Holnstein Infantry

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Bavarian Army >> Holnstein Infantry

Origin and History

Raised on Oct. 1st 1753 from infantry regiment Kurprinz (7 companies) and infantry regiment Morawitsky (1 companie).

The regiment consisted of 2 battalions. Each of these battalions counted 4 fusilier companies (140 men each) and 1 grenadier company (100 men). Furthermore, each battalion had 2 light 4-pdr battalion guns.

Since September 1753, the regiment garrisoned the town of Amberg. On November 15 1755, 4 fusilier companies were transferred to Rothenberg while the rest of the regiment remained in Amberg.

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment Inhaber was:

  • since October 15 1753 until August 24 1770: "Generalwachtmeister" Ludwig Count Holnstein aus Bayern

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was under the command of:

  • from ????: Colonel Christoph Friedrich Baron von Werneck
  • from ????: Colonel Ignaz Baron von Bartels
  • from ????: Colonel Julius Anton Janson von der Stockh

On September 29 1764, the regiment was transferred to Amberg to assume garrison duty.

Service during the War

On June 20 1756, the regiment was transferred to Ingolstadt where it assumed garrison duty.

In June 1757, the first battalion of the regiment together with Pechmann Infantry formed the Infantry Regiment Kurbayern which joined the Reichsarmee. The second battalion of Holnstein Infantry remained at Ingolstadt. The Kurbayern regiment was sent to Freiberg and did not take part to the battle of Rossbach in November, being stationed at Weißenfels.

In 1758, the first battalion, as part of the Kurbayern regiment, served at Sebastiansberg and at the fortress of Sonnenstein near Dresden. For its part the second battalion was transferred from Ingolstadt to Neumarkt on June 2 before returning to Ingolstadt in September.

In 1759, the first battalion, as part of the Kurbayern regiment, served at Dresden, Meissen and Dippoldiswalde. In January of the same year, the second battalion was transferred from Ingolstadt to Donauwörth.

In 1760, the first battalion, as part of the Kurbayern regiment, was at the battles of Strehla and Torgau and at the engagement near Wittenberg.

In 1761, the first battalion, as part of the Kurbayern regiment, was at Plauen.

In 1762, the first battalion, as part of the Kurbayern regiment, took part to the battle of Freiberg on October 29.

Early in 1763 the first battalion of Holnstein Infantry returned to Cham in the Upper Palatinate. In April, it went to its garrison towns in Bavaria: Donauwörth and Landsberg.

Uniform

All sources mention orange or red distinctives. We've chosen to show the distinctives in a pale red (or "old rose") color, as shown by H.Knötel.

Privates

Uniform in 1757 - Source: Frédéric Aubert
Uniform Details
as per Drexler, Keilpflug, Staudinger, H. Knötel and Böhm / Rottgardt / Weirich
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced gold with a white/blue cockade
Grenadier Austrian style bearskin with a red bag laced white with a white tassel
Neckstock red
Coat Austrian style blue coat with 3 yellow buttons under the lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back
Collar old rose or pale red
Shoulder Straps old rose or pale red fastened with a yellow button (on the left shoulder)
Lapels old rose or pale red with 8 yellow buttons
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Cuffs old rose or pale red
Turnbacks old rose or pale red
Waistcoat straw
Breeches straw
Gaiters black
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black
Bayonet Scabbard black
Scabbard none
Footgear black shoes


Other interpretations

Drexler mentions orange waistcoat.

H.Knötel shows white buttons.

Böhm / Rottgardt / Weirich mentions white tricorne lace, orange distinctives (red in 1759), white buttons (yellow in 1759), pale yellow breeches and waistcoat.

Officers

The officers were distinguished by a silver lace on the tricorne which was also decorated with a black cockade fastened with a silver lace, and a silver gorget decorated with golden arms of Bavaria.

Musicians

Drummers wore the uniform of the troopers with the following distinctions:

  • white/blue woollen chevrons on the sleeves
  • white/blue laced swallow nest at the shoulders
  • white/blue laced cuffs

White bandolier edged white/blue.

The white drum barrel was decorated with blue flames and with the crowned arms of Bavaria. The hoops were decorated with white and blue stripes.

Colours

About the colours of the Bavarian infantry regiments , we know some models in use during the first part of the 18th century, before 1740; we know 4 models of flags which were in use between 1742 and 1745 and we also know the two models created in 1786 after the reunification of the bavarian and palatinate armies. So, between 1745 and 1786, information are unfortunately very scarce. The following descriptions represent an "educated guess" based on these few sources.

Bavarian regiments carried 2 colours per battalion. The first battalion of each regiment carried the Leibfahne and a Kompaniefahne while other battalions carried two Kompaniefahne.


We think the old Max Emanuel pattern could have been taken out the arsenal and carried again :

Leibfahne under Max Emmanuel – Source: Frédéric Aubert
Ordinarfahne under Max Emmanuel – Source: Frédéric Aubert

But, as this regiment was raised in 1753, perhaps the flags were of the 1750s pattern :

Leibfahne after 1750 – Source: Frédéric Aubert
Ordinarfahne after 1750 – Source: Frédéric Aubert

Please note that, as Ordinarfahne, the 1742-1745 pattern Type "2 (or even type "4") could have been carried, but without the double-head imperial eagle.

For full description of these flags, please confer our page upon Generalities about colours

References

Boehm, E.; Rottgardt, D., Die Reichsarmee 1757-63. I. Teil: Zusammensetzung und Organisation, KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Friderzianische Epoche, Manuskript, o.J

Boehm, E.; Rottgardt, D.; Weirich, W.-D., Die Reichsarmee 1757-63. II. Teil: Die einzelnen Einheiten, ihre Stärke, Zusammensetzung, Uniform und Feldzeichen, KLIO-Arbeitsgruppe 7jähriger Krieg, Friderzianische Epoche, Manuskript, o.J.

Funken, Liliane and Fred, Historische Uniformen, Vol. 2

Military Miniatures Magazin

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Staudinger, Karl, Geschichte des kurbayerischen Heeres unter Kurfürst Karl Albrecht - Kaiser Karl VII. - und Max III. Joseph 1726 - 1777, (Geschichte des bayerischen Heeres 3), J. Lindauer, Munich, 1909

Acknowledgments

rf-figuren for the initial version of this article