Jung Zastrow Infantry
Origin and History
In 1665, Count Georg Friedrich von Waldeck concluded a defensive alliance between the Dutch Republic, Duke Ernst August and Georg Wilhelm zu Nienburg where the two Houses of Lüneburg agreed to increase their army. Accordingly, the same year, a new regiment of 12 companies was raised in Osnabrück by Lieutenant-Colonel Verkel. Soon afterwards, two additional companies were enlisted and two other companies ceded to form the kernel of other regiments.
On 9 October 1665, the new regiment was part of the Hanoverian and Celler contingents taken in Dutch pay. The contingent assembled on the Weser. In 1666, it campaigned against the French in Brabant. In 1669, it returned to Osnabrück.
In 1675, Franco-Dutch War (1672-78), the regiment campaigned on the Rhine and the Moselle and fought in the victorious Battle of Konzer Brücke. In 1676, it took part in the unsuccessful siege of Maastricht; in 1677, in the unsuccessful siege of Charleroi; in 1678, in the inconclusive Battle of Saint-Denis.
In January 1684, the regiment was part of the Hanoverian contingent sent to assist the Republic of Venice against the Turks. In 1685, it campaigned in Morea, taking part in the siege and capture of Koroni, in the Battle of Kalamata Bay; in 1686, in the sieges and capture of Navarino and Methoni, in the victorious Battle of Argos and in the capture of Nauplia; and in 1687, in the sieges and capture of Patras and Athens. The regiment then returned to Venice.
In 1688, the regiment returned to Hanover where it was redirected on Holstein to quench troubles.
In 1689, during the Nine Years' War (1688-97), the regiment campaigned on the Rhine, taking part in the capture of Mainz. In 1690, it was transferred to Brabant but returned to Hanover in the autumn. In 1693, the regiment was once more sent to Brabant where it took part in the Battle of Landen. In 1695, it participated in the siege and capture of Namur.
In 1697, the regiment returned to Hanover where it was reduced to 11 companies.
In 1700, the regiment took part in the campaign in Holstein against the Danes.
In 1702, during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-13), the regiment took part in the storming of Liège; in 1704, in the battles of Schellenberg and Blenheim, and in the capture of Trier and Trarbach; in 1706, in the Battle of Ramillies; in 1708, in the Battle of Oudenarde, in the Engagement of Wijnendale and in the capture of Bruges; in 1709, in the sanguinary Battle of Malplaquet; in 1710, in capture of Aire; in 1711, in the capture of Bouchain; and in 1712, in the unsuccessful siege of Landrecies.
In 1714, the regiment returned to Hanover.
In 1733, the regiment was sent to Mecklenburg to quench troubles.
In 1738, 400 men of the battalion took part in operations against the Danes.
In September 1742, during the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48), the regiment was sent to the Netherlands. In 1743, it fought in the Battle of Dettingen. In 1745, it campaigned in Brabant. In 1746, it took part in the Battle of Rocoux; and in 1747, in the Battle of Lauffeld. In 1748, it returned to Hanover where it was placed in garrison in Einbeck and other neighbouring towns.
In 1753, the regiment was transferred to Gifhorn.
During the Seven Years War the regimental inhabers were:
- from 1740: Colonel Friedrich Wilhelm von Diepenbroick
- from 1742: Colonel Ernst August Friedrich von der Börch
- from 1752: Colonel Christian Nicolaus Friedrich von Zastrow aka Jung-Zastrow (promoted to major-general in 1758, to lieutenant-general in 1759, died in 1773 at Göttingen)
Service during the War
On May 2, 1756, the regiment set off from Gifhorn and marched towards Stade. On May 11, George II sent a message to both houses of the Parliament to request funding for the defence of the country. The Parliament granted him one million pounds. The Hanoverian contingent consisted of 12 battalions (including the present regiment) and 5 artillery companies. On May 12, the regiment embarked on board transport ships. On May 16, a fleet of 21 British transports sailed from Stade for the reinforcement of Great Britain. On May 22, the Hanoverian contingent disembarked in England and the regiment marched to Canterbury. On August 4, it was transferred to a newly formed camp at Coxheath near Maidstone. At the beginning of November, it became clear that Brunswick-Lüneburg (aka Hanover) was more seriously threatened than England and it was decided to gradually send the Hanoverian contingent back to the continent. On November 13, the regiment took up its winter-quarters in Maidstone. Bad weather then postponed its departure till the end of February 1757.
On February 24, 1757, the regiment re-embarked On March 2, it landed at Cuxhaven in Lower-Saxony. On March 19, it returned to Gifhorn, its former garrison place. On April 21, the regiment joined the allied army assembling at Hameln to put a stop to the French invasion of Hanover. On July 26, the regiment took part in the Battle of Hastenbeck where it was deployed in the first line of the right wing under the command of General Block. In this battle, the regiment lost Grenadier-Lieutenant von Wickede who was wounded. After the defeat, the regiment followed the allied army in its retreat towards Verden and Stade. On November 26, during the Allied counter-offensive in Hanover, it was allocated to a corps under Major-General von Diepenbroick who marched on Bremen.
On February 17, 1758, during the Allied winter offensive in western Germany, the regiment was once more attached to Diepenbroick’s Division and captured Bremen on February 24. In March, the regiment took part in the siege and capture of Minden. By May 26, the regiment was with Ferdinand's main force in the camp of Nottuln. On May 31, it accompanied Ferdinand in his offensive on the west bank of the Rhine. On June 23, the regiment took part in the Battle of Krefeld where it was deployed on the left wing under the command of Lieutenant-general von Spörcken. In this battle, the regiment lost Captain Kortrey, killed. On October 10, the regiment fought in the Battle of Lutterberg where it was placed in the first line of the centre. On November 22, it took up its winter-quarters in the region of Osnabrück.
On February 1, 1759, the regiment was posted in the area of Werne. In June, it was part of Wangenheim's Corps who had taken position at Dülmen in Westphalia to observe the movement of a French Corps under the Marquis d'Armentières. On August 1, the regiment took part in the Battle of Minden where it was deployed in Wangenheim's Corps between Kutenhausen and the Weser, in the first line of the infantry centre. It contributed to the assault the village of Totenhausen on the right flank.
On January 7, 1760, the regiment took part in the affair of Dillenburg. In February, it took up its winter-quarters in Stadtberg. On July 10, during the campaign of 1760 in Western Germany, the regiment was part of a column under Lieutenant-General von Oheimb sent by Ferdinand of Brunswick to support the Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Hereditary Prince of Brunswick engaged in a Combat near Corbach. Oheimb's column arrived too late to take part in the action. On August 22, the regiment took part in the engagement of Zierenberg. It then formed part of the rearguard during the march towards Kassel. In September, it took part in the siege of Wesel. On October 16, while the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick fought the French in the Battle of Clostercamp, the regiment formed part of Kielmansegg's Brigade which had been left behind near Wesel.
In 1761, the regiment took part, under the Hereditary Prince, in the Allied offensive in Hesse, capturing Fritzlar. In March, it took part in the siege of Kassel. On July 16, during the campaign in Western Germany, the regiment took part in the Battle of Vellinghausen where it was attached to Wolff's Corps which had been detached from Herzfeld by Spörcken to reinforce Wutginau.
By May 23 1762, the regiment might have been attached to the main Allied army (not sure if it was this regiment or Alt Zastrow) where it would have formed part of Major-General von Bock's Brigade. On June 24, during the campaign in Western Germany, the regiment fought in the Battle of Wilhelmsthal. In November, the regiment returned to Hanover where it was placed in garrison at Ratzeburg.
|Coat||red with 2 pewter buttons and 2 white buttonholes under the lapels
|Waistcoat||dark green with 2 horizontal pockets, each with 3 pewter buttons|
Troopers were armed with a musket and a sword, and carried a dark brown haversack with a metal canteen on the left hip.
Officers had silver lace lining the cuffs and lapels, a black cockade hat, a gold gorget with the arms of Hanover in the centre and carried a yellow sash slung over the right shoulder. Sergeants wore straw gloves. Partizans were carried.
Drummers wore a red coat with swallows nest and lace in white.
The drum pattern had hoops in alternating dark green and red diagonal stripes, white drum cords over a brass drum with the Arms of Hanover in the centre.
Colonel Colour: white field; centre device consisting of the Arms of Hanover (common to all Hanoverian infantry regiments except 10-B).
Regimental Colour: dark green field; centre device consisting of an old scroll reading JEHOVA on clouds, the whole surrounded by a trophy of arms; under the centre device, a scroll carrying the motto QUIS CONTRA NOS.
This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Wissel, Friedrich v. and Georg von Wissel: Geschichte der Errichtung sämmtlicher Chur-Braunschweig-Lüneburgischen Truppen, sammt ihren Fahnen, Standarten und Pauken-Devisen ..., Zelle, 1786, pp. 621-642
Biles, Bill: The Hanoverian Army in the 18th Century, Seven Years War Association Journal Vol. VI No. 3
Knötel, H. der Jung, and Hans M. Brauer: Uniformbogen Nr. 45, Berlin
Niemeyer, Joachim, and Georg Ortenburg: The Hanoverian Army during the Seven Years War
Pengel, R., and G. R. Hurt: German States in the Seven Years War 1740 to 1762, Imperial Press
Rogge, Christian: The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006
Vial, J. L.: Nec Pluribus Impar
N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.