Gyulay Infantry

From Project Seven Years War
Jump to: navigation, search

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Austrian Army >> Gyulay Infantry

Origin and History

This 2,000 men strong Hajduk regiment (aka Croat regiment) was raised in Hungary by General Adam Baron Baboczai in 1702. It consisted of 10 companies of 200 men each.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment initially served in Italy. In 1706, it was at the relief of Turin. In 1707, it took part in the unsuccessful expedition against Toulon. In 1708, it assumed garrison duties in Mantua.

During the War of the Austrian Succession, in 1745, the regiment fought at Hohenfriedberg (June 4) and Soor (September 30).

As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).

During the Seven Years' War, the chefs of the regiment were:

  • since May 1735 to 1758: Count Stephan von Gyulay (also spelled Guilay)
  • From 1759 until 1763: Franz Count von Gyulay

During the Seven Years' War, its colonel-commander was:

  • in 1759 and 1760: Colonel von Gernert
  • in 1762 : Colonel Samuel Count von Gyulay

Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 51".

Service during the War

On April 21 1757, during the Prussian invasion of Bohemia, one battalion of the regiment was probably part of Major-General von Würben's Brigade on the left wing of Count Königsegg's force at the Combat of Reichenberg. On May 6, one battalion of the regiment took part in the Battle of Prague where it was deployed in Count Würben's Brigade, in the first line of the left wing of infantry under Baron Kheul. On September 7, when General Nádasdy attacked the isolated Prussian corps of Winterfeldt in the Combat of Moys, one battalion of the regiment was deployed in the first line of the infantry right division under the command of Lieutenant-General Wied.

On November 15 1758, during the Austrian invasion of Saxony, the regiment took part to the engagement of Eulenburg near Torgau, putting up a strong resistance and repulsing three Prussian attacks. However, the Prussian mounted troops managed to cross the river and deployed to attack the Austrian positions. General Hadik then decided to retire to Grimma.

By mid-August 1759, during the Austro-Imperial campaign in Saxony, the regiment was attached to Hadik's Corps. On September 21, it took part in the Combat of Korbitz where it was deployed in the centre of Hadik's Corps under Major-General Lamberg. On November 20, two battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Maxen where they were deployed in the second line of the first column of Sincère's Corps under the command of Lieutenant-General Aynse.

On October 1 1761, one battalion of the regiment took part in the storming of Schweidnitz where it was attached to the first column under the command of Colonel Count Wallis and Major Count O’Donell.

On August 2 1762, two battalions of the regiment took part in the Combat of Teplitz.

To do: more details on the campaigns from 1760 to 1762

Uniform

For the moment we have very few information on the uniform in 1756, at the outbreak of the war. Most of our references describe the uniform in 1762. However, the few details given by Muhsfeldt and Schirmer suggest a uniform almost identical to the uniform of 1762.

Privates

Private of Gyulay Infantry in 1762 - Copyright: Franco Saudelli
Uniform Details in 1762
as per Knötel, Neumann and the Bautzener Bilderhandschrift of 1762

completed with other sources where necessary
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white with a white fastener and a small yellow button on the left side; dark blue within white cockade (white within red as per the Bautzener Handschrift); dark blue within white pompoms in each lateral corne
Grenadier bearskin with a dark blue bag probably laced white with a white tassel
Neckstock one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks)
Coat white lined dark blue with 6 red laced buttonholes with red tassels arranged 1-2-3, on each side; 6 yellow buttons on the right side
Collar none (dark blue as per the Bautzener Handschrift)
Shoulder Straps dark blue fastened by a yellow button (left shoulder only) (none as per the Bautzener Handschrift)
Lapels none
Pockets vertical pockets without buttons
Cuffs dark blue pointed cuffs without buttons
Turnbacks dark blue attached with an white fastener (no fastener as per the Bautzener Handschrift)
Waistcoat dark blue dolman edged red with 3 rows of small yellow buttons linked with red brandebourgs
Trousers dark blue Hungarian trousers decorated with red laces
Gaiters none
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt red and dark blue barrel sash (white and red barrel sash as per the Bautzener Handschrift)
Cartridge Box black with a small brass plate carrying the initials “MT”
Bayonet Scabbard black with brass fittings
Scabbard black with brass fittings
Footgear short black boots


Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers), a bayonet and a sabre.

Other interpretations

Donath illustrates the following differences :

  • dark blue tassels in the lateral cornes of the tricorne
  • standard dark blue cuffs edged gold without buttons

NCOs

Sergeants and corporals carried a short musket and a bayonet.

Officers

As per the Bautzener Bilderhandschrift, the officers wore a different uniform in 1762:

  • tricorne laced gold with a white and green cockade
  • black neckstock
  • dark blue waistcoat edged in gold with golden brandebourgs
  • brandebourgs only on the left side of the coat
  • no turnbacks
  • vertical pockets with 3 yellow buttons
  • white waistbelt
  • dark blue trousers decorated with a golden lace
  • yellow Hungarian boots

Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:

  • lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
  • captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
  • major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
  • lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
  • colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob

Musicians

As per a regulation of 1755, musicians were now distinguished from troopers only by dark blue swallow nests on the shoulders.

The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.

Colours

All Hungarian infantry regiments were supposed to carry the same colours as the German infantry regiments: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The colours were made of silk. The flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.

The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.

Colonel flag (Leibfahne):

  • field: white
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
  • reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF on the left wing and JM on the right
Leibfahne – Source: PMPdeL

Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):

  • field: yellow
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF on the left wing and JM on the right
  • reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
Regimentsfahne – Source: PMPdeL

In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.

References

This article contains texts from the following sources, which are now in the public domain:

  • Gräffer, August: Geschichte der kaiserl. Königl. Regimenter, Corps, Bataillons und anderer Militär-Branchen seit ihrer Errichtung biz zu Ende des Feldzuges 1799, Vol. 1, Vienna, 1804, pp. 220-224
  • Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 24

Other sources

Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio

Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979

Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759

Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760

Funcken, Liliane and Fred; Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

Hausmann, Friedrich, Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967

Knötel, Herbert d.J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63

Muhsfeldt, Th.; Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904

Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio

Thümmler, L.-H., Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgments

User:Zahn for gathering most of the information about this regiment