Heinrich Daun Infantry
Origin and History
In 1682, Emperor Leopold I decided to increase his army by 6 new infantry regiments for a total of 12,000 men. Accordingly, on January 25, Colonel Sigmund Joachim Count Trautmannsdorf received a decree authorising him to raise an infantry regiment of 2,040 men. Recruitment took place in the districts of Prague, Königgrätz and Chrudim in Bohemia and Glatz in Silesia; and in the Bavarian cities of Regensburg, Augsburg, Nuremberg, Ulm, Nördlingen and Baireuth. Lieutenant-Colonel Franz Joachim von Strasser was chosen as first commander of the regiment. In July, the first four companies were reviewed in south Slovakia, five other companies remained in Bohemia. In September, Trautmannsdorf resigned as proprietor and the regiment was confided to FML Leopold Philipp Duke zur Salm.
At the beginning of 1683, five coys garrisoned Glogau/Silesia and five, Leopoldstadt (present-day Leopoldov/SK) and Trencsén (present-day Trenčín/SK).
In 1684, the entire regiment joined the Army of Karl von Lothringen at Parkány near Esztregom/HU. The regiment then fought in the Great Turkish War (1683-1699).
In 1690, during the Siege of Belgrade, the regiment suffered heavy losses. On October 8, a powder magazine exploded and, in the evening of the same day, a Turkish bomb destroyed the big tower containing powder reserve. Nearly 1,800 men of IR Salm, Auersperg and di Grana lost their life. The ranks of the regiment were replenished with soldiers from IR Chizola (5 coys) and IR Welsberg.
After the Great Turkish War, the regiment garrisoned Eperies (present-day Prešov/SK) and Bartfeld (present-day Bardejov/SK) with two battalions in the District of Marmaros. Until 1702, it served in various places in Hungary.
In April 1702, at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, the entire regiment was sent to the Rhine and participated in the Siege of Landau. The regiment fought in the campaigns against the French until 1705.
In July 1705, the regiment was sent back to Hungary. Eleven coys were posted along the March River near Pressburg (present-day Bratislava/SK) to contain Rákoczy's rebels. It fought in Upper Hungary (present-day Slovakia) until 1708.
In 1708, the regiment marched to Northern Hungary where it joined FM Heister's Corps.
In 1710, 6 coys and the grenadiers of the regiment garrisoned Schemnitz (present-day Banská Bystrica/SK) and 6 coys in Ofen (Budapest) while the remaining 7 coys took part in the Siege of Neuhäusel (present-day Nové Zámky/SK).
Rákoczy's rebellion was finally quenched in 1711 and the regiment returned to Eperies (present-day Prešov/SK), Leutschau (present-day Levoča/SK) and Bartfeld (present-day Bardejov/SK) where it remained until 1713. In June, 5 coys and one grenadier coy were sent to Prince Eugène's Army on the Rhine near Freiburg. The remaining 11 coys spent the whole year in garrisons in Hungary.
In 1714, the entire regiment was reunited in Hungary.
At the beginning of July 1716, the regiment joined an Austrian army at the camp of Futak/HU and was then sent to Racsa. It fought in the Austro-Turkish War of 1716-18 and then remained in Hungary until 1730.
In 1730, the regiment was transferred to Pavia and Cremona in Italy but 1 bn remained at Esseg in Hungary.
In 1732, 11 coys (1,151 men) of the regiment took part in the campaign in Corsica. On April 4, they arrived at Bastia. The campaign lasted till June and the regiment then returned to Hungary (Temesvár and Peterwardein).
On November 11 1733, at the beginning of the War of the Polish Succession, the regiment received the order to march once more to Italy.
On June 29 1734, the regiment took part in the Battle of Parma where it lost 6 officers and 156 men killed, 9 officers and 413 men wounded. On September 19, it fought in the Battle of Guastalla.
In 1736, the regiment was sent back to the camp of Futak in Hungary. On its way, it received new orders instructing it to join the “Slavonisch-Croatisches Observationscorps”. It spent the winter at Esseg/HU.
In 1737, the regiment campaigned around Gradiska and in Serbia with FZM Hildburghausen's Corps.
It then remained in Hungary and Transylvania until 1740,
In February 1740, the regiment was sent to the Rhine to garrison various places.
During the War of the Austrian Succession, in 1742, the regiment was among the troops who occupied Bavaria. In October, the regiment was with the troops of Duke Lobkowitz who besieged Prague. Meanwhile, a battalion assumed garrison duty in Tyrol.
In the Summer of 1743, the regiment marched to Italy.
In February 1744, the regiment finally arrived in Rimini. It fought in Italy until 1748, participated in the campaign of Provence, and remained in Italy after the war, assuming garrison duty in Lombardy.
After some manoeuvres, the regiment came to Saaz (present day Žatec/CZ) in 1753.
In the Summer of 1755, the regiment was sent to Veröcze/Slavonia. At the end of the year, it was transferred to Transylvania (Schäßburg and Kronstadt) where it remained until May 1757.
As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).
From 1711 to 1776, the successive chefs of the regiment were:
- since 1711: Count Heinrich Joseph Dietrich von Daun, FM
- from 1761: Wilhelm Count O'Kelly von Gallagh und Tywoly, FZM
- from 1767 to 1776: Ferdinand Friedrich Baron von Bülow, FZM
From 1739 to 1771, its colonel-commander was:
- since 1739: Josef Kager von Stampach
- from 1745: Kaspar Antoni Baron Chevreulle
- from 1750: Rudolf Karl Count Gaisruck
- from 1758: Maximilian August Zorn de Blovsheim
- from 1759: Leopold von Frankendorf
In March 1763, after the Treaty of Hubertusburg, the regiment returned to Hermannstadt (present-day Sibiu/RO) and Karlsburg (present-day Alba Julia/RO) in Transylvania. In 1764, when plague broke out once more in Wallachia, the regiment was deployed as a protective cordon along the border.
Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 45".
Service during the War
At the outbreak of the war, in 1756, the regiment garrisoned Schäßburg and Kronstadt in Transylvania. When plague broke out in Wallachia, the regiment was deployed in a cordon on the border.
In May 1757, the two field battalions received orders to march to Bohemia while the third battalion would remain in Kronstadt (present day Brasov/RO). On August 20, the field battalions arrived at Freistadtl (present day Hlohovec/SK). In September, the regiment was sent to support Nádasdy's troops who had undertaken the Siege of Schweidnitz. On November 11, Captain Rummel von Waldau distinguished himself during this siege when, at the head of the grenadiers of the regiment and of one grenadier coy of Leopold Pálffy Infantry, he stormed an entrenchment at the point of the bayonet, took the defenders prisoners, and captured 8 guns which were immediately turned against the walls (for his conduct Rummel would receive the Knight Cross of the Maria-Theresia-Order in the third promotion of this military order on December 4 1758 and would be promoted Obristwachtmeister). On November 22, the two field battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Breslau where they were deployed in the first line of the infantry centre of General Nádasdy's Corps. After the surrender of the Fortress of Breslau, one bn of the regiment occupied the bridges over the Oder River and the gates giving access to them. On December 5, at the Battle of Leuthen, these two battalions were deployed in the first line of the Reserve of the left wing under Marshal Forgách as part of Nádasdy's Corps. In this crushing defeat, the regiment suffered heavy losses: 133 men killed, 9 officers and 40 men wounded, two NCOs and 297 men taken prisoners.
At the beginning of 1758, the regiment counted only 472 men. Therefore it did not participate in any action until October. By August 2, the regiment was part of the reserve of the Austrian main army under the command of Daun near Jaromirs. Daun was following up the Prussian army retiring through Bohemia after the failure of the invasion of Moravia. On October 14, the regiment took part in the Battle of Hochkirch where it formed part of Count O'Kelly's Brigade occupying the Stromberg. At the end of November, the regiment (879 men) took its winter-quarters in Bohemia.
At the beginning of May 1759, the regiment (now 2 bns and 2 grenadier coys for a total of 1,393 men) was at the camp near Jariomier (present-day Jaroměř/CZ). By mid August, the regiment was part of Buccow's Corps posted in Lusatia. On September 2, it might have been present at the Combat of Sorau. Otherwise, it did not take part in any major action. It took its winter-quarters around Dresden.
For the campaign of 1760, the regiment (1,776 men among which 1,013 men fit for duty) was directed to FZM Lacy's Corps posted on the right bank of Elbe River. At the end of September, the regiment, still attached to Lacy's Corps, took part in an Austro-Russian raid on Berlin. On September 28, Lacy set off with his corps towards Berlin where he arrived on October 3. On October 9 in the morning, after two unsuccessful attacks, Lacy launched a new assault, forcing the garrison (14,000 men) to surrender. The grenadiers of the regiment occupied the Halle Gate. The magazines and gun manufactures were destroyed. On October 12, the Austro-Russians left Berlin. On October 21, Lacy's Corps arrived at Torgau. On November 3, two battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Torgau where they were attached to Zigan's Brigade deployed in the first line between the Grenadier Corps and De Ligne Infantry. Towards the end of the battle, the regiment received the order to replace the 3 grenadier bns of Colonel Ferrari in the village of Zinna. Meanwhile, the 2 grenadier coys of the regiment fought on the Süptitzer Hill. After the defeat, the regiment took its winter-quarters at Dippoldiswalde in Saxony.
On February 10 1761, when the regiment was reviewed, it counted 1,712 effective men. The new proprietor of the regiment, FML Count O'Kelly commanded a corps of 30,000 men initially posted at Zittau. This corps was sent to Silesia to support FZM Loudon. According to the Ordre de bataille, the regiment was brigaded with Joseph Esterházy Infantry under Major-General Amadei. This brigade was deployed in the middle of the first line. For their part, the grenadier coys of the regiment had been converged with those of Batthyányi Infantry and Joseph Esterházy Infantry in a brigade under the command of Major-General Duke Liechtenstein. Loudon made a junction with Tchernichev's Russian Corps near Kunzendorf. On October 1, Loudon successfully undertook the storming of Schweidnitz. Only the 2 grenadier coys of the regiment took directly part in this action where they were attached to the third column placed under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Caldwell who stormed the Galgenfort. Lieutenant-Colonel Rummel had volunteered to command one of these grenadier coys. After the capture of this important fortress, one bn and one grenadier coy of the regiment remained at Schweidnitz, the other field battalion took its winter-quarters near Freiburg in Saxony.
In January 1762, the entire regiment joined the army of G.d.C. Count Hadik. In July, the regiment was sent to Teplitz (present-day Teplice/CZ) along with four other regiment to form part of the Corps of G.d.C. Duke Löwenstein-Wertheim. In the night of August 1 to 2, the Prussians attacked this corps in the Combat of Teplitz. The regiment distinguished itself in this engagement and was mentioned in the official relation of the combat. In September, Löwenstein returned to Saxony with his corps. On October 29, took part in the Battle of Freiberg where it distinguished itself once more. Colonel Frankendorf with both fusilier bns, a bn of Joseph Esterházy Infantry and a bn of Arenberg Infantry stopped a Prussian attack at Hilbersdorf. Lieutenant-Colonel Elias Schwartz with the grenadier coys and 300 commandeered foot then crossed the Mulde River and attacked the village Konradsdorf. G.d.C. Hadik mentioned the regiment and both officers in his relation of the battle. Afterwards, the regiment went to the camp of Wilsdruf. On November 27, an armistice was signed,. The regiment took its winter-quarters in Saxony.
For the moment we have very few information on the uniform in 1756, at the outbreak of the war. Most of our references describe the uniform in 1762. However, Muhsfeldt and Schirmer mention that, in 1756-57, the coat was white lined white (therefore white turnbacks), the distinctive colour was red and the waistcoat and breeches were white. Therefore, the uniform at the beginning of the war seems to have been almost identical to the uniform of 1762.
|Neckstock||one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks)|
|Coat||white lined white with 3 yellow buttons under the right lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back on each side
|Waistcoat||white with 2 rows of small yellow buttons (3-3-3) and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons|
|Gaiters||one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)|
Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre while fusiliers carried only a bayonet.
The Bautzener Handschrift illustrates the following differences:
- a white within red pompom on the tricorne
Donath illustrates the following differences:
- a red tassel in each lateral corne of the tricorne
- a white shoulder strap with a yellow button
- a plain white tab with a yellow button to fasten the turnbacks
Knötel illustrates the following differences:
- a rhomboid shaped poppy red tab with 2 small yellow buttons (not edged yellow)
no information available yet
The officers wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:
- tricorne lined gold and bordered with white plume with a white and green cockade
- black neckstock
- no turnbacks
- no shoulder strap
- yellow and black silk sash
Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:
- lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
- captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
- major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
- lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
- colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob
As per a regulation of 1755, musicians were now distinguished from troopers only by poppy red swallow nests on the shoulders.
The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.
All German infantry regiments carried identical colours: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The hand painted colours were made of silk and measured Size 178 cm x 127 cm. The 260 cm long flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.
The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.
Colonel flag (Leibfahne):
- field: white
- border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
- obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
- reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):
- field: yellow
- border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
- obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
- reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.
This article contains texts from the following sources, which are now in the public domain:
- Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 18
Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio
Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979
Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759
Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760
Funcken, Liliane and Fred, Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle
Hausmann, Friedrich, Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967
Knötel, Herbert d. J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63
Muhsfeldt, Th.; Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904
Pengel, R. D. and G.R. Hurt; Austro-Hungarian Infantry 1740-1762; On Military Matters; Birmingham, 1982
Rabenhorst, A. Edler v.: Geschichte des K.u.K. Infanterie-Regimentes Prinz Friedrich August Herzog zu Sachsen Nr. 45, Brünn 1897
Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989
Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio
Thümmler, L.-H., Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
User:Zahn for gathering the information about the uniform of this regiment and Harald Skala for the sections on its origin and history.