Kheul Infantry

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Austrian Army >> Kheul Infantry

Origin and History

The regiment was raised in 1715 by Margrave Carl Wilhelm von Baden-Durlach. In 1724, Otto Count von Walsegg succeeded him at the head of the regiment; then Johann Leopold Baron von Bernckau in 1743 who was killed in action at the battle of Rottofreddo on August 12 1746.

The regiment served against the Turks and the French and campaigned on the Rhine and in Italy.

As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).

During the Seven Years' War, the successive chefs of the regiment were:

  • since August 1746: Carl Gustav Count von Kheul (died July 26 1758)
  • from July 1758 to 1767: Johann Ludwig Baron von Angern

During the Seven Years' War, its successive colonel-commander were:

  • at the beginning of the war: Colonel Jacob Count von Molza
  • from 1762: Colonel Johann Christian von Eichholz

Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 49".

Service during the War

On October 1 1756, the regiment took part in the Battle of Lobositz where it was deployed in the second line of the centre under General C. Kollowrat in the brigade of Major-General Wolffersdorff.

On May 6 1757, during the Prussian invasion of Bohemia, the two field battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Prague where they were deployed in Prince Stolberg's Brigade, in the first line of the right wing of infantry under Count Königsegg. On November 22, one battalion of the regiment took part in the Battle of Breslau where it was deployed in Lacy's Brigade, in the first line of the infantry centre under Baron Kheul. During this battle, Kheul led his regiment in an attack on Pilsnitz. On December 5 at the Battle of Leuthen, the two field battalions of the regiment were deployed in d'Arberg's Brigade in the first line of the infantry left wing under Colloredo. Captain Alexander Baron Humbracht distinguished himself during the battle (he would later receive the Maria Theresia Order for his conduct in this battle and at Hochkirch).

On July 26 1758, FZM Baron Kheul died from injuries received at the Battle of Breslau. By August 2, the regiment served in the second line of the main Austrian army under the command of Daun near Jarmeritz (actual Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou). Daun was following up the Prussian army retiring through Bohemia after the failure of the invasion of Moravia. On October 10, the two field battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Hochkirch where they were deployed in the right column (under Count d'Arberg) of Arenberg's Corps on the Austrian right wing to the east of Rodewitz.

By mid-August 1759, during the Austro-Imperial campaign in Saxony, one battalion of the regiment was attached to Hadik's Corps. On September 21, this battalion probably took part in the Combat of Korbitz where it was deployed on the right wing of Hadik's Corps. On November 7, one battalion fought in the Combat of Zehren. On November 20, one battalion of the regiment took part in the Battle of Maxen where it was deployed in the first line of the first column of Sincère's Corps under the command of Lieutenant-General d'Aynse.

In early June 1760, the two field battalions of the regiment served under Field-Marshal Ernst Gideon baron Loudon in Silesia; while a third battalion (the garrison battalion) served under FML Count Drašković in Upper-Silesia. The two field battalions distinguished themselves in a combat near Mährisch-Neustadt (present day Nové Město na Moravě/CZ). On August 15, the two field battalions serving under Loudon took part in the Battle of Liegnitz where they were deployed in the second line. On September 17, they fought again at the Combat of Hochgiersdorf.

In the Autumn of 1761, part of the regiment (probably the grenadiers) participated in the siege and the storming of Schweidnitz where Major Heinrich Count O'Donell distinguished himself, being the first on the walls. He was afterwards promoted to colonel-lieutenant and received the Maria-Theresia-Order.

On July 21 1762, one battalion of the regiment took part in the Battle of Burkersdorf where it was attached to General O'Kelly's Corps. From August to October, one battalion of the regiment took part in the defence of Schweidnitz. They became prisoners of war when the fortress surrendered on October 9.

Uniform

For the moment we have very few information on the uniform in 1756, at the outbreak of the war. Most of our references describe the uniform in 1762. However, Muhsfeldt, Wrede and Schirmer mention that, in 1756-57, the coat was white lined white (therefore white turnbacks), the distinctive colour was red and the waistcoat and breeches were white. Therefore, the uniform at the beginning of the war seems to have been almost identical to the uniform of 1762.

Privates

Uniform in 1762 - Source: Kronoskaf
Uniform in 1762
as per the Albertina Handschrift

completed with other sources where necessary
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white; white strap with a white button; no pompom; a yellow and blue tassel in each lateral corne
Grenadier bearskin with a scarlet red bag probably laced white and a white tassel
Neckstock one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks)
Coat white lined white with 3 white buttons under the right lapel and 1 white button in the small of the back on each side
Collar none
Shoulder Straps white fastened by a white button (left shoulder only)
Lapels scarlet red lapels with 7 white buttons (1-3-3)
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 white buttons
Cuffs scarlet red, each with 3 white buttons
Turnbacks white fastened with a white tab and a small white button
Waistcoat white with 2 rows of small white buttons (3-3-3) and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 white buttons
Breeches white
Gaiters one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white with a brass buckle
Cartridge Box black with a small brass plate carrying the initials “MT”
Bayonet Scabbard black with brass fittings
Scabbard black (grenadiers only)
Footgear black shoes


Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre while fusiliers carried only a bayonet.

Other interpretations

The Bautzener Handschrift illustrates the following differences:

  • black tricorne laced white; white rosette with a yellow button; a white within red pompom; no tassel in the lateral cornes
  • coat with yellow buttons and a red epaulette on the left shoulder; turnbacks fastened with what looks like a yellow button
  • waistcoat with yellow buttons

Donath illustrates the following differences:

  • no tab to fastened the turnbacks

Knötel illustrates the following differences:

  • no pompom nor tassel at the tricorne

NCOs

no information available yet

Officers

The officers wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:

  • tricorne lined gold with a white and green cockade
  • black neckstock
  • no turnbacks
  • yellow and black silk sash

Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:

  • lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
  • captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
  • major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
  • lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
  • colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob

Musicians

As per a regulation of 1755, musicians were now distinguished from troopers only by scarlet red swallow nests on the shoulders.

The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.

Colours

All German infantry regiments carried identical colours: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The hand painted colours were made of silk and measured Size 178 cm x 127 cm. The 260 cm long flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.

The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.

Colonel flag (Leibfahne):

  • field: white
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
  • reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
Leibfahne – Source: Frédéric Aubert

Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):

  • field: yellow
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
  • reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
Regimentsfahne – Source: Frédéric Aubert

In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.

References

This article contains texts from the following sources, which are now in the public domain:

  • Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, pp. 28-29

Other sources

Auspitz, L.: Das Infanterie-Regiment Freiherr von Hess Nr. 49, Teichen, 1889

Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio

Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979

Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759

Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760

Funcken, Liliane and Fred, Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

Hausmann, Friedrich, Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967

Knötel, Herbert d. J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63

Muhsfeldt, Th.; Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904

Pengel, R. D. and G.R. Hurt; Austro-Hungarian Infantry 1740-1762; On Military Matters; Birmingham, 1982

Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio

Thümmler, L.-H., Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgments

User:Zahn for gathering most of the information about this regiment

Harald Skala for further information on the service of the regiment during the SEven Years' War