Jazygier-Kumanier Hussars

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Origin and History

Jazygier-Kumanier Hussars in gala uniform - Copyright: Harald Skala

The Jazygien nation descended from Iazyges, a Sarmatian tribe of Antiquity. For their part, the Kumanien descended from the Turkic nomadic people of the Couman who sought refuge in Hungary in the XIIIth Century. Both nations had particular status within the Kingdom of Hungary. They lived in the Comitat of Háromszék.

In 1741, soon after the outbreak of the War of the Austrian Succession, they sent around 800 hussars under Lieutenant-Colonel Michael Molnár (formerly from Pálffy Cuirassiers) to Silesia. Their contingent returned home in November but in December 300 hussars were sent back to Silesia. By 1745, this (insurrection) regiment counted 1,000 men under Colonel Gabriel Haller.

The regiment was raised in 1756 by the Palatine Count Batthyányi. Its recruits came from the Jazygier and Kumanier Districts as well as from the Hayduck towns. Count Batthyányi raised the regiment (600 men from Jazygier and Kumanier, and 400 from the Hayduck) at his own expense. The regiment was initially named "Jazygier und Kumanier" or "Palatinal-Husaren-Regiment". It is only in 1763, that the regiment joined the Imperial service as a regular Hussar Regiment.

At the outbreak of the Seven Years' War, the regiment had no owner and was not considered as a regular regiment in Imperial service but rather as an auxiliary unit. It counted 6 squadrons for a total of 1,060 men.

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was under the effective command of:

  • since 1756: Colonel Lorenz Baron von Orczy
  • from 1758 to 1763: Colonel Andreas Michael von Törrök (later baron)

After the Seven Years' War, the regiment assumed garrison duties in Sziget.

In 1775, the regiment was disbanded.

Service during the War

In 1757, the regiment served in Bohemia. On June 18, it took part in the battle of Kolin where it was deployed in the first line of the extreme right wing in Hadik Division.

In 1758, the regiment served with the Reichsarmee and took part in a combat near Sebastiansberg. Later, it covered the siege of the Fortress of Sonnenstein.

In 1759, the regiment distinguished itself in the combats of Kaaden and Buchau and in the encounter of Meissen.

In 1760, the regiment was in Lacy's Corps.

In 1761, the regiment suffered heavy losses in the combat of Augustenburg and took part in a few smaller actions as at Matzdorf.

In 1762, the regiment was once more sent to the Reichsarmee where it participated to the combat of Gross-Bohra. On May 12, it was at the combat of Doebeln. It later took part in the raid on Pretschendorf. On October 29, it fought in the battle of Freiberg.

Uniform

Privates

The 1757 reform, stated that all hussar regiments should be dressed in sky blue uniform with yellow distinctives. However, this regulation seems to have been followed only by Kaiser Franz I Hussars. The present regiment retained its former uniform.

Uniform in 1757
Source: David at Not By Appointment
Uniform Details
as per the Albertina Handschrift
Headgear brown kolback with white cords and tassels and a red bag
Neck stock black
Pelisse sky blue lined with black sheepskin
Fur trim black
Lace 15 rows of white braids
Buttons white
Dolman sky blue edged white with 18 rows of white braids and white buttons
Collar sky blue edged white
Cuffs red pointed cuffs edged white
Trousers red decorated with an intricate white lace on each thigh
Leather Equipment
Cross-belt white
Waist-sash white and red barrel sash
Scabbard black with iron fittings
Boots yellow Hungarian boots (one of only two units who still wore yellow boots by the Seven Years' War) edged yellow with a red tassel
Horse Furniture
Saddle-cloth sky blue
Sabretache red edged yellow decorated with a crowned “E”


Troopers were armed with a short, curved sabre, a musket and two pistols.

Other interpretations

The Bautzener Bilderhandschrift illustrates the following differences:

  • a black felt mirliton with a black wing
  • grey fur trim and red braids on the pelisse
  • sky blue saddle cloth edged red and heavily decorated with red laces
  • sky blue sabretache edged red decorated with a red double-eagle

Knötel shows a uniform identical to the one depicted in our table.

Donath illustrates the following differences:

  • white fur trim on the pelisse
  • yellow pointed cuffs on the dolman
  • a yellow stripe on the outer side of each leg of the trousers
  • a yellow barrel-sash
  • a red sabretache edged yellow
  • a red saddle-cloth edged yellow

Officers

The Bautzener Bilderhandschrift depicts:

  • black tricorne edged silver
  • sky blue pelisse trimmed with white fur
  • red breeches
  • black heavy cavalry boots
  • no sabretache
  • green saddle cloth edged gold

Donath depicts a German-style uniform:

  • black tricorne scalloped white with a black cockade hold by a silver strap
  • a sky blue German-style coat with yellow cuffs
  • a sky blue dolman with golden braids
  • red trousers with a yellow stripe on the outer side of each leg
  • no sabretache
  • red saddle-cloth edged in gold

NCOs

no information available yet

Musicians

no information available yet

Colours

no information available yet

References

Accurate Vorstellung der sämtlichen KAYSERLICH KOENIGLICHEN ARMEEN zur eigentlichen Kentnis der UNIFORM von jedem Regimente. Nebst beygefügter Geschichte, worinne von der Stiftung, denen Chefs, der Staercke, und den wichtigsten Thaten jedes Regiments Nachricht gegeben wird., Nürnberg auf Kosten der Raspischen Buchhandlung. Ao. 1762 (Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt Halle, Universitätsbibliothek Kiel, Landesbibliothek Darmstadt)

Albertina-Handschrift Dessins des Uniformes des Troupes I.I. et R.R. de l'année 1762 (Bibliothek des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums Wien)

Bleckwenn, Hans; Die Regimenter der Kaiserin, Gedanken zur "Albertina Handschrift" 1762 des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums Wien, Köln: 1967

Bleckwenn, Hans; Eine neue österreichische Bilderhandschrift aus dem Siebenährigen Hriege, in Zeitschrift für Heeres und Uniformkunde, Nr. 185: 1963

Donath, Rudolf: Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979

Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759

Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760

Knötel, Herbert d.J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Uniformbogen No. 71

Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 69

Skala H., Österreichische Militärgeschichte

Thadden, Franz-Lorenz v., Die theresianische Kavallerie - III. Teil, Die Zinnfigur, Klio, 1968

Thümmler, Lars-Holger: Die Österreichische Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993

Wrede, Alphons Freiherr von; Geshichte der K und K Wehrmacht, Vienna and Leipzig 1911

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgments

Digby Smith for the initial version of this article, User:Zahn for information on the uniform and Harald Skala for tracing back the origin of the unit.