Kolowrat-Krakowski Dragoons

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Origin and History

Trooper of Kolowrat-Krakowski Dragoons in 1762 - Copyright: Franco Saudelli

This regiment of dragoons was created and recruited in Lower Austria. Colonel Ludwig Count Herbeville received the relevant decree on March 15 1683. The kernel of the new regiment was formed by 200 men from Saurau Dragoons and by 100 men from each of the Schulz, Castell and Kueffstein regiments.

In 1683, the still incomplete regiment fought in the battle of Vienna and, in 1684, in the siege of Ofen. From 1685 to 1687, it was stationed in Transylvania and saw no action. From 1688 to 1698, it formed part of the corps who campaigned against the Turks in Transylvania.

In 1691, 500 men from the Lower Austria militia dragoons were incorporated in the regiment.

In 1702, at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment was sent to Italy where it took part in the battle of Luzzara. In 1705, it fought at Cassano; and in 1706, at Turin. In 1707, it took part in the failed invasion of Provence. From 1708 to 1710, it campaigned in Spain and took part in the battles of Almenar, Saragossa and Villaviciosa.

In 1716, the regiment returned to Hungary where it once more fought against the Turks at Peterwardein and Temesvár. In 1717, it took part in the battle of Belgrade.

Until 1734, the regiment garrisoned various places in Hungary.

In 1734, during the War of the Polish Succession, it was sent to Italy where it fought in the battles of Parma, Quistello and Guastalla). In 1735, it was transferred for a short time to Germany but soon returned to Italy.

From 1737 to 1739, the regiment campaigned in Transylvania and took part in the battles of Kornia and Mehadia.

At the outbreak of the War of the Austrian Succession, in 1741, the regiment took part to the battle of Mollwitz where his proprietor, FML Joachim Baron von Römer, was killed in action. In 1742, it fought in the battle of Chotusitz and was at the siege of Prague. In 1743, it campaigned in Bavaria (where its grenadiers fought at Dingolfing) and on the Rhine. In 1745, it took part in the battles of Hohenfriedberg and Soor.

The regiment counted 6 squadrons and a company of horse grenadiers. For battles, the latter was usually converged with other similar companies to form an elite unit.

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment inhaber was:

  • from 1753 to 1769: Emanuel Wenzel Count Kolowrat-Krakowsky

During the Seven Years' War, the regiment was commanded by:

  • since 1756: Heinrich baron von Jacquemin
  • from 1759 to 1771: Carl von Hocke

The regiment was disbanded in 1802 as “Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld”. The dragoons were transferred to different chevaux-legers regiments.

Service during the War

In June 1756, at the beginning of the war, the regiment was stationed at Körmend in Hungary and counted 806 men and 801 horses. By September, it was in Bohemia with Piccolomini's covering force in the Königshof-Kolin region. However, the horse grenadier company of the regiment was with Browne's Corps in the region of Lobositz. On October 1, during the Battle of Lobositz, the horse grenadiers were assigned to the detachment under Count Lacy deployed near Leitmeritz and along the Elbe up to Schreckstein.

On June 18 1757, the regiment took part in the Battle of Kolin where it was deployed in the first line of the cavalry right wing under Count Serbelloni. On November 22, four squadrons of the regiment took part in the Battle of Breslau where they were deployed in Count Kollowrat's Brigade, in the second line of the cavalry left wing under Count Stampach. On December 5 at the Battle of Leuthen, the regiment was deployed in Kolowrat's Brigade in the second line of the cavalry left wing under General Serbelloni.

By August 2 1758, the regiment was part of the reserve of the main Austrian army under the command of Daun near Jaromirs. Daun was following up the Prussian army retiring through Bohemia after the failure of the Prussian invasion of Moravia. Some sources (Wrede and the Albertina Handschrift) mention that the regiment took part in the Battle of Hochkirch on October 14. This is fairly possible even though it is not specifically mentioned in the order of battle. We can reasonably assume that it was part of the Prince of Baden-Durlach's Reserve.

In 1759, the regiment was assigned to Loudon's corps which joined the Russians and, on August 12, took part in the Battle of Kunersdorf where it was deployed in the reserve of the right wing as part of Loudon's cavalry brigade.

On June 23 1760, the regiment took part in the Battle of Landeshut. On August 15, it fought in the Battle of Liegnitz where its colonel, Carl von Hocke, distinguished himself (he would later receive the Maria-Theresia-Order for his conduct during the battle).

In 1761, the regiment was with the main Austrian army in Saxony. It did not take part in any major action.

In 1762, the regiment operated with the main army in Silesia and was at the Combat of Reichenbach.

After the war, the regiment garrisoned Klattau (present-day Klatovy/CZ) and Taus (present-day Domažlice/CZ).

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1762 - Source: Frédéric Aubert
Uniform Details
as per the Albertina Handschrift of 1762

completed with other sources where necessary
Headgear
Trooper black tricorne (no lace) with a black cockade fastened with a small white button
Grenadier bearskin
Neck stock black
Coat dark blue with 3 white buttons under the lapel on the right side
Collar none
Shoulder strap left shoulder: red fastened with a white button
right shoulder: red with a red aiguillette
Lapels ponceau red, each with 7 white buttons
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 white buttons
Cuffs ponceau red, each with 3 white buttons
Turnbacks ponceau red
Waistcoat ponceau red with two rows of white buttons and horizontal pockets (each with 3 white buttons)
Breeches ponceau red
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white (according to the illustration of the Bautzener Bilderhandschrift of 1762)
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black leather
Scabbard brown leather
Footgear black boots
Horse Furniture
Saddlecloth blue laced with a wide white braid bordered with thin red braids and decorated with a red braid in the middle (according to the illustration of the Bautzener Bilderhandschrift of 1762)
Housings blue laced with a wide white braid bordered with thin red braids and decorated with a red braid in the middle (according to the illustration of the Bautzener Bilderhandschrift of 1762)
Blanket roll blue and white (according to the illustration of the Bautzener Bilderhandschrift of 1762)


N.B.: until 1757, the regiment wore a blue coats with yellow facings.

Troopers were armed with a sword, a pair of pistols, a musket and a bayonet.

Other interpretations

The Bautzener Bilderhandschrift shows a white laced tricorne, yellow buttons, buff breeches and blue waistcoat. It also depicts a much lighter shade of blue which looks more like sky blue.

Brauer's plate shows buff breeches.

Donath's plate depicts a light blue uniform (quite similar to the one of the Bilderhandschrift) and yellow buttons.

Officers

The officers (according to the Bautzener Bilderhandschrift of 1762) wore the same uniform with the following exceptions:

  • tricorne laced silver with a green and white cockade
  • aiguillette on the right shoulder
  • green saddlecloth and sabretache both laced dark green and fringed in gold

Musicians

Drummers of the regiments of dragoons usually wore the same uniform as the troopers heavily laced with yellow and black braids or a uniform with inverted colours.

Colours

Leibstandarte: White and heavily embroidered

  • one side with the Blessed Virgin
  • other side with the double eagle
Colonel Standard – Source: Frédéric Aubert


Ordinair-standarte: Swallow tailed with silver fringes and silver embroideries

  • obverse: Red field pennant, central device consisting of imperial eagle bearing the white-red-white shield on its breast and the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece
  • reverse: Dark blue field pennant, central device consisting of Kolowrat old coat of arms
Regimental Standard – Source: Frédéric Aubert

References

Bleckwenn, Hans: Die Regimenter der Kaiserin, Gedanken zur "Albertina Handschrift" 1762 des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums Wien, Köln: 1967

Brauer, H.M.: Uniformbogen and Fahnentafeln, plate 95

Donath, Rudolf: Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979, Teil III Blatt 2

Funcken, Liliane and Fred: Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

Grosser Generalstab – Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen, Hiller, Berlin, 1830-1913

Kornauth, Friedrich: Das Heer Maria Theresias: Faksimile-Ausgabe der Albertina-Handschrift, "Dessins des Uniformes des Troupes I.I. et R.R. de l'année 1762", Wien: 1973

Raspe: Accurate Vorstellung der sämtlichen KAYSERLICH KOENIGLICHEN ARMEEN zur eigentlichen Kentnis der UNIFORM von jedem Regimente. Nebst beygefügter Geschichte, worinne von der Stiftung, denen Chefs, der Staercke, und den wichtigsten Thaten jedes Regiments Nachricht gegeben wird., Nürnberg: 1762

Schirmer, Friedrich: Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Skala, H.: Österreichische Militärgeschichte

Thadden, Franz-Lorenz v.: Die theresianische Kavallerie - II. Teil, Die Zinnfigur, Klio, 1968

Thümmler, L.-H.: Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993

Wrede, A. v.: Geschichte der K. und K. Wehrmacht, file III/2, pp. 689-691, Vienna 1901

Zahn, Michael: Oesterreichische Kürassier und Dragoner Standarten in Siebenjährigen Krieges, Zusammenstellung, 1988

Acknowledgements

Harald Skala for additional information on the origin, history and service of this regiment