Origin and History
On October 14 1715, the Emperor issued a decree authorizing Prince Heinrich Friedrich Duke of Württemberg (the Emperor's cousin) to raise an infantry regiment. The new unit should consist of 2 grenadier coys and 15 fusilier coys for a total of 2,300 men organized in 3 battalions. Four of these companies should be raised by the Duke of Württemberg at his own expense in the territory of the “Reich” and had to be ready for review at Villingen and Rottenburg by the end of February 1716. The remaining 11 coys came from existing regiments:
- 1 coy from Neipperg Infantry
- 2 coys from Alexander von Württemberg Infantry
- 2 coys from Regal Infantry
- 2 coys from Harrach Infantry
- 2 coys from D'Arnau Infantry
- 2 coys from Heinrich Daun Infantry
The two grenadier coys were built from capable men of these 11 coys.
By February 1716, the regiment was complete and was immediately transported by boat on the Danube River to Hungary. The third battalion remained in Ofen as garrison while the two field battalions proceeded to Southern Hungary where they joined the army of Prince Eugène de Savoie.
In the following years, the two field battalions fought against the Turks at Peterwardein, Temesvár and Belgrade.
In September 1718, the regiment was transferred to the Austrian Netherlands and, from February 1719, it garrisoned Bruxelles.
The regiment remained stationed in various cities of the Austrian Netherlands until 1733.
At the beginning of the War of the Polish Succession, in 1734, the regiment (all 15 coys) was sent to Ettlingen. It remained in this region until October 1735. It then assumed garrison duties in Luxembourg where it remained until 1740.
In 1740, Prince Ernst Ludwig von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel acquired the regiment. Its recruiting area was the south west area of the Holy Roman Empire. The regiment was called Jung-Wolfenbüttel to distinguish it from regiment belonging to Duke Carl von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern which, for the same reason, was designated as Alt-Wolfenbüttel Infantry.
At the beginning of the War of the Austrian Succession, in the Spring of 1741, one battalion of the regiment was stationed in Charleroi, another garrisoned Roermond, and the third battalion remained in Luxembourg. In 1742, one of the field battalions was in garrison at Ghent and Ostend, the other at Niewport. In the Spring of 1743, the regiment was assigned to the “Pragmatische Armee” and, on July 27 1743, participated in the Battle of Dettingen against the French. In 1744, it returned to the Low Countries. In 1745, the regiment was attached to the corps of the Duke of Ahremberg and fought in the region of the Middle Rhine while its third battalion remained at Luxembourg. On October 11, the 2 field battalions fought in the Battle of Rocoux. In 1747, these battalions were attached to the army of the Duke of Cumberland and, on July 2, fought in the Battle of Lauffeld. They then took their winter-quarters in Aachen. In 1748, they once more campaigned with Cumberland's Army in the Low Countries. At the end of the year, one battalion and the grenadiers garrisoned Oudenaarde while the two other battalions assumed garrison duties in Mons and Luxembourg.
At the beginning of 1749, the entire regiment was transferred to Brünn (present-day Brno/CZ). Between 1752 and 1755, it garrisoned Pilsen (present-day Plzeň/CZ).
As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).
The successive chefs of the regiment were:
- since 1715: Heinrich Friedrich Prince of Württemberg
- from 1717: Ludwig Prince of Württemberg (killed in action at Guastalla on September 19, 1734)
- from 1734: Georg Anton Baron Lindesheim
- from 1740 until 1790: Ludwig Ernst Prince Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
The successive Colonel-commanders were:
- since 1715: von Streithorst (killed on August 5, 1716 at Peterwardein)
- from 1716: Johann Anton Wolfgang Count Hatzfeld
- from 1733: Marialva
- from 1734: Johann Walprecht Baron Riedesel
- from 1738: Machugo de Burgos
- from 1741: Lindenfels
- from 1743: Mengen von Rensfeld
- from 1748: Julius Heinrich von Duck
- from 1748: Ludwig Count Perroni
- from 1756: Carl Count von Almelsloe
- from 1759 until 1764: Friedrich Ferdinand Count Pappenheim
In 1763, after the war , the regiment garrisoned Pisek in Bohemia.
Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 10". It existed till 1918 as "I.R. Gustav V. König von Schweden, der Goten und Wenden Nr. 10".
Service during the War
At the beginning of 1756, the regiment was garrisoning Pilsen (actual Plzeň) in Bohemia. In the Spring, it was transferred to Prague. In July, the two field battalions joined Browne's Army at the camp of Kolin while the third battalion was put in garrison in Olmütz (present-day Olomouc/CZ). On September 13, Colonel Perroni led the vanguard (8 grenadier coys and 60 hussars) which was attacked by 8 squadrons of Prussian hussars near Peterswalde (present-day Petrovice/CZ). He retreated through Aussig (present-day Ústí n. Labem/CZ) to join the main army at Budin. On October 1, the regiment took part in the Battle of Lobositz where it was deployed in the first line of the right wing in Major-General Perroni's Brigade. For their part, the grenadiers joined the converged grenadier battalion led by Major-General Wied who defended the Lobosch Hill. At the beginning of the battle, the regiment was detached with Joseph Esterházy Infantry and Hildburghausen Infantry to defend the town of Lobositz. They were later supported by Alt-Colloredo Infantry, Browne Infantry and the horse grenadiers. When Major-General Lacy and his troops were chased from the Lobosch Hill, FML Count Starhemberg made a sortie from Lobositz at the head of 3 regiments (including Jung-Wolfenbüttel) but they were caught in the cross-fire of the Prussian Artillery and had to retire. The Prussian Artillery then set Lobositz afire. Around 3:00 p.m., Browne ordered the retreat. In this battle, the regiment lost 4 officers and 56 men dead, 18 officers (including Colonel-Lieutenant Almelsloe) and 382 men wounded, 208 men captured. The two field battalions were thrown into Prague as garrison. They were soon joined by the third battalion arriving from Olmütz.
In April 1757, the two field battalions and one grenadier coy went to the camp of Budin while the third battalion and one grenadier coy remained in Prague. On May 6, the two field battalions took part in the Battle of Prague where they were deployed in the Marquis d'Hinse's Brigade, in the first line of the left wing of infantry under Baron Kheul. After the defeat, they retreated with other troops to Malešice. These troops, led by FZM Königsegg, momentarily held Prussian attacks before retreating to Wolschan (present-day Olšany, part of the City of Prague). In this battle, the regiment lost 3 officers and 86 men. During the ensuing Siege of Prague, the detachment of the regiment which was part of the garrison lost 1 officer and 14 men while attempting sorties. After Daun's victory in the Battle of Kolin, the two field battalions were attached to the army who followed the retreating Prussians through Niemes (present-day Mimoň/CZ), Gabel (present-day Jablonné v. Podještědí/CZ), Zittau. and later into to Silesia. For its part, the third battalion remained in Prague. On November 22, the two field battalions took part in the Battle of Breslau where they were deployed in O'Kelly's Brigade, in the second line of the infantry centre under Baron Kheul. They participated in the attack of the Prussian entrenchments. Captain von Wittern distinguished himself during this attack and was promoted major. In this battle, the regiment lost 28 men dead, 7 officers and 251 men wounded, and 37 men captured. Furthermore Lieutenant-Colonel Baron Lindesheim was killed in action while Major Baron Hagen was mortally wounded (he later died in Prussian prisons). On December 5 at the Battle of Leuthen, the two field battalions were deployed in Wied's Brigade in the second line of the infantry left wing under Colloredo. In this disastrous battle, the regiment lost 1 officer and 106 men killed, 9 officers and 116 men wounded and 1 officer and 87 men captured or missing. After the battle, the regiment was detached to the corps of G.d.C. Serbelloni and was posted on the border between Silesia and Moravia. On December 22, the regiment was sent to Náchod.
On January 9 1758, the regiment was detached to Adler-Kosteletz (present-day Kostelec nad Orlicí/CZ) while the third battalion arriving from Prague was posted at Nowimiasto (present-day Nové Město nad Cidlinou/CZ). Shortly afterwards, the entire regiment was sent to the region near Josefstadt (present-day Josefov/CZ). At the end of February, the regiment marched to join the brigade of Major-General Colloredo at Neustadt a. d. Mettau (present-day Nové město nad Metují/CZ). In April, the regiment marched to Kralova Lhota (present-day Králova Lhota/CZ). The third battalion took part in the failed attempt for the relief of Schweidnitz and was captured by the Prussians. The two field battalions were attached to the “Corps of Reserve” and marched to Wildenschwert (present-day Ústí nad Orlicí/CZ). This corps later effected a junction with the main army near Olmütz which was besieged by the Prussians. At the end of June, when a large Prussian convoy was intercepted at the Combat of Domstadl, Frederick II was forced to raise the Siege of Olmütz and to retreat through Moravia, Bohemia to Saxony, closely followed by Daun's troops. The two field battalions of the regiment were with Daun's Army while the third battalion was attached to FZM Harsch's Corps to lay siege to Neisse (present-day Nysa/PL). By August 2, the two field battalions served in the second line of the main Austrian army under the command of Field-Marshal Count Daun near Jarmeritz (present-day Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou). On October 14, the two field battalions took part in the Battle of Hochkirch where they were deployed in the second line of the left column of Daun's main army, directly south of Hochkirch. In this battle, the regiment lost 29 men killed, 7 officers and 50 men wounded (including Colonel-Lieutenant Ignaz Baron Hasslingen) and 40 men captured or missing. Daun then laid siege to Dresden but without success. On November 21, Daun's Army took its winter-quarters, the regiment being stationed around Königgrätz (present-day Hradec Králové/CZ) and Kaaden (present-day Kadaň/CZ)
At the end of April 1759, the entire regiment was reunited near Trautenau (present-day Trutnov/CZ) and brigaded with Sachsen-Gotha Infantry and Wied Infantry. In July, the regiment joined the main army and was attached to FZM Sincère's Corps. Its grenadiers were converged with those of Gaisruck Infantry and Carl Lothringen Infantry in a grenadier battalion under the command of Major Thurn. By mid August 1759, the regiment was part of Daun's corps posted in Silesia. On September 2, it took part in the combat of Sorau. In September Daun's main army marched from Görlitz to Saxony. Daun's aim was to occupy Saxony with the support of the Reichsarmee. After some demonstrations against the Prussian army led by Prince Henri Daun marched on Dresden. He planned to take his winter-quarters in the well protected “Plauen´schen Grund”. On November 20, during the action against Finck's Prussian Corps at Maxen the regiment was posted near Plauen as reserve. At the end of November, Daun's Army took its winter-quarters, the regiment was quartered in Plauen, Koschir, Gittersee and Burksicht. On December 3 and 4, 1 battalion of the regiment formed part of Beck's Corps who attacked an isolated Prussian force and captured part of it in the Combat of Meissen. During this action, the battalion was attached to Major-General Pellegrini's Brigade.
At the end of January 1760, the regiment was directed to Mokritz, Goessnitz, Nickern and neighbouring villages. The regimental artillery remained at Plauen. At the beginning of July, the two field battalions and the grenadiers were attached to Lacy's Corps (13,000 men strong) near Boxdorf. Meanwhile, the third battalion led Lieutenant-Colonel Baron Hasslingen garrisoned Dresden. In July, Daun's main army went to Görlitz. The Prussians arrived through Bischofswerda and Kamenz to Bautzen, closely followed by Lacy's Corps who stopped at Gödau. In the night of July 8, Frederick tried to surprise Lacy but the latter left his camp hours before the arrival of the Prussians. On July 10, Lacy arrived near Dresden and camped at Lockwitz. On July 14, the Prussians blockaded Dresden. The third battalion of the regiment took part in the defence of Dresden as part of the garrison. When Daun marched towards Dresden with his army, the Prussians raised the siege. Lacy followed the retreating Prussians with his corps. On August 15, Lacy's Corps arrived too late to take part in the Battle of Liegnitz. In October, during the Austro-Russian campaign in Brandenburg, the regiment took part in the second capture of Berlin with Lacy's Corps. The city was captured on October 10. Lacy sent Major Count Erbach from the regiment to Vienna with the message of this victory. Lacy then marched back to Saxony, arriving at Zschakau on October 21. On November 3, the two field battalions took part in the Battle of Torgau where they were attached to Lacy's Corps, losing only 5 men wounded. After the defeat, the Austrian army, including Lacy's Corps, retired towards Dresden where it arrived on November 8. Once more, the army took its winter-quarters in the “Plauen´scher Grund”. The third battalion of the regiment marched from Dresden and joined the two field battalions.
At the beginning of 1761, the two field battalions and the grenadiers marched to Sweinsdorf, Nieder-Herlisch and Heinspach, while the third battalion was again assigned to the garrison of Dresden. On May 8, Daun's Army set off from its camp at Plauen. Daun was forced to send 30,000 men to Loudon's Corps and remained idle in the region of Dresden with the rest of his army during the whole Summer. From October 6, Daun's Army started to take its winter-quarters, the regiment was quartered in Kunnersdorf and Poklersch. According to a new regulation issued on November 23, the regiment was reorganized in three battalions and two grenadier coys. The two field battalions counted 6 coys and a grenadier division while the third battalion was reduced from 6 to 4 coys destined to be used exclusively for garrison duties.
In 1762, the regiment remained idle in the camp near Dresden until September. On September 25, the third battalion set off from Dresden and joined FML Ried's Corps. On September 26, the entire army was assembled in a line Dresden-Rabenau – Dippoldiswalde – Altenberg – Teplitz. On September 29, it marched 6 columns to the Tharand Forest. The entire regiment was attached to the fifth column led by FML Ried. The same day, the main attack against the Prussian entrenchments in the Forest of Tharand was launched. The Austrian vanguard (III./Thürheim Infantry and some Grenzer light troops) led by Colonel Doenhof supported by one grenadier battalion under Major Carl Eugen Count Erbach-Schönberg from the regiment and one battalion of Nikolaus Esterházy Infantry drove the Prussians out of Grumbach and Braunsdorf. FML Baron Ried with the fifth column stormed the entrenchments at Spechthausen. During this combat, Major Count Erbach, Major von Witten and Grenadier Captain Elvenich from the regiment distinguished themselves (for his conduct in this action, Major Count Erbach would receive the Maria Theresa Order in 1763). In this combat, the regiment lost 1 officer and 23 men. The Prussians retreated to Freiberg (Prince Henri's Corps) and Meissen (Hülsen's Corps). On October 14 and 15, during combats at Freiberg, Malitsch and Nossen, the regiment was involved at Malitsch where it lost 1 men wounded and 3 captured. On November 7, in a combat near Freiberg, the regiment lost 24 men captured. In mid-November, the Austrian army took its winter-quarters around Dresden. The two field battalions and the grenadiers of the regiment encamped on the right bank of the Elbe River while the third battalion returned to Dresden to assume garrison duties.
At the end of February 1763, the regiment set off from Saxony to return to its assigned peacetime garrison. At the end of March, it arrived at Písek in Southern Bohemia. The staff and 4 coys garrisoned in the city itself while the remaining companies were distributed in the neighbouring villages. According to the order of battle, the regiment was attached to Major-General Nugent's Brigade based at Pilsen, in FML Prince Stolberg's Division (headquarters at Saaz), in FZM Count Wied's Corps (headquarters at Prague). The peacetime strength of infantry regiments was to 114 men per company (including officers).
|Neckstock||one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks)|
|Coat||white with 3 yellow buttons under the right lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back on each side
|Waistcoat||poppy red (white in 1762) with 2 rows (1 row in 1762 as per most contemporary sources) of yellow buttons and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons|
|Gaiters||one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)|
Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre while fusiliers carried only a bayonet.
Raspe illustrates the pompoms differently: a large light blue within white within light blue pompom and two white within light blue pompoms.
The officers wore the same uniform with the following exceptions:
- tricorne scalloped gold with a white and green cockade
- black neckstock
- no shoulder strap but a golden epaulette on the left shoulder
- yellow and black silk sash
Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:
- lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
- captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
- major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
- lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
- colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob
Sergeants carried a halberd and a wooden stick.
Corporals carried a halberd.
As per a regulation of 1755, musicians were now distinguished from troopers only by swallow nests on the shoulders. Nevertheless in 1763, the musicians of the regiment appear to have worn a very colourful uniform:
- black kasket laced silver with a silver “W” embroidered on the front flap and a red and white plume on the left side
- poppy red coat lined light blue, heavily laced with a yellow speckled light blue braid on the shoulders (3 horizontal rows), on the sleeves (8 groups of “x” shaped intersection braids delimited by 1 horizontal braid at each end near the shoulder and cuff) and on the pockets (2 vertical braids on each pocket)
- light blue lapels and cuffs both with buttonholes (yellow speckled light blue) with tassels (yellow and light blue)
- buff waistcoat and breeches
- white belting
The tambour major had a similar uniform with the following differences:
- a black tricorne laced white bordered with yellow and light blue plumes
- a white and silver aiguillette on the right shoulder
- light blue swallow nests laced silver on the shoulders
- 7 light blue laced silver chevrons with light blue and silver tassels on each sleeve
- light blue and silver buttonholes with light blue and silver tassels on the lapels and below the lapels and on each cuff
- a light blue laced silver bandolier with a large silver medal carrying a black double-eagle
The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.
The surgeons of the regiment wore a different uniform:
- black tricorne laced gold with a golden fastener and a yellow button
- cornflower blue coat with a black collar and black cuffs; yellow buttons on the right side and on the pockets and cuffs
- poppy red waistcoat and breeches
- black gaiters
The regimental head surgeon was distinguished by golden buttonholes on the coat and cuffs and by gold laces and golden buttonholes on the waistcoat.
The battalion head surgeons were distinguished by golden buttonholes on the coat and cuffs.
All German infantry regiments carried identical colours: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The hand painted colours were made of silk and measured Size 178 cm x 127 cm. The 260 cm long flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.
The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.
Colonel flag (Leibfahne):
- field: white
- border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
- obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
- reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):
- field: yellow
- border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
- obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
- reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.
Accurate Vorstellung der sämtlichen KAYSERLICH KOENIGLICHEN ARMEEN zur eigentlichen Kentnis der UNIFORM von jedem Regimente. Nebst beygefügter Geschichte, worinne von der Stiftung, denen Chefs, der Staercke, und den wichtigsten Thaten jedes Regiments Nachricht gegeben wird., Nürnberg auf Kosten der Raspischen Buchhandlung. Ao. 1762
Anonymous, Illustration of a staff officer, a fusilier, a regimental drummer, a regimental piper and surgeons in 1763, State State Archiv Wolfenbüttel
Bilderhandschrift Delacre: Militair Etat der Ganzen Kayl., Königl. Armee Wienn 1757
Bleckwenn, Hans; Die Regimenter der Kaiserin, Gedanken zur "Albertina Handschrift" 1762 des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums Wien, Köln: 1967
Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio
Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979
Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759
Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760
Funcken, Liliane and Fred; Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle
Geschichte des K. K. Infanterie-Regimentes Oskar II. Friedrich König von Schweden u. Norwegen, Vienna, 1888
Hausmann, Friedrich, Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967
Knötel, Herbert d.J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called „Brauer-Bogen"), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63
Kornauth, Friedrich, Das Heer Maria Theresias: Faksimile-Ausgabe der Albertina-Handschrift, "Dessins des Uniformes des Troupes I.I. et R.R. de l'année 1762", Wien: 1973
Muhsfeldt, Th.; Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904
Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989
Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio
Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, pp. 27-28
Thümmler, L.-H., Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993
Thürheim, A.: Gedenkblätter aus der Kriegsgeschichte der K. K. österreichischen Armee, file II, Vienna, 1880
Wrede, Alphons Freiherr von; Geschichte der K. und K. Wehrmacht. Die Regimenter, Corps, Branchen und Anstalten von 1618 bis Ende des XIX. Jahrhunderts, Vol. 1, 124, Vienna, 1898-1905
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.
Harald Skala and Michael Zahn for gathering most of the information about this regiment