Karlstädter-Oguliner Grenzer

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Origin and History

This Grenzinfanterieregiment (Frontier Infantry Regiment) was raised in April 1746 by Dillis as the “Karlstädter Oguliner Grenz-Infanterie-Regiment”.1 The regiment was then known as the “von Dillis Grenzinfanterieregiment” and consisted of four battalions totalling 4,800 men.3

In 1750, Leopold Baron von Scherzer became Chef of the regiment.2

In 1751, the regiment was reorganised and then consisted of two companies of grenadiers and four battalions, each counting five companies of fusiliers of 200 men.4

From 1753, the regiment had no Chef.5

As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 3 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 18 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,800 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 depot battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).

Accordingly, by 1756, the regiment really consisted of two companies of grenadiers, twelve companies of fusiliers and four Landesdefensions (depot) companies. In addition, there were two companies of sharpshooters and two artillery companies. A company counted about 100 men.6

In wartime, the companies of grenadiers were detached from the regiment and converged into a Grenadier Corps (ad hoc battalions). However, these converged battalions seem to have been employed mostly as elite light troops. Only in some extreme cases would they fight among the elite line infantry battalions.

At the outbreak of the Seven Years War, the regiment was organised as follows:

  • Regimental Staff
  • I. Battalion
    • Battalion Staff
    • 1. Grenadier Company
    • 1. Fusilier Company
    • 2. Fusilier Company
    • 3. Fusilier Company
    • 4. Fusilier Company
    • 5. Fusilier Company
    • 6. Fusilier Company
    • 1. Sharpshooter Company
  • II. Battalion
    • Battalion Staff
    • 2. Grenadier Company
    • 7. Fusilier Company
    • 8. Fusilier Company
    • 9. Fusilier Company
    • 10. Fusilier Company
    • 11. Fusilier Company
    • 12. Fusilier Company
    • 2. Sharpshooter Company
  • III. Battalion (Depot)
    • Battalion Staff
    • 13. Fusilier Company
    • 14. Fusilier Company
    • 15. Fusilier Company
    • 16. Fusilier Company

Tactically a Grenz-Husar squadron was assigned to a foot battalion of the same Generalate.7

The regiment recruited in the north-western part of the Generalate of Karlstadt .8 Its first battalion recruited in the Capitanate of Trzic, its second in the Capitanate of Thurn and its third and fourth in the Capitanate of Ogulin.9 Its regimental staff was located in Ogulin on Croatia, its garrison place.10

During the Seven Years' War, the Chefs of the regiment were:

  • since 1753: vacant

During the Seven Years' War, its commanders were:

  • since 1756: Anton Losy von Losenau
  • from 1760: Nikolaus Petzinger
  • from 1763: Bartholomäus Passée

Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 62".

Service during the War11

In 1756, a battalion of the regiment joined the Austrian Reserve Corps led by Count Draskovic in Bohemia. By the end of September, during the Prussian invasion of Saxony, this battalion had joined Field-marshal Browne's Army at Budin (present-day Budyně nad Ohří). On October 1, this battalion took part in the Battle of Lobositz where, along with a battalion of Karlstädter-Oguliner Grenzer, it stubbornly defended the Lobosch Hill till they were forced to abandon their positions by vastly superior Prussian forces.

In April 1757, during the Prussian invasion of Bohemia, the regiment was initially attached to Draskovic's Corps. On April 23, this corps was driven out of Aussig by General Zastrow. On May 1, 2 bns and 1 grenadier coy were left as garrison in Prague. On May 6, they did not take part in the Battle of Prague. On July 3, a detachment took part in an engagement near Welmina. At the beginning of August, a detachment of the regiment formed part of Loudon's Corps operating in Southern Saxony. On August 8, it took part in the storming of a redoubt near Gottleuba. On September 7, when General Nádasdy attacked Winterfeldt's Corps isolated in the Combat of Moys, a detachment of the regiment was with the vanguard in front of the right wing under the command of Lieutenant-general Petazzi. On November 22, the regiment took part in the Battle of Breslau where it belonged to Beck's detachment. In December, a detachment of the regiment took part in the defence of Breslau. On December 21, 443 men became prisoners of war when the city surrendered.

On November 15 1758, during the Austrian invasion of Saxony, the regiment took part in the engagement of Eulenburg.

In August 1759, during the Russian campaign in Brandenburg, a detachment of the regiment formed part of Loudon's Corps who reinforced the Russian Army. On August 12, this detachment fought alongside with it in the bloody battle of Kunersdorf where it was deployed in the first line of the right wing. Meanwhile, by mid-August, during the Austro-Imperial campaign in Saxony, one battalion of the regiment was attached to Hadik's Corps. On August 5, part of the regiment was with Kleefeld at the capture of Leipzig. From August 11 to 14, they took part in the siege and capture of Torgau. On August 20, they were at the capture of Wittenberg where their colonel assumed command. In September, another part of the regiment was with Wehla's Austrian Light Division (3,460 men). On September 21, as part of Hadik's Corps, one battalion took part in the Combat of Korbitz where it was deployed on the left wing under Major-general Brentano. By September 25, after the capture of Dresden, Wehla's Division had taken position at Hoyerswerda where it was attacked by a Prussian Corps under the command of Prince Henri. The Austrians lost 600 men killed and 1,785 men were taken prisoners including Wehla. By October 1, a battalion was at encamped at Tannenberg as part of Brentano's Corps. On November 20, a detachment of the regiment took part in the Battle of Maxen. In December, one battalion was attached to Draskowitz's Corps.

In 1760, as part of Loudon's Corps, Lieutenant-colonel Lezzeny's battalion of the regiment took part in the campaign of Silesia. On June 23, this battalion fought in the Battle of Landeshut where it was attached to the first (rightmost) column under Loudon's direct command to attack the redoubt at Vogelsdorf. At the end of July, the regiment assumed garrison duty in the recently captured fortress of Glatz (present-day Kłodzko). On September 17, two battalions were at the Combat of Hochgiersdorf, deployed near Glatz.

On July 20 1761, 2 companies (300 men) of the regiment fought at Hartmannsdorf in Silesia.

From August to October 1762, a battalion of the regiment took part in the defence of Schweidnitz and became prisoners of war. On October 29, during the campaign of Saxony, another battalion of the regiment may have been present at the Battle of Freiberg.

Notable names

Lezzeny, Baron von12 Lieutenant-colonel13

Losenau, Anton Losy von14 Colonel15

Passée, Bartholomäus16 Lieutenant-colonel17 Colonel18

Petzinger, Nikolaus19 Colonel20

Uniform

Privates

Uniform during the Seven Years War - Source: Richard Couture from a template by David at Not By Appointment
Uniform Details in 1762
Headgear
Fusilier black felt shako without cockade
Grenadier bearskin
Neckstock black
Coat royal blue edged yellow with 3 rows of small brass buttons and 19 yellow braids
Collar none
Shoulder Straps none
Lapels none
Pockets none
Cuffs yellow pointed cuffs edged yellow without button
Dolman blue edged yellow with 3 rows of small brass buttons and yellow braids
Cape red
Trousers red Hungarian trousers decorated with an intricate yellow lace
Gaiters none
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt red, yellow and black barrel sash
Cartridge Box black with a large overhanging cover
Bayonet Scabbard black with brass fittings
Scabbard black with brass fittings
Footgear sandals or short black boots


Privates often wore a mustache.

Privates were armed with a slightly curved 58 cm long brass hilted sabre21 with a white knot and a cord of a different colour for each company; a Model 1754 musket (151 cm long, 112 cm long barrel, 18,3 mm calibre, 4,9 kg); and a bayonet ???. Each trooper carried 36 musket balls and 6 shrapnel bullets.22 Privates also carried a haversack and a canteen. Additional ammunition and kettles were transported in the wagons of each company.

Other interpretations

The Bautzener Bilderhandschrift of 1762 illustrates a very different uniform, the differences were:

  • black coat edged white with red pointed cuffs edged white, white braids and brass buttons
  • red Hungarian trousers decorated with a white lace
  • red barrel-sash

NCOs

no information available

Officers

Officers wore uniforms of the same colour as those of the privates but were distinguished by a black tricorne laced gold with a green and white cockade; a Western style coat with vertical pockets, square cuffs; and black cavalry boots.

Officers wore a black and gold sash or a gold sash with tassels at the waist, over the dolman and under the coat. The black and gold sash could be made of strictly separated layers and then intertwined in knots or in a kind of knitwear; while the entirely gold sash was made of heavy knit of fine shiny silk.23

Musicians

no information available

Colours

When the Grenzer Regiments where formed they adopted the yellow 1745 pattern flag, with the black Doppeladler carrying the Imperial shield and edged in black/red/yellow/white flames, which measured 1.8m x 1.4m. The senior company carried a white Leibfahne displaying the Madonna and Christ on the obverse.

From 1756 each battalion carried two yellow Ordinarfahnen, except the first battalion which carried a white Leibfahne and one Ordinarfahne.

However, it seems unlikely that any were carried in the field

Footnotes

1. Ref. Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 1. Die Stammlisten, Osnabrück 1986, p. 53, Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 2. Namen und Inhaber der Regimenter aller europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime. Eine Materialsammlung zu den einzelnen Regimentern in alphabetischer Folge, untergliedert nach Territorien, Osnabrück 1993, Kaiser und Reich Nr. 5, Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 3. Namensregister der deutschen Regimentsinhaber und Namensregister der Regimenter mit Orts- und Ländernamen aus ganz Europa, Osnabrück 1995, p. 71, Wrede, Alphons Freiherr von: Geschichte der k.u.k. Wehrmacht, Wien 1898-1905, Vol. V, p. 265

2. Ref. Tessin, Part 1, p. 53, Tessin, Part 2, Kaiser und Reich Nr. 22, Tessin, Part 3, p. 302 and Wrede, Vol. V, p. 265

3. Ref. Tessin, Part 1, p. 53, Tessin, Part 2, Kaiser und Reich Nr. 5, Tessin, Part 3, p. 71, Wrede, Vol. V, pp. 215, 265 and Kornauth, Friedrich: Das Heer Maria Theresias. Faksimile-Ausgabe der Albertina-Handschrift „Dessins des Uniformes des Troupes I. I. et R. R. de l´année 1762“, Wien 1973, p. 98

4. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 214

5. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 265 and Kornauth, p. 98

6. Ref. Kornauth, p. 92

7. Ref. Kornauth, p. 92

8. Ref. Kornauth, p. 98

9. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, pp. 215, 265

10. Ref. Kornauth, p. 98

11. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 266 and Kornauth, p. 98

12. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 266 and Kornauth, p. 98

13. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 266 and Kornauth, p. 98

14. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 266 and Kornauth, p. 98

15. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 266 and Kornauth, p. 98

16. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 265

17. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 265

18. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 265

19. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 265 and Kornauth, p. 98

20. Ref. Wrede, Vol. V, p. 265 and Kornauth, p. 98

21. Ref. Kornauth, p. 26

22. Ref. Kornauth, p. 25f

23. Ref. Koch, Arwed Ulrich: Der modische Wandel der Uniform im 18. Jahrhundert. Reich und Württemberg. (Offiziersportraits 1730 bis 1790) (Part II.), in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, LI. Jahrgang 1987, pp. 66-72, 69

References

Anon.: Diarium der Belagerung von Breslau und Capitulations-Puncte, Berlin, 1758

Donath, Rudolf: Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979, p. 43

Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759

Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760

Koch, Arwed Ulrich: Der modische Wandel der Uniform im 18. Jahrhundert. Reich und Württemberg. (Offiziersportraits 1730 bis 1790) (Part II), in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde, LI. 1987, pp. 66-72.

Knötel, R.: Farbiges Handbuch der Uniformkunde: Die Entwicklung der militärischen Tracht der deutschen Staaten, Österreich-Ungarns und der Schweiz. Begründet von Prof. Richard Knötel. Grundlegend überarbeitet und bis zum Stand von 1937 fortgeführt von Herbert Knötel d.J. und Herbert Sieg. Dem Stand der Forschung angepaßt und ergänzt von Ingo Pröper, überarbeitete Neuauflage, Stuttgart 1985

Kornauth, Friedrich: Das Heer Maria Theresias. Faksimile-Ausgabe der Albertina-Handschrift „Dessins des Uniformes des Troupes I. I. et R. R. de l´année 1762“, Wien 1973.

Seyfart: Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 71

Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 1 Die Stammlisten, Osnabrück 1986.

Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 2 Namen und Inhaber der Regimenter aller europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime. Eine Materialsammlung zu den einzelnen Regimentern in alphabetischer Folge, untergliedert nach Territorien, Osnabrück 1993.

Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 3 Namensregister der deutschen Regimentsinhaber und Namensregister der Regimenter mit Orts- und Ländernamen aus ganz Europa, Osnabrück 1995.

Thümmler, Lars-Holger: Die Österreichische Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg. Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993.

Vanicek, Fr.: Specialgeschichte der Militärgrenze aus Originalquellen und Quellenwerken geschöpft, Vol. II, Vienna: Kaiserlich-Königlichen Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, 1875, pp. 402-488.

Wrede, Alphons Freiherr von: Geschichte der k.u.k. Wehrmacht, Wien 1898-1905.

N.B.: the section Service during the War is partly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgments

Mathias Kussmann for the initial version of this article