Kreisinfanterieregiment Pfalz-Zweibrücken

From Project Seven Years War
Jump to: navigation, search

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Reichsarmee >> Kreisinfanterieregiment Pfalz-Zweibrücken

Origin and History

On May 3 1746, the Oberreinisches Kreisregiment Ysenburg (Oberreinisches Kreisregiment No. 1, raised 1685 as Nassau), then counting 3 battalions, provided one of its battalion to form the Prinz Karl von Zweibrücken Infantry of the Palatine Army.

A muster role of 1757 counts 18 fusilier companies and no grenadier. These companies included troops from the following contingents:

  • the Bishopric of Fulda (4 fusilier coys)
  • the Bishopric of Speyer (3.5 fusilier coys)
  • the Principality of Waldeck (2 fusilier coys)
  • the Counties of Ysenburg-Büdingen and Ysenburg-Waechtersbach (1 fusilier coy)
  • the Principality of Ysenburg-Birstein-Offenbach (1 fusilier coy)
  • the Electorate of Mainz for the County of Königstein (1 fusilier coy)
  • the two Counts von Stolberg for the County of Königstein, the Imperial City of Friedberg and the Imperial City of Wetzlar (1 fusilier coy)
  • the Margraviate of Baden-Baden for the County of Sponhein (1 fusilier coy)
  • the Imperial City of Speyer and the Principalities of Dagstuhl and Bretzenheim (1 fusilier coy)
  • the Counties of Alt-Leiningen (Haus Runckel), Wittgenstein-Berleburg, and Wittgenstein-Wittgenstein, including the latter's contribution for the County of Homburg (1 fusilier coy)

Overall, the regiment included 33 distinct contingents.

These battalions probably retained their designation of “Ysenburg” till 1757. From then on, the regiment was designated as the Oberreinisches Kreisregiment Pfalz-Zweibrücken or Oberreinisches Kreisregiment Prinz Friederich von Pfalz-Zweibrücken.

This change of name has created lots of confusion among various authors but in fact, the Oberreinisches Kreisregiment Pfalz-Zweibrücken served with the Reichsarmee while the Prinz Karl von Zweibrücken Infantry served with the Palatine contingent subsidized by France and serving with the French Army.

During the Seven Years' War, the successive Chefs of the regiment were:

  • 1722-1754: Major-general Wilhelm Moritz Count von Isenburg Philippseich
  • 1754-1767: Field Marshal Prince Friedrich Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld

During the Seven Years' War, its successive commanders were:

  • in 1756: Colonel Friedrich August von Mogen (probably did not take the field)
  • from 1757: Colonel Johann Valentin Thomann

Service during the War

In 1757, the regiment was with the Reichsarmee operating in Thuringia and Saxony. In August, this army combined with a French contingent under the Prince de Soubise to form the Franco-Imperial Army for the planned reconquest of Saxony. Soubise rated the various units of the Reicharmee, considering the Pfalz-Zweibrücken regiment as "poor". On November 5, the Franco-Imperial Army was defeated at the Battle of Rossbach. However, the regiment had been detached to Freiburg before the battle and did not see action. The following table presents the companies of the regiment as they were on November 30 (according to Liste Archiv Speyer Kennung ORKrA 911), please note that it lists only 17 coys.

Strength of each company on November 30, 1757
Company Theoretical
Strength
Effective
Strength
Leib Company n/a 18
Colonel Thomann n/a 81
Colonel von Morgen n/a 20
Lieutenant-colonel von Jacobi n/a vacant
Major von Buseck n/a 71
Captain Runckwitz n/a 90
Captain von Euler n/a 98
Captain von Croneck n/a 49
Captain von Pauli n/a 50
Captain Count von Ysenburg n/a 03
Captain Gentot n/a 07
Captain von Grünberg n/a 61
Captain von Gelbsattel n/a 59
Captain von Buseck n/a 39
Captain von Boyneburg n/a 98
Captain von Hettinger n/a 37
Captain Prince von Waldeck n/a 28
Captain von Minnigerode oder Münchrot n/a 34
Contingent not attached to a company
Lieutenant Althaus
n/a vacant
Contingent not attached to a company
Wittgenstein
n/a 02
Staff 18 0
Total n/a 808

By mid-August 1759, during the Austro-Imperial campaign in Saxony, the regiment was attached to Zweibrücken's Corps. On September 21, it probably took part in the Combat of Korbitz where it was deployed in Stolberg's Division.

In 1761, the regiment took part in the campaign in Saxony. It still counted 2 battalions without any grenadier company. In June the regiment comprised 742 men, in December 840.

Uniform

The Gudenus manuscript depicts a private of the Regiment Ysenburg in 1734 with blue coat,and trouser, blue waistcoat laced yellow, red lapels turnbacks and cuffs. No lace on the lapels but white laced cuff flaps. White hat-lace and yellow shoulder strap and aiguillette on the right shoulder.

As far the Seven Years War is concerned, the only contemporary source for the uniform we know is the Becker Handschriftt, which depicts a "Ein Soldat von Zweibrücken" without the white lace on the lapels, which are depicted instead on the Card 224 of the Sturm-Zigarettenbilder-Alben "Deutsche Uniformen" by Knotel and Letzius. We follow the latter in our description of the uniform.

Privates

Uniform in 1757 - Source: David from Not By Appointment
Uniform in 1757
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne scalloped white with red within white pompoms
Grenadier there were no grenadier in this regiment
Neckstock black
Coat blue coat with 2 brass buttons under the right lapels; 2 white laced buttonholes under each lapel; and 1 brass button on each side in the small of the back

N.B.: during summer, a linen smock was worn instead of the coat

Collar none
Shoulder Straps scarlet with 1 brass button (left shoulder)
Lapels scarlet with 6 brass buttons and 6 white laced buttonholes grouped 2,2,2
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 brass buttons
Cuffs scarlet without button; 2 brass buttons and 2 white laced buttonholes on each sleeve above the cuff
Turnbacks scarlet
Waistcoat white with brass buttons
Breeches white
Gaiters white
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black
Bayonet Scabbard natural leather
Scabbard natural leather with brass fittings
Footgear black shoes


Privates were armed with a musket, a bayonet and a sword.

NCOs

no information available yet

Officers

no information available yet

Musicians

no information available yet

Colours

Till 1757, the regiment retained the colours of the Oberreinisches Kreisregiment Ysenburg. We have found two descriptions of these colours: one for the Leibfahne after 1757 and one for the Kompaniefahnen before 1757. The only differences between these two colours, to the exception of the field colour of course, concerned the shield decoration and minor variations for the motto.

Colonel colour (Leibfahne) from 1757: probably white field embroidered in gold; centre device consisting of the black Imperial Eagle carrying a black shield with a white band decorated with a black Teutonic Cross edged white; the eagle was surmounted by a black scroll carrying the motto "ZY / HAB GEDULT GOTT KANN HELFEN / VB" in white; corner devices consisting of 4 double flames: two pairs of white and black flames opposed to two pairs of blue and red.

Regimental colours (Kompaniefahnen) before 1757: yellow field; centre device consisting of the black Imperial Eagle carrying a black shield with white bands; the eagle was surmounted by a black scroll carrying the motto "HAB GEDULT GOTT KANN HELFEN" in white; corner devices consisting of 4 double flames: two pairs of white and black flames opposed to two pairs of blue and red.

Kompaniefahne – Source: rf-figuren


References

  • Becher, Johann Christian: Wahrhaftige Nachricht derer Begebenheiten, so sich in dem Herzogthum Weimar by dem gewaltigen Kriege Friedrichs II., Königs von Preußen, mit der Königin von Ungarn, Marien Theresen, samt ihren Bundesgenossen zugetragen, Weimar, ca. 1757-1760.
    • Original (Stiftung Weimarer Klassik - Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek Weimar)
    • Copies(Bibliothèque nationale de France, De Ridder collection)
  • Bohm and Rottgard: Die Reichsarmee, 1757-1762
  • Deutsche Uniformen, Bd. 1, Das Zeitalter Friedrich des Großen, 240 Bilder von Herbert Knötel d. J., Text und Erläuterungen von Dr. Martin Letzius, hrsg. von der Sturm-Zigaretten GmbH, Dresden 1932
  • Kessel, E.: Das Ende des Siebenjährigen Krieges 1760-1763, Hrgb. von T. Linder, Anhang 41, p. 553, Padeborn – München – Wien – Zürich 2007.
  • Neu Militar Zeitung, vol.2, January 1857, p.ix
  • Pengel, R.D. And G. R. Hurt: Bavaria, Saxony & the Palatinate Supplement: Uniforms and Flags of the Seven Years War, Hopewell: On Military Matters, 1981
  • Rottgard: Die Einzelstaaten des Heiligen Romisches Reiches Deutscher Nation
  • Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancien Régime des XVI. - XVIII. Jahrhunderts, Teil 2. Namen und Inhaber der Regimenter aller europäischen Staaten im "Ancien régime" : eine Materialsammlung zu den einzelnen Regimentern in alphabetischer Folge, untergliedert nach Territorien; 1993; Osnabrück

Acknowledgments

Fabrizio Davi for the researches for the initial version of this article