Assessment of the Corps

Otto's Jägercorps must have made a notable impression on contemporaries; it is surprising that a unit of this small size shows up so often in newspapers and other records of the time.

It must also be pointed out that when some military authorities are lauded for their correct behaviour towards the civilian communities, the Jägercorps may be used as contrast (' ...the Jäger of Captain Otto we would rather not see again...'ref 025)

Some examples of their exactions in just one small area are given in Chronik von Hornburg (a village in County Mansfeld)ref 027.

Service during the War

The German Free-Jäger Corps operated as part of the Austrian contingent of the Reichs- (Executions-) Armee but in a more or less semi-independent role. There are numerous newspaper notices dealing with the Otto'sche Jäger, mostly about very minor engagements or raids (often for 'contributions', victuals and forage), spread all over the maps of Saxony, Thuringia, Anhalt, Franconia. It is unrewarding to list these activities (one example may suffice); for the more militarily important activities, those worthy of notice by Wrede ref 003 will be treated below. (Anyone interested in looking at the less noteworthy doings might want to check on-line copies of for example Augspurgische Ordinari-Post-Zeitung or Ordinari-Münchner-Zeitungen).

The first appearance of the corps, outside official records, has been found in Augspurgische Ordinari-Post-Zeitung, edition of September 8, 1759. This brings an item dated 'Saal-Strom, den 28. August', which follows in translation. It deals with the Corps' creation and also shows one of its typical actions.

“A shot time ago Their Imperial and Royal Majesties have deigned to grace with the rank of 'Ober-Lieutenant' the gentleman Otto (born in Weissenfels) who is well-experienced as huntsman; and to allow him to raise a 'Jäger-Corps' of all-Saxon subjects; this corps already has risen to 40 men and to give it its due it must be said that in the short time of its existence it has acquired high renown.
The 'Jäger' are dressed in green with black velvet cuffs and lapels with braids and they also have excellent horses. On 23 this month, this corps was ordered to proceed to Magdeburg to take ferry boats and barges of Elbe and Saale and have these brought to Bernburg. The corps followed this order with eagerness and circumspection. On 25, a Prussian patrol of the Jäger and Hussars of Colonel Collignon encountered the Ottoische Jäger Corps near the Brandenburg village of Neu Guttersleben. There was a spirited skirmish in which 5 Prussian hussars were taken prisoner and 6 horses were captured. And the horse was shot under Lieutenant Otto. That same day this officer freed 5 Croats who had swum across the Elbe from Magdeburg but had been seized by the Council of Calbe. In spite of the strong Prussian forces there, he saved these Croats and took away all firearms of the community there and had them brought into safekeeping. If the corps were somewhat larger it would be able to accomplish greater things because its chief has capabilities and understanding.”

Now more important contributions to the war effort (following the headings given in Wrede)

a) '1760 bei der Vertheidigung von Vestwitz (?) (sic!), wo es viel verlor'

Wrede did well in putting a question mark after 'Vestwitz': 'Westwitz' (present-day Westewitz) in connection with Otto's Corps appears only in 2 sourcesrefs 004 and 005, one clearly copied from the other, for the year 1760; all others agree that the encounter took place in the vicinity of Geringswalde, which is located around 12 km south-west of Westewitz across the Freiberger Mulde River refs 006 – 010 apply.

At the beginning of August 1760, General Hülsen when slowly pressed back north towards Meissen by the numerically very superior Reichsarmee, had started feeling threatened by enemy detachments on his right flank. He therefore sent out Colonel Kleist (der "grüne Kleist") to disperse these. Kleist moved out on August 10 with a considerable force of 2 Grenadier bns, 100 men of Frei-Infanterie von Wunsch, 200 regulars, 100 light dragoons and 300 hussarsref 006 via Döbeln towards Leisnig farther north on the Mulde, where Otto's Jägercorps, augmented with 200 Hadik Hussars, had been reported. But at Leisnig, he learned that Captain Otto had already withdrawn to the south. Crossing the Mulde, Kleist followed fast. He caught up with the Jägercorps at Hilmsdorf Woods just outside Geringswalde on August 12. Without waiting for his infantry to catch up he attacked immediately with his hussars and light dragoons and succeeded in dispersing Otto's Corps which fled towards Mittweida further south. There does not seem to have been a very spirited defence (pace Wrede!); Kleist reported own losses of one officer and one man dead, but had killed a number and had taken prisoner 2 Jäger officers and some 60 (or 80, 100 or 200 men, depending on source to be believed) and also 20 baggage wagonsref 007.

Colonel Kleist continued his expedition to Altenburg to the west where he received orders from Hülsen to return immediately. The remnants of Jägercorps Otto (now 160 strong) joined the corps of FML Luszinsky at Naumburg a few days laterref 006.

b) '1761 Gefangennahme einer feindlichen Streifparthei bei Langensalza, Gefecht bei Behingen (sic!)

Towards the end of March, 1761, Captain Otto undertook a raid on the town of Langensalza in Thuringia which was under Prussian occupation at that time. A detachment of the Leibkürassier-Regiment under Major Kalkreuth was stationed there to collect contributions (also to guard the slightly wounded French and Saxon prisoners from the Combat of Langensalza)refs 011, 012.

The Jäger-Corps (strength is not given in the newspapers) started out on March 27 from Gehren (south of Ilmenau; about 65 km as the crow flies from Langensalza) and moved north with a number of wagons as quietly as possible past Gotha in the evening of March 29 . On the forced march, Prussian outposts at Uffhofen (just outside Langensalza) and Hanschleben (or Henschleben) were overpowered without difficulty (Henschleben is some way to the east of the direct route, but it may have been felt necessary by Otto to get rid of this post to preclude any possibility of interference in his return after the raid). Langensalza was reached and surrounded shortly after midnight on March 30. Otto made carpenters he had brought with him break down the town gates and entered Langensalza from the east through the Erfurter Tor. There ensued a rather noisy firefight between the Prussian horsemen firing out and the Jäger firing into the windows to the great fright of the townspeople. The number of losses (military or civilian) is not known – there were 'some' - but as an end result the Leibregiment lost some 40 men (including the commanding officer) as prisoners. At least as important was the acquisition of 200 horses the Prussians had collected earlier. The Saxon and French prisoners of war were set free (there is no information on what happened to them later) and Captain Otto with his corps and booty departed the same morning in southerly direction towards Mechterstädt and Tennenburg in the Thüringer Wald mountains (15 km west of Gotha).

During this retreat Otto sent part of his unit to Behringen (Wrede's 'Behingen', 15 km south-west of Langensalza) there to take prisoner the captain of the Hanoverian Jäger named Bülow and his men (and horses) who also were employed in collecting contributions.

Of course the other squadrons of the Leibregiment stationed in Cölleda, Weissensee, Tennstedt etc. (east of Langensalza) tried to overtake the retreating Jäger-Corps but seem not to have been able to catch it (no clash is reported).

For Captain Otto and his corps this raid meant a boost in reputation (it probably also was financially rewarding - a newspaper speculates that Major Kalkreuth might have collected a not negligible amount of cash before his misfortune) but in scope of what King Frederick undertook during the same time-frame it was merely a pin-prick: the monarch sent out 3 columns under Major-Generals Schenkendorff, Syburg and Linden (with a total of 17 bns and 40 sqns) to sweep clean parts of Thuringia (which had been spared until then) for recruits, horses, supplies and money; this purpose was completely accomplished. To quote Gaudi: “... there was nothing left worthy of being robbed...”ref 013, 014

c) 1761 'Eroberung des Schlosses Seeburg'

The Castle of Seeburg lies at the shore of the Süsser See in the Country of Mansfeld, at the time a Prussian enclave in Saxon territory (some 20 km west of Halle). In the fall of 1761, it had a small Prussian garrison, but does not seem to have been of particular military importance.

There is a short journal-notice (reported as usual in Augsburg and München newspapers) from the headquarter of FM Serbelloni, commanding the Reichsarmee; it follows in translation:

“On the 8th (of October) a report was delivered to the FM commanding from FML Luszinsky (from Unter-Teutschenthal in Mansfeld Country) to the effect that the day before the Jäger-Captain Otto had successfully concluded the enterprise against the Castle of Seeburg and taken it in assault. And after some resistance had taken the total enemy garrison prisoner which consisted of one captain, one lieutenant and 46 men.”

That is all that has come down to us (apart from personal data of the Prussian commanding captain).

d) 1762 'Gefecht an der Kösener Brücke'

Kösen (just south of Naumburg) is on the eastern bank of the Saale River which constituted a military obstacle at the time. Here an important road between Naumburg and Erfurt crossed the river.

At the end of January 1762, Otto's Jägercorps had orders to guard the road bridge but in the morning of January 21 had to fall back to the left bank of the river before a superior enemy detachment approaching from Naumburg. Captain Otto took counsel with Major von Hallasz of Hadik Hussars, and the same evening at dusk, after having received supporting troops from General Vecsey, they attacked the Prussian detachment (reportedly some 100 infantry) at the bridge. The officer commanding there and some of his men were killed, another officer and the rest of the bridge guard were taken prisoner. The impetus of the attack carried the Austrians across the bridge and they succeeded in driving away the Prussian infantry and cavalry on the eastern approach to the bridge (reported some 200 strong) even into Naumburg, after which the post guarding the bridge was established again.refs 015, 016

e) 1762 'Ueberfall auf Merseburg'

Merseburg is a small town which lies some 20 km west of Leipzig on the Saale River. At the time it belonged to the Electorate of Saxony and still had its medieval ring of walls.

It had been visited by Captain Otto earlier, when he had the bridge covering dismantled. Then a Prussian unit had crossed by barges and boats and since February 23, 1762 it was garrisoned by the Prussian Grenadier Battalion of Colonel Falkenhayn, who had the bridge repaired and all gates except two blocked. On February 27, Otto with his corps and the support of two grenadier companies tried to surprise the town at night but found the garrison alert and ready, such that after an hour and a few attempts of attack he had to withdraw to Freyburg ( according to his own account having lost three dead but taken prisoner 6 troopers of Finckenstein Dragoons outside the town).

But on March 11, on the orders of FML Luszinsky, Otto returned, accompanied by Major von Euler of the Kreisinfanterieregiment Pfalz-Zweibrücken. The action is reported as followsrefs 017, 018, 019 - make nice reading:

The units concerned (500 grenadiers and hussars with 2 cannons and Otto's Corps) approached Merseburg during a night of bad weather from Naumburg (unnoticed by the Prussians) and prepared for assault to the west of the town. They were ready by 3:30 a.m.. Part of the command was sent north to the Hallisches Tor and the grenadiers attacked Gotthardstor (also called Gattertor) where they took prisoner a small piquet outside the walls. The noise alerted the garrison which started a lively fire from the walls and the tower at the gate but this was suppressed soon by a few cannon shots, which were also applied to shatter the lock of the gate which then was pushed open. The attackers then drove the defenders through the town towards the bridge. Colonel Falkenhayn succeeded in bringing away part of the baggage over the bridge to the Neumarkt suburb. To preclude any attempt to re-claim the town, cannons were fired across the bridge and the grenadiers pushed the retreating part of the Prussians as far as the Fasanerie (some 1,5 km), where the Prussians at last made a stand. After the grenadiers had returned to the west side the bridge was again put out of use.
In the mean time, the other assault to the north of the town had taken place (it is there that the Jägercorps was employed). Some ladders were used to scale the walls and some of the gate guards on seeing this seem to have retreated without firing. Others put up stiff resistance and a noisy small arms firefight ensued, without many casualties because both sides had good cover. Finally some Jägers forced their way up to a roof and fired down upon the defenders. In the end the lieutenant commanding the remaining troops recognized that he had no chance to rejoin his unit across the river and capitulated.
The total number of prisoners is given as 132 (it is stated that the garrison had originally numbered about 600). The Austrian and Reichsarmee losses are reported (unbelievably low !) as 2 wounded...

f) 1762 'Treffen bei Chemnitz'

The engagement at Chemnitz took place on May 21, 1762 between a small Prussian corps commanded by Major-General von Bandemer and part of the Reichsarmee under FML Luszinsky.

A summary account extracted from Janyref 014; falsely dated for May 31! follows:

The Reichsarmee under the command of FZM Stolberg saw itself being separated from the Austrian forces under FM Serbelloni. Prince Heinrich sent against it Major-General Bandemer with a small corps of 4 battalions, Cuirassier Regiment Schmettau and 50 hussars to the Flöha River segment of the front. On Stolberg retreating towards Zwickau, Bandemer followed him across the Flöha to Chemnitz. But there he suffered a stinging defeat at the hands of FML Luszinsky who had returned hurriedly with his light corps from the Altenburg area. Bandemer lost more than 800 prisoners and 7 guns and had to retreat to Öderan behind the Flöha.

Tempelhoffref 020 is scathing in his critique of Bandemer's commanding; there are more details in his account of the action but Otto's Jägercorps does not figure in them.

In the journal released by the Reichsarmee High Commandref 019 there is reference to the action by “...Husaren regs Haddick and Baraniay, Liccaner-Croaten, 2 Hohenlohische Grenadier-Compagnien, ....and the Ottoische Jäger-Corps...” and in another report from the Reichsarmeeref 018 there is mention of the 'ottoische Jägerhaufen' attacking the Prussian Infantry Regiment Lehwald. Finally this account also gives the anecdote of a Sub-Lieutenant Kühn of Baranyay taking an enemy gun, dismounting and with the help of some common hussars and of an 'ottoischen Jäger zu Fuss' firing it repeatedly ("200 times"!) at the enemy.

Some additional notable events for Jäger-Corps Otto

Having worked through 'Wrede's list' there are still some other notable mentions of Jägercorps Otto. But only one is handed down with some detail. It follows:

1) After the taking of Merseburg (see above) the Reichsarmee did not garrison the town but concentrated back at Naumburg and Freyburg. From Halle (Prussian territory), which was occupied by a few hundred men under the command of Major von Sydow, raids were conducted into the Saxon lands to collect horses, recruits and to extort money; Otto had order to prevent this and small skirmishes occurred. On March 27, 1762 the culmination of this 'kleine Krieg' came about by a cleverly planned and skilfully executed ambush by Ottorefs 018, 019). His command having been augmented by some hussars (from Haddick and Baraniay regiments), he set out from Freyburg in the evening of March 26 for Lauchstädt (some 20 km south-west of Halle). From there he sent out patrols and parties closer to Halle. His mounted Jägers were hidden in a ravine at Schotterei close to Lauchstädt. Next morning, Major Sydow marched out to the Halle Stadthügel. He left most of his infantry there and advanced with 3 cavalry groupings and 50 infantry trying to chase and catch Otto's bait towards Lauchstädt. When he had advanced far enough the mounted Jäger (brother Rudolph Otto commanding) smashed into Sydow's left flank and Captain Otto with the hussars tried to cut the Prussian mounted force off from Halle from the right. They had good success: the infantry on the Stadthügel did not try to interfere but rather retreated into Halle, breaking up the bridge of boats there. The Jägercorps took 74 prisoners (including the commander, Major Sydow) and 20 horses. Own losses were negligible (2 dead, 2 wounded Jägers; 3 hussars missing).

Otto himself shortly thereafter was promoted to Major; he continued his raids in the area more or less undisturbed.

An example of the way war was conducted then and there: on April 2 the Prussian Lieutenant-General von Platen sent some 60 dragoons and hussars in barges across the Saale to Merseburg. They took 6 burghers as hostages (for payment of extorted 'contributions'), and left taking 6,000 Thaler from Saxon cash boxes and the stallions of the stud farm with them. The day after Otto appeared with his corps and took down the gates of the Gotthard- and SixtTor, smashed all palisades and wooden bulwarks made by the Prussians on top of the walls and had all boats and barges broken up. Then on April 25, he came close to Halle (the garrison having retreated to Brachstedt, 10 km north-east of Halle). He had 8 members of the town council come to him at Passendorf and took them away as hostages to be exchanged for those taken by the Prussians in Merseburg earlier. (No further information on either group is available readily...)

2) At the end of December1759, Otto's Corps raided from Saalfeld towards Jena and returned on December26 with 41 wagons loaded with bread and flour taken from the Prussians near Jena. Otto was as lucky at Erfurt on December 29 from where he brought in 3 Prussian officers, a field preacher and 26 men, together with 7 ammunition wagons and other booty. Thereafter the corps stayed in the town during the winter until April 'to the not small displeasure of the population'ref 022.

3) Gaudi writesref 007 for April 1761: “Everyone went back to his previous quarters and all stayed quiet, except that on the 15th the enemy Captain Otto again attacked a detachment of the Leib-Cürassier-Regiment, with which Major Cours had been stationed in Weissensee in Thüringen and took prisoner the major himself with 32 men.”

4) Tempelhoff writesref 020: “...(Col Belling, August 20, 1762)...Near Schauenstein (about 10 km west of Hof in Bavaria) his advance guard under Major Meseberg met with Oberst (sic!) Otto with his Jäger. These he cut up and took 20 (sic! Misprint for '2') officers and 79 men prisoners..... a detachment of his hussars at Kupferberg (15 km east of Kulmbach, Bavaria) happened onto the Ottoschen Jäger, cut down some of them, took one officer and 50 men prisoner and caught 60 horses.”

5) Hempelref 021 writes (shortened where too verbose): “...skirmishes which principally concern the 'Jägerhaufen' (Jäger band) of Major Otto. He had closed the gaps which had been made in his unit mostly in August by continuous skirmishes with new enlistments and in October moved to Thuringia again.... (- Prussian requisitions in Erfurt, Neustadt and Weissensee -)... These detachments Major Otto surprised on 17th of October and took some 30 men with 50 horses prisoners. Then again this same man on November 3 surprised at Weissensee (35 km north of Erfurt) the bunch of Prussian Lieutenant-Colonel Chambeau which consisted of Frei-Dragoner and hussars and was collecting contributions there. He had the gates broken down, the Prussians withdrew through the Schlosstor and he pushed them out of the town after a sharp skirmish. He pursued them via Grunstedt (probably: Günstedt) to Sachsenburg (15 km NNW of Weissensee), took their baggage and 48 horses with a considerable supply of oats; and took 34 prisoners. After this event Lieutenant-Colonel Chambeau collected some support and attacked Otto at Weissensee. Even though this attack did not reach the wished-for effect, Otto thought it better to withdraw via Erfurt. But his Jäger continued to commit smaller raids from time to time in Thuringia. Towards the end of December part of them appeared in the vicinity of Arnstadt (20 km south of Erfurt) and in the town itself. Major-General Schmettau commanding in Erfurt therefore sent Captain von Zicker of Prince Heinrich-Cuirassiers there with 80 horsemen. On December 21 in early morning, Lieutenants Otto, Arnd and Kieß all of a sudden appeared with a detachment outside Arnstadt, shot down the gate guard, fired into the houses and took prisoners above captain, another officer and some 50 men, because they could not get into saddle in time. (- Schmettau put a stronger garrison into Arnstadt -).”

6) In December 1762 the Prince of Braunschweig led a large corps of reinforcement for the King of Prussia from Hesse through Thuringia to Saxony. It included a train of 1,200 wagons. For all practical purposes this march was undisturbed by the Reichsarmee; only the Jägercorps in raiding the train took away 50 - 60 wagonsref 023.

Uniform and equipment

The only definitive report on the uniform of the German Free-Jäger Corps is in Wrederef 003: “Green coat, black cuffs, yellow breeches and buttons”.

Then there is the newspaper mention of its creationref 026 stating “Jäger are dressed in green with black velvet cuffs and lapels with braids”.

Taking these bare informations at face value and adding some interpretations of uniforms at the time (plus guess-work) the following picture might emerge.

Please note that we did not find any information on the uniforms of the hussars attached to this corps.

Privates

Uniform Details
Headgear black felt tricorne (without or with white ribbon)
Neck stock no information found
Coat dark green (in German jägergrün)
Collar none
Shoulder Straps no information found
Lapels black (it seems doubtful that the lapels would have been made of velvet), each probably with 7 brass buttons and 7 braid loops (see Otto's portrait for detail of these braid loops)
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 2 brass buttons
Cuffs black (it seems doubtful that the cuffs would have been made of velvet), each with 2 brass buttons
Turnbacks dark green (in German jägergrün)
Waistcoat yellow with one row of brass buttons
Gräfer, Vol III 'Annalen' gives green
Breeches yellow (maybe straw yellow like deerskin, as appropriate for hunters)
Gaiters black (only for foot soldiers)
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt black
Waistbelt black
Cartridge Box small black cartridge box covering the belt buckle
Bayonet Scabbard none
Scabbard black mounted with brass
Footgear black shoes for foot and black boots for mounted troops


Foot jägers were armed with a rifle (when they could find one), no bayonet and a hanger. Mounted troopers were armed with a rifle, no bayonet and a long sidearm.

NCOs

no information found

Officers

Officers wore uniforms similar to those of the soldiers with the following differences:

  • no turnbacks
  • cuffs and lapels maybe actually black velvet
  • golden braid loops in the fashion of Otto's portrait
  • a golden shoulder strap on the right shoulder.

N.B.: Otto (then senior officer) shows golden braid along the seams of his waistcoat.

Musicians

no information found

Colours

The unit didn't carry colours.

References

001 - Oestreichische militärische Zeitschrift, Zwölftes Heft, Wien, 1842

002 - 3Theil der Geschichte des Seit 1756 in Deutschland und Dessen Angranzenden Landern ..., Frankfurt und Leipzig, 1761 , p.345

003 - Mittheilungen des k.u.k.Kriegs-Archivs - Supplement. Geschichte der K.u.k. Wehrmacht; III.Band, 2.Abt, (bearbeitet von Alfons Freiherrn von Wrede), Wien, 1901

004 - Gespräch im Reiche der Todten, zwischen dem heldenmüthigen ..., Band 4, Frankfurth und Leipzig, 1760

005 - Beyträge zur neuern Staats- und Krieges-Geschichte, Band 11, Danzig, 1761

006 - Grosser Generalstab Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung II, Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Part 3 Der siebenjährige Krieg 1756-1763, Vol. 13, p.163,164

007 - Gaudi, Friedrich Wilhelm von, Journal vom Siebenjährigen Kriege, Band 8, Buchholz, 1997, p.62

008 - Augspurgische Ordinari-Post-Zeitung, 1760, 7-12, edition August 23

009 - Geschichte des siebenjährigen Krieges in Deutschland zwischen dem ..., von Tempelhoff, Georg Friedrich, Berlin,1787 , Bd 4, p. 173

010 - Helden- Staats- und Lebens Geschichte Des Allerdurchlauchtigsten ..., Band 6, Frankfurth und Leipzig, 1762

011 - Augspurgische Ordinari-Post-Zeitung, 1761, edition April 9

012 - Ordinari-Münchner-Zeitungen, 1761, edition April 13

013 - Gaudi, Friedrich Wilhelm von, Journal vom Siebenjährigen Kriege, Band 9a, Buchholz, 1997, p.36

014 - Geschichte der preussischen Armee, Bd. 2, Jany, Curt, Nachdruck Osnabrück, 1967, p.598

015 - Helden- Staats- und Lebens Geschichte Des Allerdurchlauchtigsten und ..., Band 7, Frankfurth und Leipzig, 1764 , p. 42

016 - Augspurgische Ordinari-Post-Zeitung, 1761, edition February 15

017 - Auszug der neuesten Weltgeschichte: auf das Jahr .... 1762, Erlang, 1762

018 - Geschichte des im 1756 und 1757sten Jahre in Deutschland und dessen ..., Teil 6 Frankfurth und Leipzig, 1765

019 - Kurtz-gefaßte historische Nachrichten zum Behuf der neuern ..., Auf das Jahr 1762; XIItes Stück, Regenspurg, 1762

020 - Geschichte des siebenjährigen Krieges in Deutschland zwischen dem ..., von Tempelhoff, Georg Friedrich, Berlin,1790 , Bd 6, pp. 24-26

021 - Helden- Staats- und Lebens-Geschichte Des Allerdurchlauchtigsten und ..., Band 7, Frankfurth und Leipzig, 1764 , pp 80 – 81

022 - Wagner's Chronik der Stadt Saalfeld im Herzogthum Sachsen-Meiningen, Saalfeld, 1867, p.492

023 - Teutsche Kriegs-Canzley auf das Jahr.../ 1762,1; Frankfurt ; Leipzig : 1762 ; pp 564 – 565

024 - Augspurgische Ordinari-Post-Zeitung, 1761, edition September 13

025 - Auszug der neuesten Weltgeschichte: auf das Jahr .... 1761, Erlang, p. 1058

026 - Augspurgische Ordinari-Post-Zeitung, 1759, edition September 10

027 - Schmeißer, R.: Chronik von Hornburg

Acknowledgements

Dieter Müller for the initial version of this article